Horn of Africa
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in Northeast Africa. It extends hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden; the area is the easternmost projection of the African continent. Referred to in ancient and medieval times as the land of the Barbara and Habesha, the Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia, it covers 2 million km2 and is inhabited by 115 million people. Regional studies on the Horn of Africa are carried out, among others, in the fields of Ethiopian Studies as well as Somali Studies; this peninsula is known by various names. In ancient and medieval times, the Horn of Africa was referred to as the Bilad al Barbar, it is known as the Somali peninsula, or in the Somali language, Geeska Afrika, Jasiiradda Soomaali or Gacandhulka Soomaali. In other languages that are local or adjacent to the Horn of Africa, it is known as የአፍሪካ ቀንድ yäafrika qänd in Amharic, القرن الأفريقي al-qarn al-'afrīqī in Arabic, Gaaffaa Afriikaa in Oromo and ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ in Tigrinya.
The Horn of Africa is sometimes shortened to HOA. The Horn of Africa is quite designated the "Horn", while inhabitants are sometimes colloquially referred to as Horn Africans. Sometimes the term Greater Horn of Africa is used, either to be inclusive of neighbouring northeast African countries, or to distinguish the broader geopolitical definition of the Horn of Africa from narrower peninsular definitions. Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to the Somali peninsula as Regio Aromatica or Regio Cinnamonifora due to the aromatic plants, or Regio Incognita owing to its unchartered territory. Shell middens 125,000 years old have been found in Eritrea, indicating the diet of early humans included seafood obtained by beachcombing. According to both genetic and fossil evidence, archaic Homo sapiens evolved into anatomically modern humans in the Horn of Africa between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago and have dispersed from the Horn of Africa; the recognition of Homo sapien idaltu and Omo Kibish as anatomically modern humans would justify the description of contemporary humans with the subspecies name Homo sapiens sapiens.
Because of their early dating and unique physical characteristics idaltu and kibish represent the immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans as suggested by the Out-of-Africa theory. Today at the Bab-el-Mandeb straits, the Red Sea is about 12 miles wide, but 50,000 years ago it was much narrower and sea levels were 70 meters lower. Though the straits were never closed, there may have been islands in between which could be reached using simple rafts. According to linguists, the Horn of Africa is the original homeland of the proto-Afroasiatic language as it is considered the region the Afroasiatic language family displays the greatest diversity, a sign viewed to represent a geographic origin; the Horn of Africa is the place where the haplogroup E1b1b originated from, Christopher Ehret and Shomarka Keita have suggested that the geography of the E1b1b lineage coincides with the distribution of the Afroasiatic languages. Genetic analysis done on the Afroasiatic speaking population further found that a pre-agricultural back-to-Africa migration into the Horn of Africa occurred through Egypt 23,000 years ago and it brought a non-African ancestry dubbed Ethio-Somali in the region.
Together with northern Somalia, the Red Sea coast of Sudan and Eritrea is considered the most location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt, whose first mention dates to the 25th century BCE. Dʿmt was a kingdom located in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, which existed during the 8th and 7th centuries BCE. With its capital at Yeha, the kingdom developed irrigation schemes, used plows, grew millet, made iron tools and weapons. After the fall of Dʿmt in the 5th century BCE, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the 1st century, the Aksumite Kingdom, able to reunite the area; the Kingdom of Aksum was an ancient state located in the Eritrean highlands and Ethiopian highlands, which thrived between the 1st and 7th centuries CE. A major player in the commerce between the Roman Empire and Ancient India, Aksum's rulers facilitated trade by minting their own currency; the state established its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush and entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian peninsula extending its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom.
Under Ezana, the kingdom of Aksum became the first major empire to adopt Christianity, was named by Mani as one of the four great powers of his time, along with Persia and China. Northern Somalia was an important link in the Horn, connecting the region's commerce with the rest of the ancient world. Somali sailors and merchants were the main suppliers of frankincense and spices, all of which were valuable luxuries to the Ancient Egyptians, Mycenaeans and Romans; the Romans began to refer to the region as Regio Aromatica. In the classical era, several flourishing Somali city-states such as Opone and Malao competed with the Sabaeans and Axumites for the rich Indo-Greco-Roman trade; the birth of Islam opposite the Horn's Red Sea co
The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern Chad and Nigeria. It was known to the Arabian geographers as the Kanem Empire from the 8th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu until 1900; the Kanem Empire was located in the present countries of Chad and Libya. At its height it encompassed an area covering not only most of Chad, but parts of southern Libya and eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria and northern Cameroon; the Bornu Empire was a state of what is now northeastern Nigeria, in time becoming larger than Kanem, incorporating areas that are today parts of Chad, Niger and Cameroon. The early history of the Empire is known from the Royal Chronicle or Girgam discovered in 1851 by the German traveller Heinrich Barth. Kanem was located at the southern end of the trans-Saharan trade route between Tripoli and the region of Lake Chad. Besides its urban elite it included a confederation of nomadic peoples who spoke languages of the Teda–Daza group. In the 8th century, Wahb ibn Munabbih used Zaghawa to describe the Teda-Tubu group, in the earliest use of the ethnic name.
