Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players, its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators. In rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing team's goal line; the opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball. In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. Kicks at goal may be awarded for penalties, field goals can be attempted at any time. Rugby league is the national sport of Papua New Guinea, is a popular sport in Northern England, the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, South Auckland in New Zealand, southwest France and Lebanon.
The Super League and the National Rugby League are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European and Pacific Island countries, is governed by the Rugby League International Federation; the first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in 1954. Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908; the first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union. Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules immediately, thus creating a new faster, stronger paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules.
In 1922, the Northern Union changed its name to the Rugby Football League and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football. In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union. Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams had more working class players who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle. In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.
In 1897, the line-out was in 1898 professionalism introduced. In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. A similar schism to that which occurred in England took place in Australia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street. Rugby league went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland. On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code. In 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed; this was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
1967 saw. The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer; the media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed; the NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures.
The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries and field goals than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declar
The Liverpool Plains are an extensive agricultural area covering about 12,000 km2 of the north-western slopes of New South Wales in Australia. These plains are a region of prime agricultural land bounded to the east by the Great Dividing Range, to the south by the Liverpool Range and on the west by the Warrumbungle Range; the area is drained by its tributaries, the Mooki River and the Peel River. There are many depressions, across the plains, which remain as lakes for long periods after heavy rain; these plains are unusual in that many steep hills arise from the plains. Towns in the Liverpool Plains include Gunnedah, Quirindi, Werris Creek and Tamworth. Smaller villages include Breeza, Carroll and Willow Tree. Most of the region nowadays comes under the jurisdiction of Liverpool Plains Shire Council; however substantial parts of the region form part of the Gunnedah and Tamworth local government areas. The Liverpool Plains were inhabited by Aborigines. In the 19th century they were Gamilaraay. John Oxley was the first European to visit the area while exploring the Macquarie River area in 1818.
The Plains were subsequently named after the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, the Earl of Liverpool. Nowlands Gap, a pass over the Liverpool Range, was discovered by William Nowland and has been described as the gateway to the Liverpool Plains. In the early 1830s, Henry Dangar surveyed and explored the area and made land claims in the name of the Australian Agricultural Company. In 1838, 28–30 Aboriginal Australians were murdered by a group of convicts. During the 1860s Captain Thunderbolt and two accomplices robbed inns and mail-coaches in the Liverpool Plains district; the Liverpool Plains area is typical of temperate woodland regions in south-east Australia. It has an elevation of 270 metres above sea level. Most of the 620 mm of rainfall the area experiences each year is high intensity and occurs in the warmer months, from October through March. Rivers run from the Liverpool Ranges in the south-east to the Namoi River valley in the north-east, where elevation falls to 264 metres above sea level.
Soils in the area have a high fertility rating and store a lot of water. They at risk of erosion when cultivated. Agricultural settlement of the Liverpool Plains started in the late 1820s after the pass was discovered and since it has been one of the prime agricultural regions of New South Wales; the major land uses of the Liverpool Plains are grazing. The main crops include barley, faba beans, sunflowers, maize and cotton while grazing comprises beef cattle and sheep for prime lambs; the more fertile alluvial soils have been cleared, while larger areas of remnant vegetation remain on poorer sandy and ridgetop soils. The Liverpool Plains are under threat by the NSW & Australian Governments pushing approval for the Shenhua Watermark coal mine proposed by Chinese mining giant Shenhua Group; the mine was given approval 15 out of a 17-stage approval process by Federal Environment Minister Greg Hunt on 9 July 2015, will utilise 771 hectares of mine owned land in the region. Agriculture in Australia BibliographyCameron, John I..
