Swallow Sidecar Company
Swallow Sidecar Company, Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company, Swallow Coachbuilding Company were trading names used by Walmsley & Lyons and joint owners of a British manufacturer of motorcycle sidecars and automobile bodies in Blackpool, Lancashire — Coventry, Warwickshire — before incorporating a company to own their business which they named Swallow Coachbuilding Company Limited. Under co-founder William Lyons its business continued to prosper as SS Cars Limited and grew into Jaguar Cars Limited; the sidecar manufacturing business, by owned by a different company, Swallow Coachbuilding Company Limited, was sold by Jaguar to an aircraft maintenance firm, Helliwell Group, in January 1946. Swallow was founded by two friends, William Walmsley aged 30 and William Lyons aged 20, their partnership became official on Lyons's 21st birthday, 4 September 1922. Both families lived in the same street in England. Walmsley had been making sidecars and bolting them onto reconditioned motorcycles. Lyons had served his apprenticeship at Crossley Motors in Manchester before moving to Blackpool Sunbeam dealers, Brown & Mallalieu, as a junior salesman.
Their business partnership was known by three successive trading names: Swallow Sidecar Company, Swallow Sidecar and Coachbuilding Company, Swallow Coachbuilding Company. In 1930 a limited liability company was incorporated to own their business. Lyons, having recognised the commercial potential for these sidecars, joined Walmsley and together they found premises in Bloomfield Road, Blackpool using a £1,000 bank overdraft obtained with the assistance of their respective fathers. With a small team of employees they were able to begin commercial production of the motorcycle sidecars. Soon they had to rent more space nearby, they needed still more room. Walmsley's father bought a big building in Cocker Street Blackpool which they moved into and with all the extra space began to offer to repair and paint cars and fit new hoods and upholstery, they added coach building to their business name. The first car that Lyons and Walmsley worked on intending to build and sell it in any quantity was the Austin 7, a popular and inexpensive vehicle.
For their show car Swallow's Bolton, Lancashire agent had persuaded a dealer in Bolton to supply him under-the-counter with an Austin 7 chassis. Lyons, with a sketch of what he wanted, commissioned Cyril Holland, a coachbuilder by trade, to create a distinctive, open two seater body. Holland gave it a detachable hardtop with a characteristic back window; the result was announced to public in the Austin Seven Swallow. Austin gave their approval to the Swallow coachwork though adjustments were needed, the wings kept falling onto the tyres and the cycle type was dispensed with in favour of the more usual shape. In that form it was taken to London and shown to Henlys — Bert Henly and Frank Hough — who ordered 500 both two-seaters and saloons. Priced at only £175, the Swallow, with its brightly coloured two-tone bodywork and a style that imitated the more expensive cars of the time, proved popular in the prosperous late twenties and in the following depression. Soon after, a saloon version was produced: the Austin Seven Swallow Saloon.
During 1927 the "Sidecar" was dropped from the name, it became the Swallow Coachbuilding Company. The increasing demand for Swallows made it necessary to move the company closer to the heart of the British car industry and so, in 1928, they moved to a part-disused First World War munitions factory at Holbrook Lane, Coventry. Business continued to grow and in 1929 the owners were confident enough to go to the expense of taking a stand at the London Motor Show. Three new Swallow models appeared in 1929 on Standard and Fiat chassis. In 1929 John Black and William Lyons realised a long-standing dream and produced a one of a kind sports car, This "First" SS was a sleek Boat Tail Roadster with a flowing, streamlined design and pointed to an obvious attempt at making a fast car with the intention of venturing into racing; this car is believed to have been shipped to Australia in the late 40s. 1931 Swallow 2-door 4-seater saloon on an Austin Seven chassis Bodies on the Wolseley Hornet chassis fitted in well with Swallow's planned new product range.
