Witzenhausen is a small town in the Werra-Meißner-Kreis in northeastern Hesse, Germany. It was granted town rights in 1225, until 1974, it was a district seat; the University of Kassel maintains a satellite campus in Witzenhausen at, offered the ecological agricultural sciences programme, unique in the country. This puts Witzenhausen among Germany's smallest university towns. Furthermore, a teaching institute for environment and technology, agriculture and landscaping; the town is nationally known for the invention of the Biotonne – a biological refuse container – in 1983, as an important cherry-growing area. Cherries are traditional in Witzenhausen, which has led to the yearly Kesperkirmes, or “Cherry Fair”, at which a Cherry Queen is chosen. Witzenhausen lies on the northeast slope of the Kaufunger Wald, surrounded by the Meißner-Kaufunger Wald Nature Park; the town is found at the mouth of the Gelster, where it empties into the Werra some 30 km east of Kassel, 16 km east-southeast of Hann. Münden, 25 km south of Göttingen and 23 km northwest of Eschwege.
Witzenhausen borders in the north on the town of Hann. Münden, the communities of Rosdorf and Friedland, in the east on the communities of Neu-Eichenberg and Lindewerra, in the south on the towns of Bad Sooden-Allendorf and Großalmerode and the unincorporated area of Gutsbezirk Kaufunger Wald and in the west on the community of Staufenberg in Lower Saxony’s Göttingen district. Witzenhausen’s 16 Stadtteile, besides the main town called Witzenhausen, are, on the Werra’s left bank: Blickershausen, Ellingerode, Hubenrode, Kleinalmerode, Roßbach, Wendershausen Ziegenhagen,On the river’s right bank: Albshausen, Berlepsch-Ellerode-Hübenthal, Neuseesen, Unterrieden Werleshausen. In 1898, the Deutsche Kolonialschule für Landwirtschaft, Handel und Gewerbe was founded to train people in agriculture for resettlement in Germany's colonies; the successor institution forms today a satellite campus of the University of Kassel, includes a greenhouse complex dedicated to tropical crops. Historic town centre with various important timber-frame houses: Grau’sches Haus Rotes Haus Steinernes Haus Sommermann’sches Haus Meinhard-Wedekind’sches Haus Persch’sches Haus Liebfrauenkirche Historic Town Hall Erlöserkirche Diebesturm and parts of the old town wall Former Williamite monastery, part of the Colonial School and today part of the University of Kassel Gelsterhof Estate, the former Colonial School's farm Burg Ludwigstein Völkerkundliches Museum Greenhouse for domesticated tropical plants Town park with swan pond The municipal election held on 27 March 2011 yielded the following results: At first, the current council was ruled by a CDU-Green-FWG coalition, but this was dissolved in September 2007.
1945-1948: Eduard Platner 1987-2005: Günter Engel 2005-2018: Angela Fischer 2018-: Daniel Herz Witzenhäuser Woche in conjunction with German Queens’ Day, every 3 years. Kesperkirmes, the “cherry fair” in the Old Town with election of the Cherry Queen and German cherry pip spitting championship. Cherry Man Erntedank- und Heimatfest, 20–25 August 2008, this year with Jürgen Drews as the star guest on Sunday in the festival tent at Joseph Pott Platz In 2006 Witzenhausen was the starting point for the third stage of the Deutschland Tour Christmas market Witzenhausen suffers – like the whole Werra-Meißner-Kreis and a great part of North Hesse – from high unemployment and its attendant loss of younger people to migration. In Witzenhausen-Unterrieden, the last producer of chewing tobacco in Germany is still in business. An important employer in Witzenhausen is, with 430 employees all together, the corporation Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget. In Witzenhausen the SCA produces raw paper for corrugated cardboard for manufacturing packagings and hygiene products such as toilet paper.