"Chapter 2: Case Study 1: Cropping on the Northern Slopes of New South Wales". In Cameron, John I.. Recovering Ground: A Case Study Approach to Ecologically Sustainable Rural Land Management. Melbourne: Australian Conservation Foundation. Pp. 30–58. ISBN 0-85802-092-0. 68 Threatened Species found in the Liverpool Plains
Census in Australia
The census in Australia, or the Census of Population and Housing, collects key characteristic data on every person in Australia, the place they are staying in, on a particular night. The census is the largest statistical collection compiled by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and is held every five years. Participation in the census is compulsory; the Australian Bureau of Statistics is legislated to collect and disseminate census data under the Australian Bureau of Statistics Act 1975, the Census and Statistics Act 1905. The first Australian census was held in 1911, on the night of 2 April and subsequent censuses were held in 1921, 1933, 1947, 1954 and 1961. In 1961 the five-year period was introduced. Censuses are held on the second Tuesday of August; the most recent was held on 9 August 2016 at a cost of $440 million. The census counts all people who are located within Australia and its external and internal territories, with the exception of foreign diplomats and their families, on census night.
For the first time, in 2016 Norfolk Island was included in the Australian census rather than being conducted by the Norfolk Island Government. The census examines data such as age, incomes, dwelling types and occupancy, transportation modes, languages spoken, religion; the census is collected and published against geographic areas defined by the Australian Standard Geographical Classification. The ASGC provides a set of geographic classifications for the dissemination of all ABS statistics. In 2007 the ABS published; the primary aim of mesh blocks is to provide a building block for constructing alternative and more relevant geographies. Only data on total persons and total dwellings is released at the mesh block level. Mesh blocks will form the basis of a new statistical geography, the Australian Statistical Geography Standard; the traditional concept of a Collection District is that it was the area that one census collector can cover in about a ten-day period. In the 2001 census, collectors may be allocated more than one urban collection district because of their size.
In urban areas collection districts average about 220 dwellings. In rural areas the number of dwellings per collection district reduces as population densities decrease. For the 2016 census there were 358,122'mesh blocks' and 57,523 spatial Statistical Area Level 1 regions defined throughout Australia; the Census and Statistics Act 1905 and Privacy Act 1988 guarantee that no personally-identifiable information is released from the ABS to other government organisations, or the public. However the ABS makes confidential census data available to researchers, who must make various legal commitments before being given access. In the 1970s there was public debate about the census. In 1979 the Law Reform Commission reported on the Census. One of the key elements under question was the inclusion of names, it was found. On 18 December 2015, the ABS announced that it will retain name and address data collected in the 2016 census for up to four years; this was an increase from 18 months in the 2011 censuses.
From 1971 to 1996 the ABS had a policy of destruction of the original census forms and their electronic representations, as well as field records. Prior to that it appears there was no explicit policy of destruction, but most material had been destroyed because of lack of storage facilities; however the 2001 census offered, for the first time, an option to have personal data archived by the National Archives of Australia and released to the public 99 years and in 2001 54% of Australians agreed to do so. Indigenous Australians in contact with the colonists were enumerated at many of the colonial censuses; when the Federation of Australia occurred in 1901, the new Constitution contained a provision, which said: "In reckoning the numbers of the people of the Commonwealth, or of a State or other part of the Commonwealth, aboriginal natives shall not be counted." In 1967, a referendum was held which approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to indigenous Australians. The second of the two amendments deleted Section 127 from the Constitution.
It was believed at the time of the referendum, is still said, that Section 127 meant that aboriginal people were not counted in Commonwealth censuses before 1967. In fact section 127 related to calculating the population of the states and territories for the purpose of allocating seats in Parliament and per capita Commonwealth grants, its purpose was to prevent Queensland and Western Australia using their large aboriginal populations to gain extra seats or extra funds. Thus the Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics interpreted Section 127 as meaning that they may enumerate "aboriginal natives" but that they must be excluded from published tabulations of population. Aboriginal people living in settled areas were counted to a greater or lesser extent in all censuses before 1967; the first Commonwealth Statistician, George Handley Knibbs, obtained a legal opinion that "persons of the half blood" or less are not "aboriginal natives" for the purposes of the Constitution. At the first Australian census in 1911 only those "aboriginal natives" living near white settlements were enumerated, the main population tables included only those of half or less aboriginal descent.