They were the first 6-cylinder Swallows. Production began in January 1931 with an open 2-seater. A 4-seater car followed in that autumn. In April 1932 the new Special chassis arrived and these cars were quite popular, they were the last of the special-bodied Swallows, whose production was replaced in the summer of 1933 by their SS 1 tourer first announced in March 1933. Production:Special Hornets: 2-seaters — 21. Engines and chassis supplied by the Standard Motor Company were fitted with Swallow bodies styled under Lyons supervision; the first of the SS range of cars available to the public was the 1932 SS 1 with 2-litre or 2½-litre side-valve, six-cylinder engine and the SS 2 with a four-cylinder 1-litre side-valve engine. Available as coupé or tourer a saloon was added in 1934, when the chassis was modified to be 2 inches wider; the success of the new range brought about a number of changes. William Walmsley wished to leave this business and it was decided to replace Walmsley's capital by bringing new outside shareholders into a brand-new incorporation, S. S.
Cars Limited. The new company technically commenced business on 1 February 1934 following its incorporation 26 October 1933. Subsequently
Motorsport News is a British weekly newspaper offering news and analysis of circuit racing and other forms of motor sport. It was first published in 1955 as Motoring News, a monthly publication aimed at domestic car owners, but was bought in 1957 by Teesdale Publications and relauched as a weekly newspaper focused on motorsport, edited by Cyril Posthumus. In 1996 Teesdale Publications was acquired by Haymarket Publishing who rebranded it as Motorsport News in 2000. In 2016 the publication was sold along with other titles in Haymarket's motoring portfolio to Miami-based Motorsport Network to form Autosport Media UK Ltd. Amongst the notable motorsport journalists to work for the publication are Alan Henry and David Tremayne; the newspaper is published every Wednesday. Its offices are in Richmond in Middlesex, England
Jaguar is the luxury vehicle brand of Jaguar Land Rover, a British multinational car manufacturer with its headquarters in Whitley, England. Jaguar Cars was the company, responsible for the production of Jaguar cars until its operations were merged with those of Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover on 1 January 2013. Jaguar's business was founded as the Swallow Sidecar Company in 1922 making motorcycle sidecars before developing bodies for passenger cars. Under the ownership of S. S. Cars Limited the business extended to complete cars made in association with Standard Motor Co, many bearing Jaguar as a model name; the company's name was changed from S. S. Cars to Jaguar Cars in 1945. A merger with the British Motor Corporation followed in 1966, the resulting enlarged company now being renamed as British Motor Holdings, which in 1968 merged with Leyland Motor Corporation and became British Leyland, itself to be nationalised in 1975. Jaguar was spun off from British Leyland and was listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1984, becoming a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index until it was acquired by Ford in 1990.
Jaguar has, in recent years, manufactured cars for the British Prime Minister, the most recent delivery being an XJ in May 2010. The company holds royal warrants from Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Charles. In 1990 Ford acquired Jaguar Cars and it remained in their ownership, joined in 2000 by Land Rover, till 2008. Ford sold both Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors. Tata created Jaguar Land Rover as a subsidiary holding company. At operating company level, in 2013 Jaguar Cars was merged with Land Rover to form Jaguar Land Rover Limited as the single design, sales company and brand owner for both Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles. Since the Ford ownership era and Land Rover have used joint design facilities in engineering centres at Whitley in Coventry and Gaydon in Warwickshire and Jaguar cars have been assembled in plants at Castle Bromwich and Solihull; the Swallow Sidecar Company was founded in 1922 by two motorcycle enthusiasts, William Lyons and William Walmsley. In 1934 Walmsley elected to sell-out and in order to buy the Swallow business Lyons formed S.
S. Cars Limited, finding new capital by issuing shares to the public. Jaguar first appeared in September 1935 as a model name on an SS 2½-litre sports saloon. A matching open two seater sports model with a 3½-litre engine was named SS Jaguar 100. On 23 March 1945 the S. S. Cars shareholders in general meeting agreed to change the company's name to Jaguar Cars Limited. Said chairman William Lyons "Unlike S. S. the name Jaguar is distinctive and cannot be connected or confused with any similar foreign name."Though five years of pent-up demand ensured plenty of buyers production was hampered by shortage of materials steel, issued to manufacturers until the 1950s by a central planning authority under strict government control. Jaguar sold Motor Panels, a pressed steel body manufacturing company bought in the late 1930s, to steel and components manufacturer Rubery Owen, Jaguar bought from John Black's Standard Motor Company the plant where Standard built Jaguar's six-cylinder engines. From this time Jaguar was dependent for their bodies on external suppliers, in particular independent Pressed Steel and in 1966 that carried them into BMC, BMH and British Leyland.
