Vieri Tosatti was an Italian composer. He is best known for his operas, among them Il sistema della dolcezza, after Edgar Allan Poe's "The System of Doctor Tarr and Professor Fether", Partita a pugni, about a boxing match, his output includes chamber music, as well as some symphonic and choral works. He studied at the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia under Ildebrando Pizzetti. Obituary in the Corriere della sera Biography and Catalog Biography at Treccani.it
José Plácido Domingo Embil is a Spanish opera singer and arts administrator. He has recorded over a hundred complete operas and is well known for his versatility performing in Italian, German, Spanish and Russian in the most prestigious opera houses in the world. Although a lirico-spinto tenor for most of his career popular for his Cavaradossi, Don José, Canio, he moved into more dramatic roles, becoming the most acclaimed Otello of his generation. In the early 2010s, he transitioned from the tenor repertory into exclusively baritone parts, most notably Simon Boccanegra, he has performed 149 different roles. Domingo has achieved significant success as a crossover artist in the genres of Latin and popular music. In addition to winning fourteen Grammy and Latin Grammy Awards, several of his records have gone silver, gold and multi-platinum, his first pop album, Perhaps Love, spread his fame beyond the opera world. The title song, performed as a duet with country and folk singer John Denver, has sold four million copies and helped lead to numerous television appearances for the tenor.
He starred in many cinematically released and televised opera movies under the direction of Franco Zeffirelli. In 1990, he began singing with fellow tenors Luciano Pavarotti and José Carreras as part of The Three Tenors; the first Three Tenors recording became the best-selling classical album of all time. Growing up working in his parents' zarzuela company in Mexico, Domingo has since promoted this form of Spanish opera, he increasingly conducts operas and concerts and is the general director of the Los Angeles Opera in California as of 2017. He was the artistic director and general director of the Washington National Opera from 1996–2011, he has been involved in numerous humanitarian works, as well as efforts to help young opera singers, including starting and running the international singing competition, Operalia. Plácido Domingo was born on 21 January 1941 in the Retiro district of Spain, his mother recalled that she and her husband knew he would be a musician from the age of five, due to his ability to hum complex music from a zarzuela after seeing a performance of it.
In 1949, just days before his eighth birthday, he moved to Mexico with his family. His parents, both singers, had decided to start a zarzuela company there after a successful tour of Latin America. Soon after arriving in Mexico, Domingo won a singing contest for boys, his parents recruited him and his sister for children's roles in their zarzuela productions. Domingo studied piano from a young age, at first and at the National Conservatory of Music in Mexico City, which he entered when he was fourteen. At the conservatory, he attended conducting classes taught by Igor Markevitch and studied voice under Carlo Morelli, the brother of Renato Zanelli; the two brothers were famous practitioners of both tenor roles. Domingo's conservatory classes constituted the entirety of his formal vocal instruction. In 1957, at age sixteen, Domingo made his first professional appearance, accompanying his mother on the piano at a concert at Mérida, Yucatán; the same year he made his major zarzuela debut in Manuel Fernández Caballero's Gigantes y cabezudos, singing a baritone role.
At that time, he was working with his parents' zarzuela company taking several baritone roles and acting as an accompanist for other singers. The following year, the tenor in another company's touring production of Luisa Fernanda fell ill. In his first performance as a tenor, Domingo replaced the ailing singer, although he feared the part's tessitura was too high for him; that same year, he sang the tenor role of Rafael in the Spanish opera El gato montés, illustrating his willingness to assay the tenor range as he still considered himself a baritone. On 12 May 1959 at the Teatro Degollado in Guadalajara, he appeared in the baritone role of Pascual in Emilio Arrieta's Marina. Like El gato montés, Marina is an opera composed in the zarzuela musical style rather than a zarzuela proper, although both are performed by zarzuela companies. In addition to his work with zarzuelas, among his earliest performances was a minor role in the first Latin American production of the musical My Fair Lady, in which he was the assistant conductor and assistant coach.