Details of "half-caste" (but not "ful
John Whitton, an Anglo–Australian railway engineer, was the Engineer-in-Charge for the New South Wales Government Railways, serving between 1856 and 1890, considered the Father of New South Wales Railways. Under his supervision, it is estimated that 2,171 miles of railway around New South Wales and Victoria were completed. Whitton was responsible for the construction of parts of the Main Western railway line, in particular the section over the Blue Mountains and the Lithgow Zig Zag, much of the Main Southern railway line. Indentured in England, Whitton gained extensive railway engineering experience prior to his arrival in the Colony of New South Wales in 1856, he was engineer for the Manchester and Lincoln railway line, supervised the building of the Oxford and Wolverhampton line from 1852 to 1856. Appointed in March 1856 as Engineer-in-Charge, Whitton arrived in Sydney and found the Colony with 23 miles of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge railway, four locomotives, 12 passenger carriages and 40 trucks.
An advocate of the 5 ft 3 in broad gauge adopted by the South Australian and Victorian Railways, Whitton set about extending the railway into the city and resisted pushes for 4,000 miles of cheaper, light tramways, such as horse drawn lines with wooden rails, proposed by Governor William Denison. Whitton opposed the government's uncritical acceptance of the lowest tenders for railway construction. Whitton did however introduce cheaper so-called pioneer lines for use in easier terrain once the mountains had been crossed. Money was saved by building for lower speeds and the lighest of axleloads, with ash ballast, no fencing, etc; these pioneer lines retained the same gauge as the main system. Whitton was accused of fraud, along with his brother-in-law, Sir John Fowler, the charges were proved groundless. Following a select committee on railway extension that recommended the construction of cheap narrow-gauge railways, necessitating a break of gauge within the Colony, as well as at the border. Whitton overcame the engineering problems and in 1876 completed the Blue Mountains line that included two zigzags.
In 1880-85 the unprecedented growth in railways, 1,000 miles of new track and nine million more passengers, exposed existing inadequacies in administration of railways. A royal commission into railway bridges exonerated Whitton of the charges of faulty design and of using inferior materials. In 1888 Henry Parkes's Government Railways Act reorganized the department and made Whitton's position easier. In 1886 and 1887 Whitton submitted drawings for a proposed suspension bridge across Sydney Harbour from Dawes Point Battery to Milson's Point. On 1 May 1889 the Hawkesbury River Railway Bridge was opened, he was a member of the Hunter River floods commission 1869-70, the Sydney and Suburban Sewage and Health Board 1875-77, the Board for Opening Tenders for Public Works 1875-87. Granted a year's leave on 29 May 1889, Whitton retired on 31 May 1890 with a pension of £675, visited England in 1892, he had supervised the laying of 2,171 miles of track on which no accident had occurred attributable to defective design or construction.
Parkes regarded him as'a man of such rigid and unswerving integrity, a man of such vast grasp, that however his faults may project themselves into prominence, it would be difficult to replace him by a man of equal qualifications'. In international references Whitton is recognised as one of twenty of the greatest railway civil engineers in the first century of world railway construction. Whitton was survived by his wife, one son and two daughters, he died of cardiac disease on 20 February 1898 at Mittagong, was buried in the cemetery of St Thomas' Anglican Church, North Sydney, his estate was valued for probate at £10,396. Whitton's works in both New South Wales and Victoria are extensive and include railway stations, railway bridges, railway yards, other infrastructure where he has designed projects and/or they have completed under supervision. 25 items of his work are listed on the NSW Heritage Register as significant under the Heritage Act, 1977. An additional 37 other works are listed as significant in various local government areas.