Jaguar made its name by producing a series of successful eye-catching sports cars, the Jaguar XK120, Jaguar XK140, Jaguar XK150, Jaguar E-Type, all embodying Lyons' mantra of "value for money". The sports cars were successful in international motorsport, a path followed in the 1950s to prove the engineering integrity of the company's products. Jaguar's sales slogan for years was "Grace, Pace", a mantra epitomised by the record sales achieved by the MK VII, IX, Mks I and II saloons and the XJ6. During the time this slogan was used; the core of Bill Lyons' success following WWII was the twin-cam straight six engine, conceived pre-war and realised while engineers at the Coventry plant were dividing their time between fire-watching and designing the new power plant. It had a hemispherical cross-flow cylinder head with valves inclined from the vertical; as fuel octane ratings were low from 1948 onwards, three piston configuration were offered: domed and dished. The main designer, William "Bill" Heynes, assisted by Walter "Wally" Hassan, was determined to develop the Twin OHC unit.
Bill Lyons agreed over misgivings from Hassan. It was risky to take what had been considered a racing or low-volume and cantankerous engine needing constant fettling and apply it to reasonable volume production saloon cars; the subsequent engine was the mainstay powerplant of Jaguar, used in the XK 120, Mk VII Saloon, Mk I and II Saloons and XK 140 and 150. It was employed in the E Type, itself a development from the race winning and Le Mans conquering C and D Type Sports Racing cars refined as the short-lived XKSS, a road-legal D-Type. Few engine types have demonstrated such ubiquity and longevity: Jaguar used the Twin OHC XK Engine, as it came to be known, in the Jaguar XJ6 saloon from 1969 through 1992, employed in a J60 variant as the power plant in such diverse vehicles as the British Army's Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance family of vehicles, as well as the Fox armoured reconnaissance vehicle, the Ferret Scout Car, the Stonefield four-wheel-drive all-terrain lorry. Properly maintained, the standard production XK Engine would a
The Ford Capri is a fastback coupé built by Ford Motor Company between 1968 and 1986, designed by American Philip T. Clark, involved in the design of the Ford Mustang, it used the mechanical components from the Mk2 Ford Cortina and was intended as the European equivalent of the Ford Mustang. The Capri went on to be a successful car for Ford, selling nearly 1.9 million units in its lifetime. A wide variety of engines was used in the Capri throughout its production lifespan, which included the Essex and Cologne V6 at the top of the range, whilst the Kent straight-four and Taunus V4 engines were used in lower specification models. Although the Capri was not replaced, the second-generation Probe was its replacement after the car's introduction to the European market in 1992. While Ford marketed the car as "Ford Capri – The Car You Always Promised Yourself", the English magazine "Car" described the Capri as a "Cortina in drag". Production of the Capri began in November, 1968, according to Jeremy Walton's 1987 book,'Capri - The Development & Competition History of Ford's European GT Car' and the FIA, Recognition No.
5301, at Ford's Halewood plant in the UK and on 16 December 1968 at the Cologne plant in West Germany. It was unveiled in January 1969 with sales starting the following month; the intention was to reproduce in Europe the success Ford had had with the North American Ford Mustang. It was mechanically based on the Cortina and built in Europe at the Halewood plant in the United Kingdom, the Genk plant in Belgium, the Saarlouis and Cologne plants in Germany; the car was named Colt during its development stage, but Ford was unable to use the name, as it was trademarked by Mitsubishi. Although a fastback coupé, Ford wanted the Capri Mk I to be affordable for a broad spectrum of potential buyers. To help achieve that, it was available with a variety of engines; the British and German factories produced different line-ups. The continental model used the Ford Taunus V4 engine in 1.3, 1.5 and 1.7 L engine displacements, while the British versions were powered by the Ford Kent straight-four in 1.3 and 1.6 L form.
