The Kamilaroi is one of the four largest indigenous nations in Australia. The Kamilaroi language is classified in the Pama–Nyungan family of Australian languages, the Kamilaroi Highway, Sydney Ferries Limiteds vehicular ferry Kamilaroi, and a cultivar of Durum wheat have all been named after the Kamilaroi people. The language is no longer spoken, though parts have bneen reconstructed by late field work. Robert M. W. Dixon and his student Peter Austin recorded some around Moree, while Corinne Williams wrote a thesis on the Yuwaaliyaay dialect spoken at Walgett, the Gamilaroi were hunters and gatherers with a band-level social organization. Important vegetable foods were yams and other roots, as well as a sterculia grain, insect larvae and eggs of several different animals were gathered. Various birds, emus, possums, dingo pups were regarded as a delicacy. Fish were consumed, as were crayfish, men typically hunted and prepared the game for cooking. Women did the cooking, in addition to fishing and gathering.
Individual Kamilaroi did not eat animals that were their totems, the Gamilaroi or Gomilaroi from the word Kamil or Gamil meaning no, are a large nation of Aborigines consisting of many tribes. The Gamilaroi are the second largest Aboriginal nation on the side of Australia. The nation was made up of smaller family groups who had their own parcels of land to sustain them. One of the great Kings of this tribe was Red Chief, the last link with tribal law and custom in Mungindi would be the forebear of the present Cubby family, who was the last known Respected Elder in the tribe. The Kamilaroi were regarded as fierce warriors and there is evidence of intertribal warfare. The Northern Gamilaroi people have a cultural connection with the Bigambul people. Kamilaroi tradition includes Baiame, the ancestor or patron god, the Baiame story tells how Baiame came down from the sky to the land, and created rivers and forests. He gave the people their laws of life, songs and he created the first initiation site.
This is known as a bora, a place where boys were initiated into manhood, when he had finished, he returned to the sky, and people called him the Sky Hero or All Father or Sky Father. He is said to be married to Birrahgnooloo, who is identified as an emu
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
In Australian Aboriginal mythology Baiame was the Creator God and Sky Father in the dreaming of several language groups, of Indigenous Australians of south-east Australia. The Baiame myth tells how Baiame came down from the sky to the land, and created rivers, mountains and he gave the people their laws of life, traditions and culture. He created the first initiation site and this is known as a bora, a place where boys were initiated into manhood. When he had finished, he returned to the sky, and he is said to be married to Birrahgnooloo, who is often identified as an emu, and with whom he has a son Daramulum. In other stories Daramulum is said to be brother to Baiame and it was forbidden to mention or talk about the name of Baiame publicly. Women were not allowed to see drawings of Baiame nor approach Baiame sites—which are often male initiation sites, in rock paintings Baiame is often depicted as a human figure with a large head-dress or hairstyle, with lines of footsteps nearby. He is always painted in front view, Daramulum is drawn in profile, Baiame is often shown with internal decorations such as waistbands, vertical lines running down the body and dots.
The missionary William Ridley adopted the name of Baiame for the Christian God when translating into Gamilaraay and it is sometimes suggested that Baiame was a construct of early Christian missionaries. Doubt is cast on this by a reference to Baiame apparently dating back to 1830-1840 by K Langloh Parker. In the area surrounding Lake Macquarie in New South Wales, Australia, he was believed to have created all of the mountains, rivers, after he finished creating, he jumped back up to the spirit world from Mount Yengo, which he flattened. Its flat top can still be seen to this day, near Wollombi Valley, a cave near Milbrodale contains many wonnarua Aboriginal paintings, including a large figure of a man who may be Baiame. It is popularly known as the Baiame Cave and is part of a series of shelters on an area of 80 hectares. The site is listed on the Register of the National Estate and it depicts him with enormous, long and large staring eyes. Aboriginal mythology Aboriginal sites of New South Wales Media related to Hunter Valley at Wikimedia Commons
Inverell is a town in northern New South Wales, situated on the Macintyre River. It is the centre of Inverell Shire, Inverell is located on the Gwydir Highway on the western slopes of the Northern Tablelands. In the 2011 census, the population of Inverell was 9,347, in 1848, Alexander Campbell held the 50, 000-acre Inverell Station on the Macintyre River. The name derives from the name of Mr. MacIntyres estate, the word is of Gaelic origin, and signifies meeting place of the swans, from Inver, a meeting place, and Ell, a swan. The MacIntyre River and Swanbrook Creek join here, the area was known as Green Swamp in the 1850s. Wheat growers and Rosanna Ross established a store there in 1853, in 1858 this was done and in the following years the plan was approved and the first land sale was held. Byron Post Office was replaced by the Inverell Post Office on 15 September 1859, the municipality was proclaimed in March 1872. The last section of the Inverell branchline, from Delungra to Inverell, was opened on 10 March 1902, the last train ran to Inverell on 22 June 1987, and the Delungra to Inverell section of the line was closed on 2 December 1987.