While he was a member, the company gave 185 performances of the musical in various cities in Mexico. In 1959, Domingo auditioned for the Mexico National Opera at the Palacio de Béllas Artes as a baritone, but was asked to sight-read the tenor aria "Amor ti vieta" from Fedora, he was accepted at the National Opera as a tutor for other singers. In what he considered his operatic debut, Domingo sang the minor role of Borsa in Verdi's Rigoletto on September 23 at the Palacio de Bellas Artes in a production with veteran American baritones Cornell MacNeil and Norman Treigle, he appeared as the Padre Confessor in Dialogues of the Carmelites and Pang in Turandot and Arturo in Lucia di Lammermoor among other small parts. While at the National Opera, he appeared in a production of Lehár's operetta, The Merry Widow, in which he alternated as Camille and Danilo. Domingo made his debut in Verdi's Otello at Béllas Artes at age 21 in the summer of 1962 not in the title rôle for which he has now been internationally famous for decades as one of its greatest interpreters, but in the small compri
Paata Burchuladze is a Georgian operatic bass and civil activist. After his debut in his native Tbilisi in 1976, he embarked on a 35-year-long musical career during which he made appearances at leading opera houses across Europe and the United States. Through his foundation, he became involved in children charity in Georgia in 2004. From May to December 2016, Burchuladze entered politics of Georgia, founding the political party State for the People to challenge the incumbent Georgian Dream coalition government in the scheduled October 2016 parliamentary election, in which the party failed to win any seat in the legislature. Since July 2017, Burchuladze has been leading the opera division of Moscow's Mikhailovsky Theatre, one of Russia's oldest opera and ballet houses. Born in Tbilisi, the capital of then-Soviet Georgia, he graduated from the Tbilisi State Conservatoire and continued his studies at the Bolshoi school, he made a student debut in Tbilisi in 1976 and took part in several singing competitions, including at the Bolshoi in Moscow, where he sang in Boris Godunov.
Early in his career, Burchuladze sang Leporello, Prince Gremin, King Rene for the Tbilisi Opera House. Burchuladze was further trained in Milan from 1978 to 1981 and sang Banquo, Pagano and Zaccaria at La Scala. During his career, which spanned more than three decades, Burchuladze made appearances across the world's leading opera houses, he debuted at the Covent Garden in 1984 as Ramfis and appeared as Don Basilio, Khan Konchak, Boris Godunov, the Inquisitor. His United States debut was in 1987, as Boris, he sang Basilio and the Commendatore at the Metropolitan. His other notable roles are Silva, Philip II, Boito's Mefistofele, Dosifey, he made several recordings. According to the musicologist Elizabeth Forbes, Burchuladze's "magnificent dark-toned voice and imposing stature are ideal for both the Russian repertory and Giuseppe Verdi's bass roles", he has been described by classical music critics as acting "sly, gravelly", being "imposing", "wonderfully menacing". Burchuladze announced he was leaving music to focus on his new political role in May 2016.
Burchuladze set up the charity foundation Iavnana in January 2004 and through it organized dozens of concerts and events to support vulnerable children and families in Georgia. He was the United Nations Goodwill Ambassador in 2006 and UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador in Georgia in 2010. In November 2015, Burchuladze established the Georgian Development Foundation, a civic movement, expected to turn into a political party ahead of the scheduled October 2016 parliamentary election. Burchuladze emphasized that his new organization was not a political party and described it as a pro-democracy and pro-Western advocacy group, he set up offices in Washington and Los Angeles with the declared aim to raise awareness of Georgia in the United States, whose help, according to Burchuladze, was essential in reducing threats coming from Russia. A March 2016 opinion poll commissioned by the International Republican Institute showed Burchuladze's Georgian Development Foundation as being not too far behind from the ruling Georgian Dream coalition and the main opposition United National Movement, garnering 12%, 19%, 18%, respectively.