The Ford Essex V4 engine 2.0 L and Cologne V6 2.0 L served as initial range-toppers. At the end of the year, new sports versions were added: the 2300 GT in Germany, using a double-barrel carburettor with 125 PS, in September 1969 the 3000 GT in the UK, with the Essex V6, capable of 138 hp. Under the new body, the running gear was similar to the 1966 Cortina; the rear suspension employed a live axle supported on leaf springs with short radius rods. MacPherson struts were featured at the front in combination with rack and pinion steering which employed a steering column that would collapse in response to a collision; the initial reception of the car was broadly favourable. In the June 1970 edition of the Monthly Driver's Gazette, tester Archie Vicar wrote of the gearchange that it was "...in Ford fashion easy to operate but not jolly". In the same review Vicar summed up the car as follows: "Perhaps with a bit of work it can be given road-holding and performance less like an American car and more like a European one".
The range continued to be broadened, with another 3.0 variant, the Capri 3000E introduced from the British plant in March 1970, offering "more luxurious interior trim". Ford began selling the Capri in the Australian market in May 1969 and in April 1970 it was released in the North American and South African markets; these versions all used the underpowered Kent 1.6 engine although a Pinto straight-four 2.0 L replaced it in some markets in 1971. An exception, was the Perana manufactured by Basil Green Motors near Johannesburg, powered by a 302ci V8 Ford Windsor engine. All North American versions featured the "power dome" hood and four round 53⁄4" U. S.-spec headlights. They carried no "Ford" badging, as the Capri was sold by only Lincoln-Mercury dealers and promoted to U. S. drivers as "the sexy European". The Capri was sold in Japan with both the 1.6 L and 2.0 L engines in GT trim, sales were helped by the fact that this generation was compliant with Japanese government dimension regulations.
Sales were handled in Japan by Kintetsu Motors an exclusive importer of Ford products to Japan. The 2.0 litre engine required Japanese owners to pay more annual road tax in comparison to the 1.6 litre engine, which affected sales. A new 2637 cc version of the Cologne V6 engine assembled by Weslake and featuring their special all alloy cylinder heads appeared in September 1971, powering the Capri RS2600; this model used Kugelfischer fuel injection to raise power to 150 PS and was the basis for the Group 2 RS2600 used in the European Touring Car Championship. The RS2600 received modified suspension, a close ratio gearbox, lightened bodywork panels, ventilated disc brakes and aluminium wheels, it could hit 100 km/h from a standstill in 7.7 seconds. The 2.6 L engine was detuned in September for the deluxe version 2600 GT, with 2550 cc and a double-barrel Solex carburettor. Germany's Dieter Glemser won the drivers' title in the 1971 European Touring Car Championship at the wheel of a Ford Köln entered RS2600 and fellow German Jochen Mass did in 1972.
The first Ford Special, was the Capri Vista Orange Special. The Capri Special was launched in November 1971 and was based on the 1600 GT, 2000 GT models, it was only available in vista orange and was optional dealer fitted with a Ford Rally Sport boot mounted spoiler and rear window slats – a direct link to the Mustang. The Special had some additional standard extras such as a push-button radio, fabric seat upholstery, inertia reel seat
Rye, East Sussex
Rye is a small town and civil parish in the Rother district, in East Sussex, two miles from the sea at the confluence of three rivers: the Rother, the Tillingham and the Brede. In medieval times, as an important member of the Cinque Ports confederation, it was at the head of an embayment of the English Channel, entirely surrounded by the sea. At the 2011 census, Rye had a population of 4,773, its historical association with the sea has included providing ships for the service of the King in time of war, being involved in smuggling. The notorious Hawkhurst Gang used its ancient inns The Mermaid Inn and The Olde Bell Inn, which are said to be connected to each other by a secret passageway; those historic roots and its charm make it a tourist destination, with hotels, guest houses, B&Bs, tea rooms, restaurants. It has a small fishing fleet, Rye Harbour has facilities for yachts and other vessels; the name of Rye is believed to come from rie. Medieval maps show that Rye was located on a huge embayment of the English Channel called the Rye Camber, which provided a safe anchorage and harbour.