Another important employer is the town hospital in Witzenhausen. Witzenhäuser Allgemeine Markt Spiegel Witzenhüsser Extra Tipp RundFunk Meißner Over Bundesstraßen 27, 80 and 451, the town is linked to the greater road network. In Hedemünden, some 10 km away, is an interchange on the Autobahn A 7. Near Friedland is an interchange on the A 38 towards Halle. Moreover, Witzenhausen is on the two tourist routes: the German Timber-Frame Road and the German Fairy Tale Route. Witzenhausen has a railway station, Witzenhausen Nord, on the Eichenberg–Kassel section of the Halle-Kassel Railway, it is located above the town on the north slope of the Werra valley and is served by
Wanfried is a town in the Werra-Meißner-Kreis in northeasternmost Hesse, Germany. It is classified as a Landstadt, a designation given in Germany to a municipality, a town, but whose population is below 5,000, it means “country town”. The town lies right on the boundary with Thuringia, it is found in the Werra valley northeast of the Schlierbachswald. Northeast of Wanfried, beyond the Thuringian boundary, is the neighbouring Eichsfeld-Hainich-Werratal Nature Park; the Hessian middle centre of Eschwege lies only some 11 km upstream to the west. Other nearby towns of its kind are Eisenach, both of which lie in Thuringia. Wanfried borders in the north on the community of Geismar, more on its constituent community of Döringsdorf, in the east on the communities of Hildebrandshausen and Katharinenberg, in the southeast and the south on the town of Treffurt and in the west on the town of Eschwege and the community of Meinhard, more on its constituent community of Frieda. Wanfried’s Stadtteile are Wanfried, Aue, Heldra and Völkershausen.
Wanfried is an ancient town. When Saint Boniface came to this area, it was here. There were already Christians here, he built the first churches. On the Hülfensberg he built a church and a monastery. While gazing from the Hülfensberg, Saint Boniface said, according to legend, “Wann wird endlich Frieden schweben über dieser schönen Aue?”. Folk etymology holds that this yielded the local placenames Wanfried, Frieda and Aue; as a place in a border area, mentioned by 813 under the names In wanen In Riden and Uuanenreodum, was the object of territorial swaps and pledges by both the Hessian and Thuringian Landgraves, whose spheres of interest came up against each other here. After the Battle of Wettin, the community mentioned at this time as Wenefridun was ceded to Thuringia. To expand his new Hessian Landgraviate, Henry I bought the communities of Wanfried and Frieda and a few villages in the Eichsfeld from the Thuringian Landgrave in 1306. A few years with and assault by Hermann II of Treffurt, began the violent disputes over Wanfried’s ownership.
Hermann managed to take the place in a surprise attack. In 1336, Hermann’s castle, Normannstein was taken by a coalition of Hessian, Electoral Mainz and Saxonian troops. After the booty had been shared out among the victors, the Hessian Landgrave Otto I sought to link the new, isolated properties to his territory by a territorial corridor. To this end, he acquired in 1365 from the Lords at Völkershausen their court rights over the villages of Altenburschla, Döringsdorf, Helderbach and Weißenborn. Before Wanfried passed for good to the Hessian Landgraves, there were once again conflicts with neighbouring Thuringia in the course of the Sternerkrieg, in the late 14th century. Wanfried was raised to town on 30 August 1608 through Hessian Landgrave Moritz’s privilege, was granted market rights, too. In 1616, the town of Wanfried was named in the Verzeichnis der fürnembsten Städte Europas as an important trading centre; as a starting point for shipping on the Werra, whose river system had been secured by locks at Eschwege and Allendorf, the town grew into a trading centre in which wares of all kinds were traded.
After the goods had cleared the Auf der Schlagd customs office, they were consigned to the town's warehouses, shortly thereafter to be shipped out again overland. The shippers brought goods from the coastal cities bound for Thuringia and Bavaria, important destinations there being the trading centres of Leipzig and Nuremberg. In the Thirty Years' War, the town was sacked by Tilly's troops on 25 June 1626. In 1627, Wanfried belonged to the domain of the Rotenburger Quart and as of 1667 was residence of the Catholic sideline of Hesse-Wanfried. In 1667, Landgrave Karl moved into the palace here as founder of the line. Karl's sons and Christian, ruled here until their line died out in 1755. In accordance with the house agreement, the Landgraviate of Hesse-Wanfried passed back to Hesse-Rotenburg. In 1834, Hesse-Rotenburg itself passed back to the main line of Hesse-Kassel. Wanfried's former importance as an entrepôt is confirmed by a trader's balance sheet from the time about the end of the 16th century and beginning of the 17th.