In 1871, the population of Inverell was 509, this increased to 1,212 in 1881, after Federation, the population of Inverell was 1,230 in 1911, and grew to 6,530 and 8,209. Diamonds were discovered at Copes Creek in 1875 and were mined at Copeton from 1883-1922, commercial sapphire mining was commenced in 1919 at Frazers Creek near Inverell. Rich alluvial deposits in streams were worked initially by hand miners, the Inverell district is in a fertile agricultural region which produces a wide range of crops, including wheat, oats, wine grapes and maize. There are some mining activities with tin, zircons, Inverell is known as the ‘Sapphire City’ because of the sapphires that found throughout the local district, contributing to a major part of Australias sapphire production. Copeton Dam, the main water supply, was completed in 1976. While being smaller than Sydney Harbour, it can hold nearly 2 times the capacity of Port Jackson, the Inland Fishing Festival is held there every year. The Grafton to Inverell Cycle Classic is a one day cycling event.
Beginning in Grafton, passing through Glen Innes and finishing in Inverell, the race starts at 23 metres above sea level and climbs to 1260 metres, before finishing in Inverell at 630 metres. The race is six to seven long, depending on weather conditions. There are two schools in Inverell, Ross Hill School and Inverell Public School
The flow of the river is impounded by Copeton Dam, with storage used for town water supply, domestic use and irrigation. The Gwydir River below Copeton Dam provides some of the wildest whitewater rafting available in Australia, before the construction of Copeton Dam and much diversionary work, the Gwydir River flowed into the Gingham and Lower Gwydir Wetlands. The Gwydir Highway was named after the river, the upper Gwydir River passes the towns of Bundarra, Bingara and Pallamallawa. Further tributaries above Moree are the Carole/GilGil Creeks to the north flow into the Barwon River when during times of high rainfall/runoff. The Gwydir River further splits into two anabranches west of Moree - the Lower Gwydir or Big Leather Watercourse is the channel. The Gingham Channel flows west, joining the Ballone Creek before it flows into the Big Leather Watercourse, the Big Leather Watercourse joins the Mehi River to the south. In turn, the Mehi River joins the Barwon River near the town of Collarenebri, the traditional custodians of the land surrounding the Gwydir River were the Aboriginal Kamilaroi peoples.
Explorer Allan Cunningham crossed the river at Gravesend in 1827 and named it after his patron, Peter Burrell, Baron Gwydyr, the Commonwealth Electoral Division of Gwydir, which was created in 1901 and ceased to exist at the 2007 federal election, was named for the Gwydir River. In Australia the name is pronounced to rhyme with wider, whereas the Welsh name is pronounced roughly Gwidd-eer, the iron lattice bridges crossing the Gwydir River at Bundarra and Bingara are regarded as significant bridges of the colonial period. Around mid-1838 a war of extirpation, according to local magistrate Edmund Denny Day, was waged all along the Gwydir River, aborigines in the district were repeatedly pursued by parties of mounted and armed stockmen and Day claimed that great numbers of them had been killed at various spots. A lot of irrigated cotton is grown near Moree, as well as other crops, livestock. The cotton industry relies on irrigation and has affected by recent drought with water allocations to farms severely reduced.