On 12 May 2016, Burchuladze announced the foundation of a new political organization, State for the People, his intention to take part in the upcoming parliamentary election. Two months after the party's failure in the election, in December 2016, Burchuladze announced his withdrawal from politics and return to opera. In July 2017, Burchuladze became the director of the opera division of the Moscow-based Mikhailovsky Theater, one of Russia's oldest opera and ballet houses. People's Artist – Georgia, 1985 Shota Rustaveli State Prize – Georgia, 1991 Order of Honor – Georgia, 1997, 2003 Kammersänger – Staatsoper Stuttgart, 1998 Honorary Citizen of Tbilisi – Tbilisi City Hall, 2001 Presidential Order of Excellence – Georgia, 2010 Order of the Star of Italy – Italy, 2010 Golden Order of St. George – Patriarchate of the Georgian Orthodox Church, 2010 Cross of Honour for Science and Art 1st Class – Austria, 2014 Singing the role of the Russian Orthodox Priest Dosefei in KHOVANSHCHINA
May Uprising in Dresden
The May Uprising took place in Dresden, Kingdom of Saxony in 1849. In the German states, revolutions began in March 1848, starting in Berlin and spreading across the other states which now make up Germany; the heart of the revolutions was in Frankfurt, where the newly formed National Assembly, the Frankfurt Parliament, met in St Paul's Church from May 1848, calling for a constitutional monarchy to rule a new, united German nation. To form the Assembly, near-democratic elections had taken place across the German states. On 28 March 1849 the Assembly passed the first Reichsverfassung for Germany, in April 1849, Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia was offered the crown. Despite its apparent progress, the National Assembly depended upon the co-operation of the old leaders and Emperor. Movements sprang up across the German states to force through the new constitution but the National Assembly disintegrated. In Saxony, Frederick Augustus II had never recognised the constitution, now disbanded the Saxon parliament.
In Württemberg the more radical elements of the National Assembly formed a rump parliament in Stuttgart, defeated by Prussian troops. At the same time, the people of Saxony began to react to the repression of the democratic movement — the May Uprising began. At first the Saxon town councillors attempted to persuade Frederick Augustus II to accept the constitution in public speeches; the municipal guards who should have controlled them were on their side and made an address to the King calling for acceptance of the constitution. The King was unyielding and called them to order; this led to further unrest. On 3 May 1849, the municipal guards were told to go home, but the town councillors organised them into defensive units to stop expected Prussian intervention; as the people's anger grew, the government withdrew into the castle and the armoury, protected by Saxon troops. The municipal guards were undecided whether or not to support the people, who threatened to use explosives to get the government out.
In response the Saxon troops fired on the crowd. Within hours the town was with 108 barricades erected. In the early hours of 4 May 1849, the king and his ministers managed to escape and fled to the fortress of Königstein. Three members of the dissolved Democratic parliament now became the leaders of the revolution: Samuel Erdmann Tzschirner, Karl Gotthelf Todt and Otto Leonhard Heubner formed a provisional government, their aim was to force the acceptance of the constitution. Tzschirner called in another member, Alexander Heinze, to organise fighting and bring in more communal guards and volunteers from outside Dresden. Reinforcements joined the revolutionaries from as far away as Chemnitz and Marienberg, the struggle grew violent; the Saxon troops were backed up by arriving Prussian soldiers. They planned to encircle the rebels and corner them on the Altmarkt, but the number of barricades meant they had to fight for every street in the houses. Recent studies place the number of revolutionaries at around 3,000, compared with 5,000 government troops from Saxony and Prussia.
Apart from being outnumbered, the rebels were untrained in battle and lacked weapons, so they stood little chance of success. On 9 May the majority were forced to flee. Most of the others gave up, the rest were tracked down to the Frauenkirche and arrested. Before the events of May 1849, Dresden was known as a cultural centre for liberals and democrats; the Saxon government accused Bakunin of being the revolutionaries' ringleader, although this is unlikely to have been the case. Röckel published the popular democratic newspaper Volksblätter. Richard Wagner the composer, at the time Royal Saxon Court Conductor, had been inspired by the revolutionary spirit since 1848 and was befriended by Röckel and Bakunin, he wrote passionate articles in the Volksblätter inciting people to revolt, when fighting broke out he took a active part in it, making hand grenades and standing as a look out at the top of the Kreuzkirche. The architect Gottfried Semper was until 1849 less politically active, but had made known his democratic beliefs and felt compelled to stand up for them taking a lead role on the barricades.