At this time, goods shipped out amounted to 80,000 hundredweight yearly, the turnover came in at 132,000 hundredweight. Preferred goods were coffee, oil, tobacco, woollen goods, wine and fish, it was at this time that the stately trade houses arose on the market street, great townsmen's houses, hostels, a stock exchange and a brewery. In the latter half of the 19th century, shipping on the Werra shrank more in importance as inland goods transport shifted to the railways. Wanfried was linked to the rail network in 1902 by the Werratalbahn. In the 19th century, the trading town of Wanfried saw a boom in its wealth; the walls and towers were razed and the old town hall was torn down. The town's former glamour has been outlasted by the stately timber-frame houses, which form an unbroken set; the inhabitants have been overwhelmingly Protestant since the Reformation. The small Catholic parish grew after the Second World War from all the refugees; the time from March through June 1945 in nazi-administered and American liberated W
Heringen is a small town in Hersfeld-Rotenburg district in eastern Hesse, Germany lying right at the boundary with Thuringia. The nearest major towns and cities are Bad Hersfeld and Kassel; the town lies on the river Werra, surrounded by outliers of the Thuringian Forest, the Seulingswald and the Anterior Rhön, all mountain or hill ranges. The lowest point in town is found on the Werra floodplain at 210 m above sea level; the highest point within town limits is the Lehnberg at 471 m above sea level. Clockwise from the north, these are Wildeck, Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Berka/Werra, Philippsthal und Friedewald. Heringen’s Stadtteile, besides the main centre called Heringen, are Bengendorf, Kleinensee, Lengers, Widdershausen and Wölfershausen. In 1153, Heringen had its first documentary mention; the Fulda Abbey enfeoffed the nobleman Heinrich von Heringen about 1170 with the place. The Heringen court comprised in the early 15th century not only the current town area but the Thuringian centres of Vitzeroda and Abteroda, all of which now belong to the Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Berka/Werra.
In 1432, Margarethe von Heringen sold the court to the Landgraves of Hesse, thereby binding Heringen to Hesse. With the opening of the Wintershall potash works, which began mining in 1903, the community got its first industrial jobs; the Neu-Heringen and Herfa-Neurode potash mines were built. The mine is today the world’s biggest potash-mining area and has an area about the same as Greater Munich’s. At the end of World War II, the libraries of the German Army's Military Geology Unit and the German Patent Office were removed from Berlin and secretly stored in the deep Wintershall potash mine in Heringen. There they were discovered by the US Third Army in March 1945, removed to the US; the German Patent Library was restored to Germany, but the military geology materials of maps and books stolen from other countries during the invasions, were retained by the US as Nazi materiel. Most of these maps and books remain in the US Geological Survey Library today, with an obscure United States Army Corps of Engineers stamp on each that reads "Heringen Collection".
Market rights were granted the community in 1526, in 1977 came town rights to what was a greater community. There are successor buildings of the knightly estate of Vultejus. Between 1968 and 1972 the above-named centres were amalgamated into a greater community, granted town rights in 1977 by the Hesse Land government; the municipal election held on 26 March 2006 yielded the following results: The town’s executive is made up of six councillors, with two seats allotted to the SPD, two to the CDU and 2 to the WGH. Manfred Wenk is the first WGH councillor. Mayor Hans Ries was elected on 28 March 2004 with 52.5% of the vote. The town’s arms might be described thus: Azure a bend wavy sinister argent between a sledgehammer and a cross-peen hammer per saltire, three fish of the last; the bend wavy sinister, that is, slanted wavy stripe beginning on the sinister side and stretching down across the escutcheon, stands for the river Werra. The three fish come from the arms borne by the Lords of Heringen.