The town of Whitton in Leeton Shire, where the Hay extension of the Great Southern Line reached in 1881, is named in honour. Whitton Park in Glenbrook and the May 1980 built John Whitton Bridge that carries the Main Northern line over the Parramatta River bear his name; the bridge at Meadowbank stands next to an earlier iron lattice railway bridge, constructed under his direction. A memorial dedicated to Whitton is located on the Lapstone Zig Zag walking trail and commemorates his substantial seven-span, sandstone Lapstone Knapsack Viaduct. A plaque bearing his contribution to New South Wales Railways was unveiled on 17 July 1985 at Central station, together with a bust on Chalmers Street, adjacent to the station. In 2009 a rail activist group proposed the establishment of the Whitton Line, running from Port Macquarie to Albury via Narrabri and Griffith. Works of John Whitton Lee, Robert. "John Whitton: Engineer-in-Chief to the New South Wales Government Railways. Short history. Zig Zag Railway.
Retrieved 27 March 2012
Tamworth, New South Wales
Tamworth is a city and the major regional centre in the New England region of northern New South Wales, Australia. Situated on the Peel River within the local government area of Tamworth Regional Council, about 318 km from the Queensland border, it is located midway between Brisbane and Sydney. According to the 2016 Census, the city had a population around 60,000; the Kamilaroi people are the traditional custodians of Tamworth. The city is known as the "First Town of Lights", being the first place in Australia to use electric street lights in 1888. Tamworth is famous as the "Country Music Capital of Australia", annually hosting the Tamworth Country Music Festival in late January; the city is recognised as the National Equine Capital of Australia because of the high number of equine events held in the city and the construction of the world-class Australian Equine and Livestock Events Centre, the biggest of its kind in the Southern Hemisphere. The Kamilaroi people, from whose language comes the word "budgerigar", inhabited the area before European contact.
In 1818, John Oxley passed through the Peel Valley and commented, "it would be impossible to find a finer or more luxuriant country than its waters... No place in this world can afford more advantages to the industrious settler than this extensive vale". In 1831, the first sheep stations and cattle stations were formed, in the same year, the Australian Agricultural Company was granted a lease of 127,000 hectares of land at Goonoo Goonoo, south of the present location of Tamworth, extending to present-day Calala. In the 1830s, a company town began to develop on the Peel's southwest bank, the present site of West Tamworth. In 1850, a public town was gazetted on the opposite side of the river from the existing settlement; this town became the main town, called "Tamworth" after Tamworth, represented at the time in parliament by Robert Peel. The town prospered, was reached by the railway in 1878; the first streetlights used in Australia were commercially owned in Waratah Tasmania in 1886, but on 9 November 1888, Tamworth became the first location in Australia to have electric street lighting powered by a municipally owned power station, giving the town the title of "First Town of Light".
1818 – Explorer John Oxley passes through the area on his exploration mission. Names the river that now runs through the town: Peel River, after British Prime Minister Robert Peel. 1831 – First sheep and cattle stations, namely Joseph Brown's'Wallamoul' and William Dangar's'Waldoo'. The exploring expedition led by Major Mitchell visited'Wallamoul' in December 1831 on its way to the north-west. 1834 – 6000 sheep of the Australian Agriculture Company were the first to be brought to the Tamworth region. 1851 – The white population of the village of Tamworth was 254. 1852 – John Barnes built the Royal Oak Hotel. 1861 – Population 654. 1866 – Tamworth Mechanics' Institute opened. 1882 - Tamworth railway station opened. 1883 - Tamworth base hospital opened. 1888 – Power station opened and enables beginning of electric street lighting. The first electric streetlights in Australia. 1918 – An anchor is unveiled as a memorial to the discovery of Tamworth district. 1946 – Proclaimed a town. 1947 – East-West Airlines was established in Tamworth, flying Tamworth to Sydney.
