Landesstraßen are roads in Germany and Austria that are, as a rule, the responsibility of the respective German or Austrian federal state. The term may therefore be translated as "state road", they are roads that cross the boundary of a urban district. A Landesstraße is thus less important than a Bundesstraße or federal road, but more significant than a Kreisstraße or district road; the classification of a road as a Landesstraße is a legal matter. In the free states of Bavaria and Saxony – but not, however, in the Free State of Thuringia – Landesstraßen are known as Staatsstraßen; the abbreviation for a Landesstraße consists of a serial number. Staatsstraßen in Saxony are abbreviated using a capital S and the Staatsstraßen in Bavaria are prefixed with the letters St; the kilometrage is shown on white signs by the roadside with black letters, known as location signs, that replace the former kilometre stones. The beginning and end of a Landesstraße is specified using so-called hub numbers; that makes its location unambiguous, important for rapid assistance when there is an accident, for example.
The hub numbers are displayed on the upper part of the sign and indicate their direction. In the example in the photograph, therefore No. 6608 039 is left of the sign 6608 023 to the right. In the bottom right-hand corner of the sign can be seen the so-called Stationierungsrichtung or direction of signage, it runs in the example from right to left and indicates in which direction the road kilometres are counted. In Lower Saxony, this new system has been in place since 2007 and divides the Landestraßen into sections numbered 10, 20, etc; the location signs comprise two panels. The location panel displays the name of the state and county letters at the top, the road letter and number below; the classification panel shows the section number and direction of the start hub. The letters OD indicate a location post within a town or village and may be displayed in places other than on a white post. By the end of 2008 all the 8,000 kilometre posts on Lower Saxony's Landesstraßen had been replaced. In terms of their construction, Landesstraßen tend to be built to a lesser standard than Bundesstraßen and their cross-section is smaller.
In individual cases, the standard of construction may vary depending on when it was built and its importance as a route. However, Landesstraßen can be built as limited-access dual carriageways in densely populated areas. Due to the division of funding, the federal states try to get the more substantial Landesstraßen designated as Bundesstraßen, so that their subsequent improvement and maintenance is funded from the Federal budget; the Bundesstraßen are, intended as links between cities and radiate from them. It is not possible to have concentric roads, which link the satellite towns with one another, designated as Bundesstraßen, it is difficult to transfer responsibility for the short stub roads running from cities to nearby motorways to the Federal Authorities. Following German reunification the Bezirksstraßen of the GDR were classified as Landesstraßen without consideration for their condition; this leads to a wide range of road types falling within this category. On the one hand, there are inter-city roads.
On the other hand, due to the austere design of the country road network in the GDR there are today in the new federal states several unpaved roads and dirt tracks that are formally Landesstraßen. The upgrade of these roads is unlikely in view of the lack of their low importance. In Austria today all important roads, apart from autobahns and Schnellstraßen managed by the publicly owned ASFiNAG corporation, are called Landesstraßen. Since 2002 the former Bundesstraßen national highways are Landesstraßen, because they were placed under the responsibility of the federal states. Before 2002 there were two types of Bundesstraße: A white number an blue square sign identified the more common type that are at the same time priority roads, their vehicle users had the right of way by the blue sign. A black number on a yellow circular sign marks roads. Except in Vorarlberg, the former Bundesstraßen continue to be designated with the prefix B; the remaining Landesstraßen are prefixed with the letter L. On traffic signs the prefixes are not used, unlike the A and S.
Roads numbered with fewer digits are of more importance in the road network. The former designation of more important Landesstraßen in several states as Landeshauptstraßen is only seen now on road and street maps. Autobahn Bundesstraße Gemeindestraße Kreisstraße
Eugendorf is a market town of 6,439 inhabitants in the district of Salzburg-Umgebung in the state of Salzburg in Austria. The town was first documented in the year 736. Eugendorf is located about 10 kilometres to the northeast of Salzburg between the city and the Wallersee lake; the municipality borders with Seekirchen am Wallersee, Henndorf am Wallersee, Thalgau and Thalgau. It is divided into 10 Ortschaften: the town of Eugendorf and 9 villages: Eugendorf has a station on the international Westbahn Railway, served by the Salzburg S-Bahn, it is served by the A1 motorway at the exit "Wallersee-Eugendorf". Salzkammergut Salzkammergut-Lokalbahn Municipal site of Eugendorf Eugendorf on "Salzburg Wiki"
Motorcycle racing is the motorcycle sport of racing motorcycles. Major genres include motorcycle road racing and off-road racing, both either on circuits or open courses, track racing. Other categories include hill drag racing and land speed record trials; the FIM classifies motorcycle racing in the following four main categories. Each category has several sub categories. Road racing is a form of motorcycle racing held on a paved road surfaces; the races can be held either on a purpose-built closed circuit or on a street circuit utilizing temporarily closed public roads. "road racing" meant a course on closed public roads. This was once commonplace but only a few such circuits have survived in Europe. Races take place on public roads which have been temporarily closed to the public by legal orders from the local legislature. Two championships exist, the first is the International Road Racing Championship, the other is the Duke Road Racing Rankings; the latter accounts for the majority of road races that take place each season, with an award for the highest placed rider.