Others on the barricades included Gustav Zeuner, Ludwig Wittig. The struggle left some Dresden buildings in ruins: the old Opera, two sides of the Zwinger and six houses were burned down; the number of dead rebels is uncertain but in 1995 the figure was estimated at around 200. The Saxon government arrested Bakunin and Röckel in Chemnitz, but Tzschirner and Todt escaped. Todt died early in his Swiss exile at Rießbach in 1852. Semper and Wagner were on the government's wanted list, but escaped, to Zürich, where Wagner remained. From 1849 the German states saw a sharp rise in emigration as thousands deserted their homeland for political reasons, many of them artists and other well-educated, prominent members of society; the revolution had a slight effect on the political system, in that the nobility lost some of its power in the lower house, but otherwise was a complete fail
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich; the municipality has 409,000 inhabitants, the urban agglomeration 1.315 million and the Zürich metropolitan area 1.83 million. Zürich is a hub for railways and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport and railway station are the busiest in the country. Permanently settled for over 2,000 years, Zürich was founded by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum. However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6,400 years ago. During the Middle Ages, Zürich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli; the official language of Zürich is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Zürich German. Many museums and art galleries can be found in the city, including the Swiss National Museum and the Kunsthaus.
Schauspielhaus Zürich is one of the most important theatres in the German-speaking world. Zürich is a leading global city and among the world's largest financial centres despite having a small population; the city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking companies. Most of Switzerland's research and development centres are concentrated in Zürich and the low tax rates attract overseas companies to set up their headquarters there. Monocle's 2012 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Zürich first on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within". According to several surveys from 2006 to 2008, Zürich was named the city with the best quality of life in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe in terms of GDP per capita; the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking sees Zürich rank among the top ten most liveable cities in the world. In German, the city name is written Zürich, pronounced in Swiss Standard German. In Zürich German, the local dialect of Swiss German, the name is pronounced without the final consonant, as Züri, although the adjective remains Zürcher.
The city is called Zurich in French, Zurigo in Italian, Turitg in Romansh. In English, the name used to be written without the umlaut. So, standard English practice for German calques is to either preserve the umlaut or replace it with the base letter followed by e, it is pronounced ZEWR-ik, more sometimes with /ts/, as in German. The earliest known form of the city's name is Turicum, attested on a tombstone of the late 2nd century AD in the form STA TURICEN; the name is interpreted as a derivation from a given name Gaulish personal name Tūros, for a reconstructed native form of the toponym of *Turīcon. The Latin stress on the long vowel of the Gaulish name, was lost in German but is preserved in Italian and in Romansh; the first development towards its Germanic form is attested as early as the 6th century with the form Ziurichi. From the 9th century onward, the name is established in an Old High German form Zurih. In the early modern period, the name became associated with the name of the Tigurini, the name Tigurum rather than the historical Turicum is sometimes encountered in Modern Latin contexts.
Settlements of the Neolithic and Bronze Age were found around Lake Zürich. Traces of pre-Roman Celtic, La Tène settlements were discovered near the Lindenhof, a morainic hill dominating the SE - NW waterway constituted by Lake Zurich and the river Limmat. In Roman times, during the conquest of the alpine region in 15 BC, the Romans built a castellum on the Lindenhof. Here was erected Turicum, a tax-collecting point for goods trafficked on the Limmat, which constituted part of the border between Gallia Belgica and Raetia: this customs point developed into a vicus. After Emperor Constantine's reforms in AD 318, the border between Gaul and Italy was located east of Turicum, crossing the river Linth between Lake Walen and Lake Zürich, where a castle and garrison looked over Turicum's safety; the earliest written record of the town dates from the 2nd century, with a tombstone referring to it as to the Statio Turicensis Quadragesima Galliarum, discovered at the Lindenhof. In the 5th century, the Germanic Alemanni tribe settled in the Swiss Plateau.