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi mentions the Zaghawa in the 9th century. Kanem comes from anem, meaning south in the Teda and Kanuri languages, hence a geographic term. During the first millennium, as the Sahara underwent desiccation, people speaking the Kanembu language migrated to Kanem in the south; this group contributed to the formation of the Kanuri people. Kanuri traditions state; this desiccation of the Sahara resulted in two settlements, those speaking Teda-Daza northeast of Lake Chad, those speaking Chadic west of the lake in Bornu and Hausa-land. The origins of Kanem are unclear; the first historical sources tends to show that the kingdom of Kanem began forming around 700 AD under the nomadic Tebu-speaking Kanembu. The Kanembu were forced southwest towards the fertile lands around Lake Chad by political pressure and desiccation in their former range; the area possessed independent, walled city-states belonging to the Sao culture. Under the leadership of the Duguwa dynasty, the Kanembu would dominate the Sao, but not before adopting many of their customs.
War between the two continued up to the late 16th century. One scholar, Dierk Lange, proposed another theory based on a diffusionist ideology; this theory was much criticised by the scientific community, as it lacks of direct and clear evidences. He connect the creation of Kanem-Bornu with exodus from the collapsed Assyrian Empire c. 600 BC to the northeast of Lake Chad.. An overview of the discussions regarding this theory are gathered in his personal web page. Another one, from the same author, proposes that the lost state of Agisymba was the antecedent of the Kanem Empire. Kanem was connected via a trans-Saharan trade route with Tripoli via Bilma in the Kawar. Slaves were imported from the south along this route. Kanuri tradition states Sayf b. Dhi Yazan establish dynastic rule over the nomadic Magumi around the 9th or 10th century, through divine kingship. For the next millennium, the mais ruled the Kanuri, which included the Ngalaga, Kayi, Kaguwa and Tubu. Kanem is mentioned as one of three great empires in Bilad el-Sudan, by Al Yaqubi in 872.
He describes the kingdom of "the Zaghāwa who live in a place called Kānim," which included several vassal kingdoms, "Their dwellings are huts made of reeds and they have no towns." Living as nomads, their cavalry gave them military superiority. In the 10th century, al-Muhallabi mentions two towns in the kingdom, one of, Mānān, their king was considered divine, believing he could "bring life and death and health." Wealth was measured in livestock, cattle and horses. From Al-Bakri in the 11th century onwards, the kingdom is referred to as Kanem. In the 12th century Muhammad al-Idrisi described Mānān as "a small town without industry of any sort and little commerce." Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi describes Mānān as the capital of the Kanem kings in the 13th century, Kanem as a powerful Muslim kingdom. The Kanuri speaking Muslim Saifawas gained control of Kanem from the Zaghawa nomads in the 9th century; this included control of the Zaghawa trade links in the central Sahara with Bilma and other salt mines.
Yet, the principal trade commodity was slaves. Tribes to the south of Lake Chad were raided as kafirun, transported to Zawila in the Fezzan, where the slaves were traded for horses and weapons; the annual number of slaves traded increased from 1,000 in the 7th century to 5,000 in the 15th. Mai Hummay began his reign in 1075, formed alliances with the Kay, Tubu and Magumi. Mai Humai was the first Muslim King of Kanem, was converted by his Muslim tutor Muhammad b. Mānī; this dynasty replaced the earlier Zaghawa dynasty. They remained nomadic until the 11th century. According to Richmond Palmer, it was customary to have "the Mai sitting in a curtained cage called fanadir, dagil, or tatatuna...a large cage for a wild animal, with vertical wooden bars."Humai's successor, performed the Hajj three times, before drowning at Aidab. His wealth included 120,000 soldiers. Kanem's expansion peaked during the energetic reign of Mai Dunama Dabbalemi. Dabbalemi initiated diplomatic exchanges with sultans in North Africa, sending a giraffe to the Hafsid monarch, arranged for the establishment of a madrasa of al-Rashíq in Cairo to facilitate pilgrimages to Mecca.