In 2006 it was calculated that the cotton industry consumed 87% of the water taken from the Gwydir River. Irrigation in the upper Gwydir led to a reduction in environmental flows downstream. The reduction in flow has affected landholders who traditionally used waters from the river to supplement stock drinking water and for minor watering of pasture. It stopped periodical flushes of water into ephemeral creeks and these conflicts resulted in the establishment of the Gwydir Regulated River Management Committee in 1997 and a management plan which came into effect on 1 July 2004. Some 800 hectares of the privately owned Gwydir Wetlands were designated on 14 June 1999 as a Ramsar site as a wetland of international importance. At times more than half a million nesting waterbirds have been present, including over 1% of the populations of nankeen night herons, intermediate egrets
Their traditional territory spreads from Wollombi in the south, to the Lower Hunter River near Newcastle and Lake Macquarie in the north. In the traditional language, Awaba is the word for Lake Macquarie, meaning flat or plain surface, the Awabakal were bounded to the north–west by the Wonnarua, the Worimi to the north–east, and the Darkinjung peoples to the west and south. The Awabakal people, like most of the Aboriginal Australian tribes in Australia, awabagal is a common alternate name for the Awabakal people. Awaba is now the name of a town in the region. Tindale claims that the Ninyowa clan were from the Newcastle area, the Awabakal language was used by the Awabakal people and by the Wonnarua people. Oral historians and linguists are reviewing the language in order to develop a dictionary of the language of the Hunter River. The eaglehawk or wedge-tailed eagle has special significance for the Awabakal people, their celestial entity, looks like an Aboriginal man, but in flight resembles an eagle-hawk.
The Awabakal people played a significant part in shaping the environment of their region and they practised fire-stick farming extensively, which helped them to hunt and to navigate through dense prickly scrub along the coast. Tracks and paths were maintained, including a path from the shore to the top of a hill which became Watt Street in Newcastle, particularly for shellfish, was a significant part of the Awabakal peoples diet and culture pre-colonisation. Academic research by Webb indicates east coast Australia tribes were violent, the Awabakal Newcastle Aboriginal Cooperative Limited is a not-for-profit community controlled organisation operating in the Newcastle, Lake Macquarie and Hunter Region with 195 members. In 2014 financial year, Awabakal had income of $10. 7million, approximately half of the income is used on employee benefits expenses, being $5. 87million in 2014. Total assets for both 2013 and 2014 were ca, in 1976, the Awabakal Environmental Education Centre began operating.
It is a NSW Department of Education and Communities facility, the centre provides opportunities for teachers and students in the Hunter Region to learn about the environment and human interactions with the natural world. The Centre contains examples of habitats including perched lagoons, creek catchments and wet sclerophyll forest. Being located on Awabakal land, the centre provides the opportunity for students to learn about Aboriginal perspectives, knowledge. There is a significant Awabakal presence at the Wollotuka Institute at the University of Newcastle, Wollotuka is an Awabakal word meaning eating and meeting place. Attempts by the Awabakal Local Aboriginal Land Council to claim native title over land within Newcastle, biraban – a recognised headman of the Awaba clan who assisted the Rev Lancelot Threlkeld compile the first grammar of an Aboriginal language in Australia
Norman Barnett Tindale AO was an Australian anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnologist. The family returned to Perth, and in 1917 moved to Adelaide where Tindale took up a position as a cadet at the Adelaide Public Library. Shortly after this, Tindale lost the sight in one eye in a gas explosion which occurred while assisting his father with photographic processing. In January 1919 he secured a position at the South Australian Museum as Entomologists Assistant to Arthur Mills Lea and he had already published thirty-one papers on entomological and anthropological subjects before receiving his Bachelor of Science degree at the University of Adelaide in March 1933. Tindale is best remembered for his work mapping the various groupings of Indigenous Australians. This interest began with a trip to Groote Eylandt where an Anindilyakwa man gave Tindale very detailed descriptions of which land was his. This led Tindale to question the orthodoxy of the time which was that Aboriginal people were purely nomadic and had no connection to any specific region.