As early as Roman times, Rye was important as a place of shipment and storage of iron from the Wealden iron industry. The Mermaid Inn dates to 1156. Rye, as part of the Saxon Manor of Rameslie, was given to the Benedictine Abbey of Fécamp in Normandy by King Æthelred; as one of the two "Antient Townes", Rye was to become a limb of the Cinque Ports Confederation by 1189, subsequently a full member. The protection of the town as one of the Cinque Ports was important, due to the commerce that trading brought. One of the oldest buildings in Rye is Ypres Tower, built in 1249 as "Baddings Tower", to defend the town from the French, was named after its owner, John de Ypres, it is now part of the Rye Museum. Rye received its charter from King Edward I in 1289, acquired privileges and tax exemptions in return for ship-service for the crown; the "Landgate" dates from 1329 in the early years of the reign of King Edward III. It is still the only vehicular route into the medieval centre of Rye and is suitable only for light vehicles.
In 2015, some 25 tonnes of pigeon excrement that had built up had to be removed from Landgate Arch for fear of damaging the ancient structure. The River Rother took an easterly course to flow into the sea near what is now New Romney. However, the violent storms in the 13th century cut the town off from the sea, destroyed Old Winchelsea, changed the course of the Rother; the sea and the river combined in about 1375 to destroy the eastern part of the town and ships began use the current area to unload their cargoes. Two years the town was sacked and burnt by the French, it was ordered that the town walls be completed, as a defence against foreign raiders. Rye was considered one of the finest of the Cinque Ports, though constant work had to be done to stop the gradual silting up of the river and the harbour. A conflict arose between the maritime interests and the landowners, who "inned" or reclaimed land from the sea on Romney and Walland Marsh, thus reduced the tidal flows that were supposed to keep the harbour free of silt.
Acts of Parliament had to be passed to enable the Rother to be kept navigable at all. With the coming of bigger ships and larger deepwater ports, Rye's economy began to decline, fishing and smuggling became more important. Imposition of taxes on goods had encouraged smuggling since 1301, but by the end of the 17th century, it became widespread throughout Kent and Sussex, with wool being the largest commodity; when luxury goods were added, smuggling became a criminal pursuit, groups – such as the Hawkhurst Gang who met in The Mermaid Inn in Rye – turned to murder and were subsequently hanged. Since 1803, lifeboats have been stationed at Rye although the lifeboat station is now at Rye Harbour about 2 miles downriver from the town; the worst disaster in RNLI history concerning a single vessel, indeed in the 20th century, occurred in 1928, when the Mary Stanford sank with all hands. The incident is recorded by a tablet at Winchelsea church, by the imposing memorial at Rye Harbour Church and by the folk song "The Mary Stanford of Rye".
A new Mary Stanford was commissioned by the RNLI two years and stationed at Ballycotton on the coast of Ireland. Since 2010, the RNLI has operated an Atlantic 85-class inshore lifeboat at Rye Harbour. Between 1696 and 1948, six ships of the Royal Navy have borne the name HMS Rye. During the 1803–1805 Napoleonic invasion threat, Rye and Chatham were regarded as the three most invasion ports, Rye became the western command centre for the Royal Military Canal; the canal was planned from Pett Level to Hythe, but was not completed until long after the threat had passed. From 1838–1889, Rye had its own borough police force, it was a small force with just two officers. Rye police had difficulties on Bonfire night and special constables were recruited to help deal with the problems bonfire gangs caused. After amalgamation with the County Force in 1889 a new police station was provided in Church Square. In 1892 the strength of the town police, now amalgamated, was three constables. In May 1940, during the darkest days of World War II, the Rye fishing fleet was invited to participate in Operation Dynamo, the seaborne rescue of the stranded British Expeditionary Force at Dunkirk, but refused to do so.
Paul Monod's book The Murder of Mr Grebell: Madness and
Ford Cologne V6 engine
The original Ford Cologne V6 is a series of 60° cast iron block V6 engines produced continuously by the Ford Motor Company in Cologne, since 1965. Along with the British Ford Essex V6 engine and the U. S. Buick V6 and GMC Truck V6, these were among the first mass-produced V6 engines in the world. Throughout its production run, the Cologne V6 has evolved from the engine displacements of 1.8, 2.0, 2.3, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8, 2.9, 4.0 litres engines. All except the Cosworth 24v derivative and 4.0 litre SOHC engines were pushrod overhead-valve engines, with a single camshaft between the banks. The Cologne V6 was installed in vehicles intended for Germany and Continental Europe, while the unrelated British Essex V6 was used in cars for the British market; the Cologne V6 replaced the Essex V6 for British-market vehicles. These engines were used in the United States in compact trucks; the Cologne V6 was made to be compatible in installation with the Ford Taunus V4 engine, having the same transmission bolt pattern, the same engine mounts, in many versions, a cylinder head featuring "siamesed" exhaust passages, which reduced the three exhaust outlets down to two on each side.