During his reign, he declared jih
In folklore, a werewolf or lycanthrope is a human with the ability to shapeshift into a wolf, either purposely or after being placed under a curse or affliction and on the night of a full moon. Early sources for belief in this ability or affliction, called lycanthropy, are Petronius and Gervase of Tilbury; the werewolf is a widespread concept in European folklore, existing in many variants, which are related by a common development of a Christian interpretation of underlying European folklore developed during the medieval period. From the early modern period, werewolf beliefs spread to the New World with colonialism. Belief in werewolves developed in parallel to the belief in witches, in the course of the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern period. Like the witchcraft trials as a whole, the trial of supposed werewolves emerged in what is now Switzerland in the early 15th century and spread throughout Europe in the 16th, peaking in the 17th and subsiding by the 18th century; the persecution of werewolves and the associated folklore is an integral part of the "witch-hunt" phenomenon, albeit a marginal one, accusations of lycanthropy being involved in only a small fraction of witchcraft trials.
During the early period, accusations of lycanthropy were mixed with accusations of wolf-riding or wolf-charming. The case of Peter Stumpp led to a significant peak in both interest in and persecution of supposed werewolves in French-speaking and German-speaking Europe; the phenomenon persisted longest in Bavaria and Austria, with persecution of wolf-charmers recorded until well after 1650, the final cases taking place in the early 18th century in Carinthia and Styria. After the end of the witch-trials, the werewolf became of interest in folklore studies and in the emerging Gothic horror genre; the trappings of horror literature in the 20th century became part of the horror and fantasy genre of modern popular culture. The word werewolf continues a late Old English werwulf, a compound of were "man" and wulf "wolf"; the only Old High German testimony is in the form of a given name, although an early Middle High German werwolf is found in Burchard of Worms and Berthold of Regensburg. The word or concept does not occur in medieval German poetry or fiction, gaining popularity only from the 15th century.
Middle Latin gerulphus Old Frankish * wariwulf. Old Norse had the cognate varúlfur, but because of the high importance of werewolves in Norse mythology, there were alternative terms such as ulfhéðinn. In modern Scandinavian kveldulf "evening-wolf" after the name of Kveldulf Bjalfason, a historical berserker of the 9th century who figures in the Icelandic sagas; the term lycanthropy, referring both to the ability to transform oneself into a wolf and to the act of so doing, comes from Ancient Greek λυκάνθρωπος lukánthropos. The word does occur in ancient Greek sources, but only in Late Antiquity and only in the context of clinical lycanthropy described by Galen, where the patient had the ravenous appetite and other qualities of a wolf. Use of the Greek-derived lycanthropy in English occurs in learned writing beginning in the 16th century, at first explicitly for clinical lycanthropy, i.e. the type of insanity where the patient imagines to have transformed into a wolf, not in reference to real shape-shifting.
Use of lycanthropy for supposed shape-shifting is much introduced ca. 1830. Slavic uses the term vlko-dlak "wolf-skin", paralleling the Old Norse ulfhéðinn. However, the word is not attested in the medieval period; the Slavic term was loaned into modern Greek as Vrykolakas. Baltic has related Lithuanian vilkolakis and vilkatas, Latvian vilkatis and vilkacis; the name vurdalak for the Slavic vampire is a corruption due to Alexander Pushkin, widely spread by A. K. Tolstoy in his novella The Family of the Vourdalak. Greek λυκάνθρωπος and Germanic werewulf are parallel inasmuch as the concept of a shapeshifter becoming a wolf is expressed by means of a compound "wolf-man" or "man-wolf"; the werewolf folklore found in Europe harks back to a common development during the Middle Ages, arising in the context of Christianisation, the associated interpretation of pre-Christian mythology in Christian terms. Their underlying common origin can be traced back to Proto-Indo-European mythology, where lycanthropy is reconstructed as an aspect of the initiation of the warrior class.