While Tindales methodology and his notion of the tribe have been superseded. Quite a number of now-important record films were made by Tindale, in 1942 Tindale joined the Royal Australian Air Force and was assigned the rank of Wing Commander. He had previously tried to enlist in the Australian army at the outbreak of WWII but was rejected due to his damaged eyesight, in 1967, at the age of sixty-six, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Colorado. He was eventually honoured with a doctorate by the Australian National University in 1980, during 1993 Tindale received unofficial confirmation of his appointment as an Officer of the Order of Australia, this was presented posthumously, to his widow Muriel. Also in 1993, the South Australian Museum Boards named a public gallery in his honour, Tindale published extensively, both as sole author and collaborator. Note that the archives contain 2,804 items related to Dr Tindale
Bora is an initiation ceremony of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before European colonisation. The word bora refers to the site on which the initiation is performed, at such a site, having reached puberty, achieve the status of men. During the rites, the youths who were to be initiated were taught traditional sacred songs, the secrets of the tribes religious visions, many different clans would assemble to participate in an initiation ceremony. Women and children were not permitted to be present at the sacred bora ground where these rituals were undertaken. The word Bora was originally taken from the Gamilaraay language spoken by the Kamilaroi people who lived in the north of the Hunter Valley in New South Wales to southern Queensland. It was adorted broadly to describe similar ritual sites and the associated with them performed throughout Eastern Australia. Many other terms exist across Australia to denote similar initiatory rites on a ground, such as burbung.
The specific word is said to come from the belt worn by initiated men, the appearance of the site varies among cultures, but it is often associated with stone arrangements, rock engravings, or other art works. Typically, bora ground comprised a circle with a diameter of between 20–30 metres, and a smaller ring around 10–15 metres in diameter. The former was a public space while the latter was sacred. In south-east Australia, the Bora is often associated with the creator-spirit Baiame, in the Sydney region, large earth mounds were made, shaped as long bands or simple circles. Matthews gives an excellent eye-witness account of a Bora ceremony, one very fine example of a two ring bora ceremonial site used to exist in Alberton till it was destroyed, and made way for a pineapple plantation in the late 1950s. The smaller southern ring contained a dolmen-like structure, the rings are joined by a sacred walkway. While most are confined to south-east Queensland and eastern New South Wales, five earth rings have been recorded near the Victorian town of Sunbury, Bora rings in the form of circles of individually placed stones are evident in Werrikimbe National Park in northern New South Wales
Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world. It is one of the most conspicuous and recognizable constellations in the night sky and it was named after Orion, a hunter in Greek mythology. Its brightest stars are Rigel and Betelgeuse, a blue-white and a red supergiant, the earliest depiction that has been linked to the constellation of Orion is a prehistoric mammoth ivory carving found in a cave in the Ach valley in West Germany in 1979. Archaeologists have estimated it to have been fashioned approximately 32,000 to 38,000 years ago, the distinctive pattern of Orion has been recognized in numerous cultures around the world, and many myths have been associated with it. It has used as a symbol in the modern world. The Babylonian star catalogues of the Late Bronze Age name Orion MULSIPA. ZI. AN. NA, the Babylonian constellation was sacred to Papshukal and Ninshubur, both minor gods fulfilling the role of messenger to the gods. In ancient Egypt, the stars of Orion were regarded as a god, because Orion rises before Sirius, the star whose heliacal rising was the basis for the Solar Egyptian calendar, Sah was closely linked with Sopdet, the goddess who personified Sirius.