The latter feature was poor for performance. The 2.4, 2.9, 4.0 had three exhaust ports, making them preferable. The engine was available in both fuel-injected forms; the smallest version of the V6 was the 1.8 L. Its output was 82 PS and 135 N⋅m, its only application was the Ford 17M P7 from 1968 to 1971. The original displacement of the V6 was 2.0 L. Output was 85 PS and 151 N⋅m or 90 PS and 158 N⋅m. Applications: 1964-1967 Ford Taunus 20M 1967-1968 Ford 20M 1968-1971 Ford 20M 1969-1981 Ford Capri I - III 1970-1976 Ford Taunus TC 1976-1979 Ford Taunus II 1979-1982 Ford Taunus III 1975-1977 Ford Granada I 1977-1985 Ford Granada II 1982 Ford Sierra The first enlargement of the V6 appeared in 1967, it was the 2.3 L. Output was 108 / 114 PS and 176 N⋅m or 125 PS and 187 N⋅m in SuperHighCompression 1967-1968 Ford 20M P7 1969-1971 Ford 17M RS 1968-1971 Ford 20M P7b 1969-1974 Ford Capri I 1974-1978 Ford Capri II 1978-1985 Ford Capri III 1971-1976 Ford Taunus TC 1976-1979 Ford Taunus II 1979-1982 Ford Taunus III 1977-1979 Ford Cortina IV 1979-1982 Ford Cortina V 1972-1977 Ford Granada I 1977-1985 Ford Granada II 1982-1984 Ford Sierra I The 2.4 L.
Like the 2.9 L version, the camshaft is chain-driven, it has fuel injection system and Ford's EEC-IV engine management. Bore and stroke is 82 mm × 74 mm. Power output is 125 PS at 5800 rpm and 184 N⋅m torque at 3500 rpm. Applications: Ford Granada III Ford Scorpio The largest first-generation V6 was the 2.6 L. It had stroke. Output was 125 PS and 205 N⋅m. Applications: 1969-1971 Ford 20M RS 1969-1971 Ford 26M 1970-1974 Ford Capri 1972-1977 Ford Granada A special high-performance version had 2.6 L. With fuel injection, it produced 150 PS and 219.5 N⋅m. It was the only first-generation engine with fuel injection, its only application was the Ford Capri RS 2600 where it was used from 1970 to 1973 when it was replaced with the RS 3100. Weslake developed a racing version of the engine, bored to 96 mm to give 3.0 L. Ford Capri 2600 RS from 1970 to 1973 The second-generation Cologne V6 was introduced in 1974, it displaced 2.8 L. The European version used a "siamesed" two-port exhaust manifold, similar to the one used on the V4, while the American version used three-port heads.
The European approach was useful in that existing cars with the V4 engine could be upgraded with relative ease. Output was rated at 90 to 115 bhp for the US market and 130 to 160 PS for the European market, depending on the model. In Europe, the 2.8 was produced with carburetor 132 PS, mechanical fuel injection (Bosch K-Jetronic, 160 PS, electronic injection. Electronic injection only featured on the 2.8 Granada models for one year before being replaced with the 2.9 unit. Tuning options are limited with the Bosch K-Jetronic models; the siamesed inlet and exhaust ports of the 2.8 only respond well to forced induction or an overbore. The MFI 2.8 Cologne uses a restricted induction setup, no open air kit is available due to this. Ford offered a limited run of 150 "Capri turbos" with turbocharged 2.8 engines. These engines displayed RS badging and used a productionized version of an existing aftermarket kit offered by a Ford dealer in Germany. TVR Tasmin/280i used the Cologne 2.8 with Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection, as did the early TVR'S' series in 2.8 and revised 2.9 efi injection form.
Applications: TVR 280i/Tasmin TVR S1 Ford Ranger Ford Bronco II Ford Aerostar Ford Pinto M