This is reflected in Iron Age Europe in the Tierkrieger depictions from the Germanic sphere, am
Therianthropy is the mythological ability of human beings to metamorphose into other animals by means of shapeshifting. It is possible that cave drawings found at Les Trois Frères, in France, depict ancient beliefs in the concept; the most well known form of therianthropy is found in stories concerning werewolves. The term "therianthropy" comes from the Greek theríon, meaning "wild animal" or "beast", it was used to refer to animal transformation folklore of Europe as early as 1901. Sometimes the term "zoanthropy" is used instead. Therianthropy was used to describe spiritual beliefs in animal transformation in a 1915 Japanese publication, "A History of the Japanese People from the Earliest Times to the End of the Meiji Era". One source, "The Human Predator", raises the possibility the term may have been used as early as the 16th century in criminal trials of suspected werewolves. Therianthropy refers to the fantastical, or mythological, ability of some humans to change into animals. Therianthropes are said to change forms via shapeshifting.
Therianthropy has long existed in mythology, seems to be depicted in ancient cave drawings such as The Sorcerer, a pictograph executed at the Palaeolithic cave drawings found in the Pyrénées at the Les Trois Frères, archeological site.'Theriocephaly' refers to beings which have an animal head attached to an anthropomorphic, or human, body. Shapeshifting in folklore and anthropology refers to the alteration of physical appearance from that of a human to that of another species. Lycanthropy, the transformation of a human into a wolf, is the best known form of therianthropy, followed by cynanthropy and ailuranthropy. Werehyenas are present in the stories of several Eurasian cultures. Ancient Turkic legends from Asia talk of form-changing shamans known as kurtadams, which translates to "wolfman". Ancient Greeks wrote of kynanthropy, from κύων kyōn, which applied to mythological beings able to alternate between dog form and human form, or who possessed combined dog and human anatomical features.
The term existed by at least 1901, when it was applied to stories from China about humans turning into dogs, dogs becoming people, sexual relations between humans and canines. Anthropologist David Gordon White called Central Asia the "vortex of cynanthropy" because races of dog-men were habitually placed there by ancient writers; the weredog or cynanthrope is known in Timor. It is described as a human-canine shapeshifter, capable of transforming other people into animals against their will. European folklore features werecats, who can transform into panthers or domestic cats of an enlarged size. African legends describe people who turn into lions or leopards, while Asian werecats are depicted as becoming tigers; some Native American and First Nation legends talk about skin-walkers—people with the supernatural ability to turn into any animal they desire. To do so, they first must be wearing a pelt of the specific animal. In the folk religion of Mesoamerica, a nagual is a human being who has the power to magically turn themselves into animal forms—most donkeys and dogs—but can transform into more powerful jaguars and pumas.
Stories of humans descending from animals are found in the oral traditions for many tribal and clan origins. Sometimes the original animals had assumed human form in order to ensure their descendants retained their human shapes. North American indigenous traditions mingle the ideas of bear ancestors and ursine shapeshifters, with bears being able to shed their skins to assume human form, marrying human women in this guise; the offspring may be creatures with combined anatomy, they may be beautiful children with uncanny strength, or they may be shapeshifters themselves. P'an Hu is represented in various Chinese legends as a supernatural dog, a dog-headed man, or a canine shapeshifter that married an emperor's daughter and founded at least one race; when he is depicted as a shapeshifter, all of him can become human except for his head. The race descended from P'an Hu were characterized by Chinese writers as monsters who combined human and dog anatomy. In Turkic mythology, the wolf is a revered animal.
The Turkic legends say. The legend of Asena is an old Turkic myth. In the legend, a small Turkic village in northern China is raided by Chinese soldiers, with one baby left behind. An old she-wolf with a sky-blue mane named Asena finds nurses him, she gives birth to half-wolf, half-human cubs who are the ancestors of the Turkic people. Ethnologist Ivar Lissner theorised that cave paintings of beings with human and non-human animal features were not physical representations of mythical shapeshifters, but were instead attempts to depict shamans in the process of acquiring the mental and spiritual attributes of various beasts. Religious historian Mircea Eliade has observed that beliefs regarding animal identity and transformation into animals are widespread. In Melanesia there is a belief in the tamaniu or atai, an animal counterpart to a person, it may be a shark, a lizard, or some other creature. This creature is corporeal, can understand human speech, shares the same soul as its master, leading to legends which have many characteristics typical of shapeshifter tales, such as any death or injury affecting both forms at onc
Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues
Anchorman 2: The Legend Continues is a 2013 American comedy film and the sequel to the 2004 film Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy. As with the original film, it is directed by Adam McKay, produced by Judd Apatow, written by McKay and Will Ferrell, stars Ferrell, Steve Carell, Paul Rudd, David Koechner, Christina Applegate, all reprising their roles from the first film. Harrison Ford, Kristen Wiig, James Marsden, Meagan Good, Dylan Baker all join the cast. Development for the film began as early as 2008, but Paramount Pictures turned down the proposed sequel. However, in March 2012, Ferrell announced the film was in production and filming began in March 2013. Unlike the first film, the film is distributed by Paramount Pictures instead of DreamWorks Pictures; the Legend Continues was released on December 18, 2013. It received positive reviews, was a box office success, grossing $173 million worldwide on a $50 million budget. In 1979, Ron Burgundy and Veronica Corningstone are married and are both co-anchors for a prestigious news network in New York City.