The Roman castle remained standing until the 7th century. A Carolingian castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne, Louis the German, is mentioned in 835. Louis founded the Fraumünster abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard, he endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich and the Albis forest, granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority. In 1045, King Henry III granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, mint coins, thus made the abbess the ruler of the city. Zürich gained Imperial immediacy in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family and attained a status comparable to statehood. During the 1230s, a city wall was built, enclosing 38 hectares, when the earliest stone houses on the Rennweg were built as well; the Carolingian castle was used as a quarry, as it had st
Mathilde Wesendonck was a German poet and author. The words of five of her verses were the basis of her friend Richard Wagner's Wesendonck Lieder, he may have been her paramour. Agnes Mathilde Luckemeyer was born in Elberfeld in the Rhineland of Germany in 1828. In 1848 she married the silk merchant Otto Wesendonck. Otto was a great admirer of Wagner's music, after he and Mathilde met the composer in Zurich in 1852, he placed a cottage on his estate at Wagner's disposal. By 1857, Wagner had become infatuated with Mathilde, it is not known whether she returned his affections to the same degree, or if the affair - if there was one - was consummated. The episode inspired Wagner to put aside his work on Der Ring des Nibelungen and begin work on Tristan und Isolde. In 1858, Wagner’s wife Minna intercepted a romantic letter from Wagner to Mathilde. After the resulting confrontation, Wagner left Zürich alone, for Venice. Minna went to Dresden to stay with her family, she wrote to Mathilde before departing for Dresden: "I must tell you with a bleeding heart that you have succeeded in separating my husband from me after nearly twenty-two years of marriage.
May this noble deed contribute to your peace of mind, to your happiness." In her autobiographical reminiscences Mathilde wrote about Wagner's stay in Zürich, but made no mention of troubles with Minna. In 1866 Mathilde met with Johannes Brahms in Zürich and enabled him to study some of Wagner's manuscripts. Mathilde Wesendonck died in Altmünster in 1902, she is buried at the Alter Friedhof with the Wesendonck family in Bonn, Germany. Gedichte, Legenden, Sagen Märchen u. Märchen Spiele Natur-Mythen: Mai 1865 Genovefa: Trauerspiel in 3 Aufzügen Gudrun. Schauspiel in 5 Akten, online at Google Books Deutsches Kinderbuch in Wort und Bild Friedrich der Grosse: dramatische Bilder nach Franz Kugler Edith, Die Schlacht bei Hastings: ein Trauerspiel Gedichte, Legenden und Sagen Der Baldur-Mythos Odysseus: ein dramatisches Gedicht in zwei Theilen und einem Vorspiel Alte und neue Kinder-Lieder und Reime Alkestis: Schauspiel in vier Aufzügen. Mathilde Wesendonck was portrayed by Valentina Cortese in the 1955 film Magic Fire, by Marthe Keller in the 1983 film Wagner.
Her legacy as assumed lover of Richard Wagner lives on with reference to her in Rhett Miller's song Our Love from the album The Instigator. Notes SourcesMusgrave, Michael. A Brahms Reader. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300068042. Works by or about Mathilde Wesendonck in libraries
Franco Corelli was an Italian tenor who had a major international opera career between 1951 and 1976. Associated in particular with the spinto and dramatic tenor roles of the Italian repertory, he was celebrated universally for his powerhouse voice, electrifying top notes, clear timbre, passionate singing and remarkable performances. Dubbed the "prince of tenors", Corelli possessed handsome features and a charismatic stage presence which endeared him to audiences, he had a long and fruitful partnership with the Metropolitan Opera in New York City between 1961 and 1975. He appeared on the stages of most of the major opera houses in Europe and with opera companies throughout North America. Corelli was born Dario Franco Corelli in Ancona into a family many have thought to have little or no musical background. While his parents were not musical, his paternal grandfather Augusto had quit working at 35 to establish a successful career as an operatic tenor, his older brother Aldo subsequently quit school to become an operatic baritone, two of his uncles sang in the Teatro delle Muse chorus in Ancona.