The mining tools are, of course, a traditional miner’s symbol. This charge was added to the coat of arms in 2003, as potash had been being mined here for a hundred years; the old arms are shown at right. Rombas, FranceIn 2007, partnership documents were signed with the following towns: Heringen, Thuringia Odolanów, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Poland Werra-Kalibergbaumuseum Potash tailings heap “Monte Kali” Walterskirche church ruins Bodesruh memorial Successor buildings of the knightly estate of Vultejus Rohrlache and Säulingssee Herfa forest botany garden Weekly market It was in Heringen that the groundbreaking invention of the electrostatic salt separation facility was first realized and further developed. After former mining director Prof. Dr.-Ing. Arno Singewald’s research and inventions, the German potash-mining industry could introduce a novel, environmentally friendly means of processing the mined salts. Salt-saturated water is avoided; these facilities built at the potash works along the Werra have seen to it that a river, once salted – by East German potash works – has been brought back to life.
K+S Kali GmbH – potash mining Schwabenhaus GmbH + Co. KG – prefabricated buildings Messer Industriemontagen & Apparatebau GmbH – pipeline and special steel construction Uwe Bein, professional footballer and world champion in 1990 Jürgen Gehb, since 1998 Member of the Bundestag and rightwing speaker of the CDU/CSU Bundestag faction. Michael Roth, German SPD politician and Member of the Bundestag Hadden, Robert Lee. 2003. "The Heringen Ccollection of the US Geological Survey Library" Geological Society of America. Seattle Annual Meeting. Paper No. 94-7. Abstract: "One special collection of German and Russian language books and reports in the US Geological Survey Library has an interesting and unusual history; the “Heringen Collection” came from Nazi Germany. In the last days of the war, these maps
The Krayenburg was a castle situated on the Krayenberg hill in Germany, having the townships of Tiefenort and Merkers-Kieselbach at its foot, overlooking an extensive section of the Werratal. On 31 August 786 Charlemagne gave the village of Dorndorf and all of its belongings to Hersfeld Abbey; the castle changed ownership repeatedly. It was owned by Graf Adam von Beichlingen, who died on 7 August 1538 and is buried in the church in Tiefenort; the Thirty Years' War started the destruction of the castle when Croatian troops captured the Krayenburg. However, it continued to play an important role in German history until the 19th century. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe visited the castle in 1782, the year; the castle was very large, once larger than Wartburg Castle. The ruins are open to visitors. A tower allows a wide view into the Werratal
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Bad Salzungen is a town in Thuringia, Germany. It is the capital of the Wartburgkreis district. In July 2018 the former municipalities of Ettenhausen an der Suhl and Tiefenort were merged into Bad Salzungen. Bad Salzungen is situated on the river Werra, 5 kilometres east of Tiefenort and 20 kilometres south of Eisenach. Bad Salzungen borders on Barchfeld-Immelborn, Moorgrund, Tiefenort and Urnshausen in Wartburgkreis and Breitungen/Werra in Schmalkalden-Meiningen district. Bad Salzungen is twinned with: Mezőkövesd, Hungary Strakonice, Czech Republic Bad Hersfeld, Germany Ishøj, Denmark Near the town, there is a Bundeswehr barrack, the Werratal-Kaserne, built in 1972 for the GDR Army. Bad Salzungen station is located on the Eisenach–Lichtenfels railway. Johann Theodor Roemhildt, Baroque composer Heinrich Beck and inventor of the Beck arc lamp and headlamp Beck Fritz Wagner, a machinist, Reichsbanner-official, party official and chairman of the council of Meiningen district Gerhard Unger, tenor Hans-Ulrich Jörges, Stern magazine Steffen Skel, luger Alexander Zickler, soccer player and German international Mark Zimmermann, football player and coach at FC Carl Zeiss Jena Ronny Ackermann, Nordic Combined Christian Hirte, German politician Philipp Marschall and former cross-country skier Thomas Bing, cross-country skier
Lower Saxony is a German state situated in northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest state by land area, with 47,624 km2, fourth-largest in population among the 16 Länder federated as the Federal Republic of Germany. In rural areas, Northern Low Saxon and Saterland Frisian are still spoken, but the number of speakers is declining. Lower Saxony borders on the North Sea, the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and North Rhine-Westphalia, the Netherlands. Furthermore, the state of Bremen forms two enclaves within Lower Saxony, one being the city of Bremen, the other, its seaport city of Bremerhaven. In fact, Lower Saxony borders more neighbours than any other single Bundesland; the state's principal cities include the state capital Hanover, Braunschweig, Lüneburg, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, Wolfenbüttel, Göttingen. The northwestern area of Lower Saxony, which lies on the coast of the North Sea, is called East Frisia and the seven East Frisian Islands offshore are popular with tourists.