One day, the most famous nightly news anchor in New York, reveals that he is retiring. He intends to promote Corningstone, making her the first female nightly news anchor in the history of television, to fire Burgundy due to his continuously sloppy performance on air. Burgundy grows jealous of Corningstone's success and storms out of the house, leaving her and their 6-year-old son Walter. Six months Burgundy is back in San Diego, but able to hold a job due to his depression. After being fired from SeaWorld and botching a suicide attempt, Burgundy accepts a job offered to him by Freddie Shapp with GNN, the world's first 24-hour news network, for the station's official launch, he reassembles his news team, finding Champ Kind, who owns a fried chicken store, Brian Fantana, now a famous cat photographer, Brick Tamland, presumed dead but appears at his own funeral. They are assigned the unpopular late-night timeslot while obnoxious rival anchorman Jack Lime is put in a primetime slot. Meanwhile, Burgundy finds.
As GNN launches, Burgundy decides to broadcast what the people want to hear, rather than what they need to hear. He and his team devise a patriotic newscast, their new approach proves to be a hit, beating Lime in ratings by a massive margin, the other news networks scramble to emulate them. Ron wins a bet with Lime forcing him to change his name to Jack Lame. Burgundy and his team are promoted to primetime, where they enjoy fortune. Burgundy's success excites GNN's manager, Linda Jackson, they begin a romantic relationship. Tamland meets a eccentric GNN office worker named Chani and falls in love. Burgundy lets his newfound fame get to his head and neglects his parental obligations to Walter, angering Corningstone, he alienates Fantana and Tamland, claiming he is tired of carrying them. During a party celebrating GNN's success, Lame causes Burgundy to slip and suffer a head injury, resulting in him becoming temporarily blind. Unable to read the news, Burgundy isolates himself in a lighthouse, unable to adjust to his temporary loss of vision.
Corningstone arrives with Walter for a visit, announcing that she has quit her own job, Burgundy bonds with his family adjusting to his disability. Burgundy and his son rehabilitate a small shark. Burgundy discovers that Corningstone was concealing messages from his eye doctor regarding an experimental procedure, since she thought his blindness has been significant in the family bonding, he leaves angrily, gets his vision restored, returns to GNN. Back in New York, Burgundy is once again approached by Corningstone, who pleads with him to attend Walter's piano recital. At the same time, an exclusive news story comes in. However, on live TV, Burgundy instead admits that news is supposed to inform, not entertain, takes responsibility for the mistakes he made, following it up by quitting and walking off, he leaves for Walter's recital but is intercepted by an angered Lime and his team and several other news teams, all of whom want to kill him due to his fame. Burgundy's friends arrive to defend him and a massive battle ensues.
Burgundy's old arch-rival Wes Mantooth arrives in time to save Ron from Lime's news crew, before Brick accidentally sets off an explosion. Burgundy manages to reach Walter's recital in time, reconcile with Corningstone. Burgundy and his friends attend Tamland's and Chani's wedding on the beach. During the wedding, Ron spots Doby in the water and tries to greet him, only to be attacked, forcing his dog Baxter to rescue him; this is the first film in the series to be released by Paramount Pictures, which acquired the DreamWorks back catalog in 2006, including ownership of the first movie and other films from DreamWorks that were made before the Paramount merger. In May 2008, Adam McKay said that he and Will Ferrell had talked about wanting to do an Anchorman sequel, saying: "I'm looking to do another movie, I might do this other movie called Channel 3 Billion, kind of this science fiction/Brazil-type comedy. After that, Will and I are like,'let's do Anchorman 2'... so you're talking like 2 years maybe we'll do it.