His father was the family lived along the Adriatic Sea. Corelli loved the sea and decided to follow in the footsteps of his father by pursuing a degree in naval engineering at the University of Bologna. While studying there he entered a music competition under the dare of a friend, an amateur singer. While he did not win the competition, he was encouraged by the judges to pursue a singing career and Corelli entered the Pesaro Conservatory of Music to study opera. At the conservatory, Corelli studied under Rita Pavoni, but was unhappy with the results, saying these lessons destroyed his upper register. After this Corelli decided to become his own teacher, referred to voice teachers as "dangerous people" and a "plague to singers". Corelli stated that he learned part of his technique from a friend, a student of Arturo Melocchi, the voice teacher who taught Mario Del Monaco, who advocated a technique based on singing with the larynx lowered. Corelli studied with Melocchi himself only "sometimes."
Corelli modified the technique to avoid limitations that Corelli perceived in the ability of students of Melocchi to handle mezza-voce and legato singing. He studied the career of Del Monaco, who preceded Corelli into the first rank of Italian tenors using the lowered-larynx technique, and, sometimes criticized for lacking subtlety in his singing. Corelli stated: "I modified the method so that my larynx'floats'—I do not keep it lowered to the maximum at all times." Corelli learned by imitating the style and vocal effects of the recordings of great tenors like Enrico Caruso, Giacomo Lauri-Volpi, Aureliano Pertile, Beniamino Gigli. Opera News stated that Corelli's lowered-larynx technique "resulted in cavernous sound in high-flying passages, where it gained brilliance. Regulating the breath pressure, the tenor was able to reduce this sound while retaining the core of the voice in a diminuendo, or a morendo on a high B-flat, the effect requested by Verdi at the end of'Celeste Aida'." In the summer of 1951, Corelli won the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence, earning a debut at Spoleto the following fall.
He was scheduled to sing Radames in Verdi's Aïda and spent three months preparing the role with conductor Giuseppe Bertelli. However, Corelli switched to Don José in Bizet's Carmen, feeling that at this point he lacked the technical finesse and legato for the role of Radamès. In May 1952, he made his debut at the Rome Opera as Maurizio in Adriana Lecouvreur opposite Maria Caniglia as Adriana; the same year he appeared in operas with smaller opera houses throughout Italy and on the Italian radio. In 1953 he joined the Rome Opera's roster of principal tenors where he spent much of his time performing through 1958, his first role with the company in 1953 was that of Romeo in Zandonai's heard opera Giulietta e Romeo. That season he sang Pollione in Bellini's Norma opposite Maria Callas in the title role, it was the first time the two sang opposite one another and Callas became an admirer of Corelli. The two performed with each other over the next several years in a partnership that lasted to the end of Callas's career.
While singing at the Rome Opera, Corelli made numerous appearances with other opera houses both in Italy and internationally. He made his first appearance at La Scala in Milan in 1954, as Licinio in Spontini's La vestale opposite Callas's Giulia for the opening of the 1954–1955 season, he returned several more times to that house over the next five years, singing opposite Callas in productions of Fedora, Il pirata and Poliuto. He notably portrayed the role of Dick Johnson in a celebrated performance of La fanciulla del West at La Scala in 1956, opposite Gigliola Frazzoni and Tito Gobbi, broadcast live on Italian radio. Other important debuts for Corelli soon followed, including his first appearances at: the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence and the Arena di Verona Festival in 1955. Among the many triumphs of the decade for Corelli were two celebrated performances at the Teatro di San Carlo in Naples, a 1958 appearance as Don Alvaro in La forza del destino opposite Renata Tebaldi as Leonora and a 1959 performance of Maurizio in Adriana Lecouvreur opposite Magda Olivero in the title role.
During his early c