The god Sopdu was said to be the son of Sah, Sah was syncretized with Osiris, while Sopdet was syncretized with Osiris mythological wife, Isis. In the Pyramid Texts, from the 24th and 23rd centuries BC, the Armenians identified their legendary patriarch and founder Hayk with Orion. Hayk is the name of the Orion constellation in the Armenian translation of the Bible, the Bible mentions Orion three times, naming it Kesil. e. Job 9,9, Job 38,31, and Amos 5,8, in ancient Aram, the constellation was known as Nephîlā′, the Nephilim may have been Orions descendants. One myth recounts Gaias rage at Orion, who dared to say that he would kill every animal on the planet, the angry goddess tried to dispatch Orion with a scorpion. This is given as the reason that the constellations of Scorpius, Ophiuchus, the Serpent Bearer, revived Orion with an antidote. This is said to be the reason that the constellation of Ophiuchus stands midway between the Scorpion and the Hunter in the sky. The constellation is mentioned in Horaces Odes, Homers Odyssey and Iliad, and Virgils Aeneid In medieval Muslim astronomy, Orion was known as al-jabbar, Orions sixth brightest star, Saiph, is named from the Arabic, saif al-jabbar, meaning sword of the giant.
In China, Orion was one of the 28 lunar mansions Sieu （宿） and it is known as Shen （參）, literally meaning three, for the stars of Orions Belt. The Rig Veda refers to the Orion Constellation as Mriga, the Mriga means Deer, locally known as Harnu in folk parlance. There are many folk songs narrating the Harnu, the Malay called Orion Belt Bintang Tiga Beradik
Garah, New South Wales
Garah is a town in north western New South Wales, Australia. It is on the Mungindi railway line between Mungindi and Moree, at the 2011 census and the surrounding area had a population of 551. Garah is said to have the oldest running picnic races in Australia, the Mungindi, or North West railway line passes through the town and a station was open between 1913 and 1974. Media related to Garah, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons
Warialda is a town in the Northwest Slopes region of New South Wales, Australia, in Gwydir Shire. Situated on the banks of Warialda Creek, the name means Place of Wild Honey. At the 2011 census, Warialda had a population of 1,120, the Gwydir Highway runs through town and, along with Stephen Street, is considered one of the towns two main streets. Warialda is serviced by daily NSW TrainLink coach services to Inverell and Tamworth, there are three weekly coach services each to Grafton and Moree on alternating days. The NSW TrainLink coach stop is located outside the tourist information centre, the town is connected to the Inverell railway line as a major station on the way between Moree and Inverell. Due to the lay of the land, the station was built just outside of town at a new site known as Warialda Rail, Warialda Post Office opened on 1 January 1848. The towns first newspaper was the Warialda Standard, which was first published in 1896, Warialda is the birthplace of Elizabeth Kenny, world-renowned pioneer in the treatment of poliomyelitis.
The baptismal font used for Sister Kennys baptism is still in use, Warialda is the birthplace of Olive Rose Fitzhardinge who became famous in the 1930s as a rose breeder in Warrawee, the name of her best known rose. Warialda is the centre for the local agricultural sector. Farms around Warialda produce wheat, barley, some of the locals earn a dollar or two hunting wild pigs, which are exported, mainly to Germany, where there are demands for wild boar which are not present in the Australian market. Agriculture and education are the primary industries providing support for a small, Warialda is home to congregations of the Anglican, Catholic and Uniting Churches. The Anglican and Catholic churches are located near the Gwydir Highway in the part of town on the south bank of the Warialda Creek. St. Simons & St. Judes Anglican Church is located on the corner of Stewart Avenue and Market Streets. Built 1966, it was home to Sister Elizabeth Kenny Memotial Baptistry, as a tribute to Elizabeth Kenny born in Warialda 20th Sept 1880, www. warialdaanglican. org.
au St. Patricks Catholic Church is located at 29 Geddes st. St. Stephens Presbyterian Church is located on the corner of Stephen, the front of the church has three stained glass windows representing The Good Shepherd, from John 10, 1-21, as an Australian scene. The Presbyterian Manse was built from sandstone which formed part of the original town gaol. A local landowner used this stone built a house for himself, the Manse bears examples of gaol graffiti, such as Hell is here upside-down outside the office window, and Lord, remember me at the back of the building. Warialda Public School is one of the oldest public schools in New South Wales, Warialda High School has been named as a Centre for Excellence