But we're going to do it, for sure." On July 23, 2008, McKay announced. Carell and Rudd, both of
In mythology and speculative fiction, shapeshifting is the ability of a being or creature to transform its physical form or shape. This is achieved through an inherent ability of a mythological creature, divine intervention or the use of magic; the idea of shapeshifting is present in the oldest forms of totemism and shamanism, as well as the oldest extant literature and epic poems, including works such as the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Iliad, where the shapeshifting is induced by the act of a deity. The idea persisted through the Middle Ages, where the agency causing shapeshifting is a sorcerer or witch, into the modern period, it remains children's literature and works of popular culture. The most common form of shapeshifting myths is that of therianthropy, the transformation of a human being into an animal or conversely, of an animal into human form. Legends allow for transformations into plants and objects and the assumption of another human countenance. Popular shapeshifting creatures in folklore are werewolves and vampires, the huli jing of East Asia, the gods and demons of numerous mythologies, such as the Norse Loki or the Greek Proteus.
Shapeshifting to the form of a wolf is known as lycanthropy, such creatures who undergo such change are called lycanthropes. Therianthropy is the more general term for human-animal shifts, but it is used in that capacity, it was common for deities to transform mortals into animals and plants. Other terms for shapeshifters include metamorph, the Navajo skin-walker and therianthrope; the prefix "were-," coming from the Old English word for "man", is used to designate shapeshifters. While the popular idea of a shapeshifter is of a human being who turns into something else, there are numerous stories about animals that can transform themselves as well. Examples of shapeshifting in classical literature include many examples in Ovid's Metamorphoses, Circe's transforming of Odysseus' men to pigs in Homer's The Odyssey, Apuleius's Lucius becoming a donkey in The Golden Ass. Proteus was noted among the gods for his shapeshifting. Nereus told Heracles; the Titan Metis, the first wife of Zeus and the mother of the goddess Athena, was believed to be able to change her appearance into anything she wanted.
In one story, she was so proud, that her husband, tricked her into changing into a fly. He swallowed her because he feared that he and Metis would have a son who would be more powerful than Zeus himself. Metis, was pregnant, she built armor for her daughter. The banging of her metalworking made Zeus have a headache, so Hephaestus clove his head with an axe. Athena sprang from her father's head grown, in battle armor. In Greek mythology, the transformation is a punishment from the gods to humans who crossed them. Zeus transformed King Lycaon and his children into wolves as a punishment for either killing Zeus' children or serving him the flesh of Lycaon's own murdered son Nyctimus, depending on the exact version of the myth. Demeter transformed Ascalabus into a lizard for mocking her sorrow and thirst during her search for her daughter Persephone, she turned King Lyncus into a lynx for trying to murder her prophet Triptolemus. Athena transformed Arachne into a spider for challenging her as a weaver and/or weaving a tapestry that insulted the gods.
She turned Nyctimene into an owl, though in this case it was an act of mercy, as the girl wished to hide from the daylight out of shame from being raped by her father. Artemis transformed Actaeon into a stag for spying on her bathing, he was devoured by his own hunting dogs. Galanthis was transformed into a weasel or cat after interfering in Hera's plans to hinder the birth of Heracles. Atalanta and Hippomenes were turned into lions after making love in one of Zeus' temples. Io was a priestess of Hera in Argos, a nymph, raped by Zeus, who changed her into a heifer to escape detection. Hera punished young Tiresias by transforming him into a woman and, seven years back into a man. King Tereus, his wife Procne and her sister Philomela were all turned into birds, after Tereus raped Philomela and cut out her tongue, in revenge she and Procne served him the flesh of his murdered son Itys. While the Greek gods could use transformation punitively – such as Medusa, turned to a monster for having sexual intercourse with Poseidon in Athena's temple – more the tales using it are of amorous adventure.