In the extreme west of Lower Saxony is the Emsland, a traditionally poor and sparsely populated area, once dominated by inaccessible swamps. The northern half of Lower Saxony known as the North German Plains, is invariably flat except for the gentle hills around the Bremen geestland. Towards the south and southwest lie the northern parts of the German Central Uplands: the Weser Uplands and the Harz mountains. Between these two lie the Lower Saxon Hills, a range of low ridges. Thus, Lower Saxony is the only Bundesland that encompasses both mountainous areas. Lower Saxony's major cities and economic centres are situated in its central and southern parts, namely Hanover, Osnabrück, Salzgitter, Göttingen. Oldenburg, near the northwestern coastline, is another economic centre; the region in the northeast is called the Lüneburg Heath, the largest heathland area of Germany and in medieval times wealthy due to salt mining and salt trade, as well as to a lesser degree the exploitation of its peat bogs until about the 1960s.
To the north, the Elbe River separates Lower Saxony from Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Brandenburg. The banks just south of the Elbe are known as Altes Land. Due to its gentle local climate and fertile soil, it is the state's largest area of fruit farming, its chief produce being apples. Most of the state's territory was part of the historic Kingdom of Hanover, it was created by the merger of the State of Hanover with three smaller states on 1 November 1946. Lower Saxony has a natural boundary in the north in the North Sea and the lower and middle reaches of the River Elbe, although parts of the city of Hamburg lie south of the Elbe; the state and city of Bremen is an enclave surrounded by Lower Saxony. The Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region is a cooperative body for the enclave area. To the southeast, the state border runs through the Harz, low mountains that are part of the German Central Uplands; the northeast and west of the state, which form three-quarters of its land area, belong to the North German Plain, while the south is in the Lower Saxon Hills, including the Weser Uplands, Leine Uplands, Schaumburg Land, Brunswick Land, Untereichsfeld and Lappwald.
In northeast, Lower Saxony is Lüneburg Heath. The heath is dominated by the poor, sandy soils of the geest, whilst in the central east and southeast in the loess börde zone, productive soils with high natural fertility occur. Under these conditions—with loam and sand-containing soils—the land is well-developed agriculturally. In the west lie the County of Bentheim, Osnabrück Land, Oldenburg Land, Oldenburg Münsterland, on the coast East Frisia; the state is dominated by several large rivers running northwards through the state: the Ems, Weser and Elbe. The highest mountain in Lower Saxony is the Wurmberg in the Harz. For other significant elevations see: List of hills in Lower Saxony. Most of the mountains and hills are found in the southeastern part of the state; the lowest point in the state, at about 2.5 m below sea level, is a depression near Freepsum in East Frisia. The state's economy and infrastructure are centred on the cities and towns of Hanover, Celle, Wolfsburg and Salzgitter. Together with Göttingen in southern Lower Saxony, they form the core of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region.
Lower Saxony has clear regional divisions that manifest themselves geographically, as well as and culturally. In the regions that used to be independent the heartlands of the former states of Brunswick, Hanover and Schaumburg-Lippe, a marked local regional awareness exists. By contrast, the areas surrounding the Hanseatic cities of Bremen and Hamburg are much more oriented towards those centres. Sometimes and transition areas happen between the various regions of Lower Saxony. Several of the regions listed here are part of other, larger regions, that are included in the list. Just under 20% of the land area of Lower Saxony is designated as nature parks, i.e.: Dümmer, Elbhöhen-Wendland, Elm-Lappwald, Harz, Lüneburger Heide, Münden, Terra.vita, Solling-Vogler, Lake Steinhude, Südheide, Weser Uplands, Wildeshausen Geest, Bourtanger Moor-Bargerveen. L