1947 – Institution for Boys home for criminal youth opened. 1973 – The first Australasian Country Music Festival was hosted in Tamworth by radio station 2TM, which has led to the extraordinary success of the Tamworth Country Music Festival, held every year in Summer, at the end of January, a celebration that runs continuously for 11 days. 1988 – A country music icon, the 12 m tall Golden Guitar is erected as a symbol of the town's country music roots. 1990s – The Local Council embarks on a successful campaign of urban and streetscape renewal, including the greening of Peel Street. 1999 – Tamworth Regional Entertainment Centre is opened. 2004 – A new local government area, Tamworth Regional Council, is formed from Tamworth town, Manilla Shire and parts of Parry and Barraba Shires. 2006 – In December the Tamworth Regional Council voted 6 to 3 against an offer from the Federal Government to take part in a one-year trial rural refugee resettlement programme. Mayor of Tamworth, Cr James Treloar, argued that the refugees being resettled were tuberculous and criminal.
The decision resulted in international media attention on the town. The public outrage unleashed by his comments and the summary decision to reject the refugees forced a reversal of the bill one month and Tamworth will now take part in the resettling program. 2008 – The Australian Equine and Livestock Events Centre is opened in September. 2016 – Tamworth hosts the annual town vs Country Origin match. It was held at Scully Park Regional Sporting Precinct Tamworth is located on the western side of the Great Dividing Range, on the banks of the Peel River, about 420 km north of Sydney on the New England Highway, 280 km inland from Port Macquarie on the Oxley Highway; the town is situated at a narrow point on the Peel River floodplain, nestled at the base of the Wentworth Mounds, a spur of the Moonbi Range, where the Northwest Slopes rise to the Northern Tablelands. The elevation is around 400 m AHD; the Peel River runs southeast to northwest through Tamworth. The main town centre is on the northeast bank, between the river and the Wentworth Mounds, which rise to heights of 800 m, towering over the town.
The southwest bank is much flatter, the town's suburbs sprawl to the south. Water for residents and the town's industry is supplied by Chaffey Dam, 44 km south
Forster, New South Wales
Forster is a coastal town in the Mid North Coast region of New South Wales, Australia, in the Mid-Coast Council LGA, about 308 km north-north-east of Sydney. It is adjacent to its twin, the smaller of the two towns. Forster is known for its stunning waters & Manning Valley beauty. At the 2016 census, the Forster-Tuncurry area had a population of 19,918 people, while the permanent population of Forster alone was 13,740. Forster is named after William Forster, the 2nd Premier of New South Wales and who served as Agent-General in London; the first post office in Forster opened on 1 October 1872, with John Wyllie Breckenridge as postmaster at a salary of £10 a year. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 13,740 people in Forster. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 5.8% of the population. 82.0% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 3.4% and New Zealand 1.1%. 89.8% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were Anglican 28.4%, No Religion 23.4% and Catholic 22.3%.
Because of its close proximity to Sydney, just under 4 hours drive, Forster-Tuncurry has established itself as a popular summer holiday destination. Due to this most of its shops and restaurants work on seasonal income, with some opening in the Summer months exclusively; the school holidays in the colder months bring a considerable number of holidaymakers. Forster-Tuncurry is predominantly a family holiday location with large lakes and white sandy beaches. Notable nearby attractions the Bicentennial Trail, Cape Hawke, Booti Booti National Park; the most popular beaches are Forster Main Beach and One Mile Beach, serviced by Forster and Cape Hawke Surf Lifesaving Clubs respectively. Pebbly Beach is popular with local surfers; the small Forster SLSC achieved national recognition in 1996 when their under-18 beach sprint relay team won gold at the Australian Championships. Forster has a range of sporting clubs in the area. Forster Bodyboarding Club - "Forster Bodyboarding Club". Cape Hawke Surf Club - "Cape Hawke Surf Club".
Pacific Palms Surf Life Saving Club - "Pacific Palms Surf Life Saving Club". Black Head Surf Life Saving Club - "Black Head Surf Life Saving Club". Great Lakes United Football Club - "Great Lakes United Football Club". Forster-Tuncurry Visitor Guide - www. Forster.com.au
Braefield, New South Wales
Braefield is a locality on the Main North railway line and Kamilaroi Highway in northern New South Wales, Australia. The station opened in 1878, no trace now remains. Media related to Braefield, New South Wales at Wikimedia Commons