Zeus transformed himself to approach mortals as a means of gaining access: Danaë as a shower of gold Europa as a bull Leda as a swan Ganymede, as an eagle Alcmene as her husband Amphitryon Hera as a cuckoo Leto as a quail Maia as a gopher Semele as a mortal shepherd Io, as a cloud Nemesis transformed into a goose to escape Zeus' advances, but he turned into a swan. She bore the egg in which Helen of Troy was found. Vertumnus transformed himself into an old woman to gain entry to Pomona's orchard. In other tales, the woman appealed to other gods to protect her from rape, was transformed. Unlike Zeus and
Lake Chad is a large, endorheic lake in Africa, which has varied in size over the centuries. According to the Global Resource Information Database of the United Nations Environment Programme, it shrank by as much as 95% from about 1963 to 1998, but "the 2007 image shows significant improvement over previous years." Lake Chad is economically important, providing water to more than 30 million people living in the four countries surrounding it on the edge of the Sahara. It is the largest lake in the Chad Basin. Lake Chad is a freshwater lake located in the Sahelian zone of west-central Africa, it is located in the interior basin which used to be occupied by a much larger ancient sea sometimes called Mega Chad. The lake is ranked as one of the largest lakes in Africa. However, its surface area varies by season and as well as from year to year. Lake Chad is in the far west of Chad, bordering on northeastern Nigeria; the Chari River, fed by its tributary the Logone, provides over 90% of the lake's water, with a small amount coming from the Yobe River in Nigeria/Niger.
Despite high levels of evaporation, the lake is fresh water. Over half of the lake's area is taken up by its many small islands and mud banks, a belt of swampland across the middle divides the northern and southern halves; the shorelines are composed of marshes. Because Lake Chad is shallow—only 10.5 metres at its deepest—its area is sensitive to small changes in average depth, it shows seasonal fluctuations in size. Lake Chad has no apparent outlet; the climate is dry most of the year, with moderate rainfall from July through September. Lake Chad gave its name to the country of Chad; the name Chad is a local word meaning "large expanse of water", in other words, a "lake". Lake Chad is the remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad, which existed during the African humid period. At its largest, sometime before 5000 BC, Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes, is estimated to have covered an area of 1,000,000 km2, larger than the Caspian Sea is today, may have extended as far northeast as within 100 km of Faya-Largeau.
At its largest extent the river Mayo Kébbi represented the outlet of the paleolake Mega-Chad, connecting it to the Niger River and the Atlantic. The presence of African manatees in the inflows of Lake Chad is an evidence of that history. Romans reached the lake in the first century of their empire. Indeed, during the time of Augustus Lake Chad was still a huge lake and two Roman expeditions were performed in order to reach it: Septimius Flaccus and Julius Maternus reached the "lake of hippopotamus", they passed near the Tibesti mountains. Both expeditions passed through the territory of the Garamantes, were able to leave a small garrison on the "lake of hippopotamus and rhinoceros" after three months of travel in desert lands. Lake Chad was first surveyed from shore by Europeans in 1823, it was considered to be one of the largest lakes in the world then. In 1851, a party including the German explorer Heinrich Barth carried a boat overland from Tripoli across the Sahara Desert by camel and made the first European waterborne survey.
British expedition leader James Richardson died just days before reaching the lake. In Winston Churchill's book The River War: An Account of the Reconquest of the Sudan, published in 1899, he mentions the shrinking of Lake Chad, he writes: Altogether France has enough to occupy her in Central Africa for some time to come: and when the long task is finished, the conquered regions are not to be of great value. They include the desert of the Great Sahara and wide expanses of profitless scrub or marsh. Only one important river, the Shari, flows through them, never reaches the sea: and Lake Chad, into which the Shari flows, appears to be leaking through some subterranean exit, is changing from a lake into an immense swamp. Lake Chad has shrunk since the 1960s, when its shoreline had an elevation of about 286 metres above sea level and it had an area of more than 26,000 square kilometres, making its surface the fourth largest in Africa. An increased demand on the lake's water from the local population has accelerated its shrinkage over the past 40 years.
The size of Lake Chad varies seasonally with the flooding of the wetlands areas. In 1983, Lake Chad was reported to have covered 10,000 to 25,000 km2, had a maximum depth of 11 metres, a volume of 72 km3. By 2000, its extent had fallen to less than 1,500 km2. A 2001 study published in the Journal of Geophysical Research blamed the lake's retreat on overgrazing in the area surrounding the lake, causing desertification and a decline in vegetation; the United Nations Environment Programme and the Lake Chad Basin Commission concur that at least half of the lake's decrease is attributable to shifting climate patterns. UNEP blames human water use, such as inefficient damming and irrigation methods, for the rest of the shrinkage; as late as December 2014, Lake Chad was still sufficient in size and volume such that boats could capsize or sink. The European Space Agency has presented data showing an actual increase in lake extent of Lake Chad between the years of 1985 to 2011. Referring to the floodplain as a lake may be misleading, as less than half of Lake Chad is covered by water through an entire year.
The remaining sections are considered as wetla