Prominent road races include the Isle of Man TT, North West 200, Ulster Grand Prix on long circuits. Ireland has many road racing circuits still in use. Other countries with road races are the Netherlands, Belgium, Great Britain, the Czech Republic, New Zealand and Macau. Grand Prix motorcycle racing refers to the premier category of motorcycle road racing, it is divided into three distinct classes: Moto3: Introduced in 2012, motorcycles in this class are 250cc with single-cylinder four-stroke engines Previously it featured 125 cc two-stroke motorcycles. This class is restricted by rider age, with an upper limit of 25 for newly signed riders and wild card entries and an absolute upper limit of 28 for all riders. Moto2: Introduced by Dorna Sports, the commercial rights holder of the competition, in 2010 as a 600 cc four-stroke class. Prior to that season, the intermediate class was 250 cc with two-stroke engines. Moto2 races in the 2010 season allowed both engine types. Beginning in 2019, Triumph Motorcycles will replace Honda as the controlled-engine supplier for Moto2.
The new engines will be based on the 2017 Triumph Street Triple RS 765. MotoGP: is the current term for the highest class of GP racing; the class was contested with prototype machines with varying displacement and engine type over the years. Contested by large displacement four stroke machines in the early years it switched to 500 cc two strokes. In 2002 990 cc four-stroke bikes were allowed to compete alongside the 500 cc two strokes and completely replaced them in 2003. 2007 saw a reduction to 800 cc four stroke engines to unsuccessfully slow things down a bit before settling on 1000 cc four strokes in 2012. Grand Prix motorcycles are prototype machines not based on any production motorcycle. Superbike racing is the category of motorcycle road racing that employs modified production motorcycles. Superbike racing motorcycles must have four stroke engines of between 800 cc and 1200 cc for twins, between 750 cc and 1000 cc for four cylinder machines; the motorcycles must maintain the same profile as their roadgoing counterparts.
The overall appearance, seen from the front and sides, must correspond to that of the bike homologated for use on public roads though the mechanical elements of the machine have been modified. Supersport racing is another category of motorcycle road racing that employs modified production motorcycles. To be eligible for Supersport racing, a motorcycle must have a four-stroke engine of between 400 and 600 cc for four-cylinder machines, between 600 and 750 cc for twins, must satisfy the FIM homologation requirements. Supersport regulations are much tighter than Superbikes. Supersport machines must remain as standard, while engine tuning is possible but regulated. Endurance racing is a category of motorcycle road racing, meant to test the durability of equipment and endurance of the riders. Teams of multiple riders attempt to cover a large distance in a single event. Teams are given the ability to change riders during the race. Endurance races can be run either to cover a set distance in laps as as possible, or to cover as much distance as possible over a preset amount of time.
Reliability of the motorcycles used for endurance racing is paramount. Sidecar racing is a category of sidecar motorcycle racing. Older sidecar road racers resembled solo motorcycles with a platform attached. Sidecarcross resembles MX motorcycles with a high platform attached. In sidecar racing a rider and a passenger work together to make the machine perform optimally. Sidecar racing has many sub-categories including: Sidecarcross Sidecar trials F1/F2 road racing Historic road racing Motocross is the direct equivalent of road racing, but off-road, a number of bikes racing on a closed circuit. Motocross circuits are constructed on a variety of non-tarmac surfaces such as dirt, mud, etc. and tend to incorporate elevation changes either natural or artificial. Advances in motorcycle technology suspension, have led to the predominance of circuits with added "jumps" on which bikes can get airborne. Motocross has another noticeable difference from road racing, in that starts are done en masse, with the riders alongside each other.
Up to 40 riders race into the first corner, sometimes there is a separate a
Bundesautobahn 8 is an autobahn in southern Germany that runs 497 km from the Luxembourg A13 motorway at Schengen via Neunkirchen, Karlsruhe, Ulm and Munich to the Austrian West Autobahn near Salzburg. The A 8 is a significant East-West transit route, its construction began in March 1934 during Nazi rule as a Reichsautobahn, the section between Karlsruhe and Salzburg having been completed by the time road works were discontinued in World War II. Although most parts have been modernized and extended since, significant sections remain in their original configuration from the 1930s - 2+2 lanes, no emergency lanes, steep hills and tight curves. In combination with today's traffic this makes the A 8 one of the most crowded and dangerous autobahns in Germany. In the wintertime the slopes of the Black Forest, the Swabian Alb near Aichelberg, as well as the Irschenberg become bottlenecks when heavy trucks crawl uphill. Modern sections with 3+3 lanes and more are e.g.: Karlsruhe - Pforzheim-North, Pforzheim-South - Stuttgart - Mühlhausen, AK Ulm/Elchingen - Augsburg - Munich-Eschenried, AK Munich-South - AD Inntal.
Other sections in Saarland, Rhineland-Palatinate and Munich have 2+2 in modern standard. Old standard or not completed sections are: near Merzig, AK Neunkirchen - Zweibrücken, Enz crossing near Pforzheim, Alb crossing Mühlhausen - Hohenstadt, Hohenstadt - Ulm-West, Ulm-West - AK Ulm/Elchingen and AD Inntal - Salzburg. At least, complete section Karlsruhe - Salzburg will be extended to 3 + 3 lanes. Plans for the section between Pirmasens and Karlsruhe were abandoned in the 1980s. Instead of this section B10 Pirmasens - Landau was expanded. Landau - Karlsruhe was built as a part of A65 in the 90s. In Munich there is a gap: section from Augsburg ends in Munich-Obermenzing, section from Salzburg ends in Munich-Haidhausen. Transit traffic has to use A99 north around Munich or A99 west, "Mittlerer Ring" and A 995 Near Merzig was a section with only one lane for each direction, but it is under construction and will be extended to 2+2. Near Heusweiler a wire netting was built as a faraday cage to protect vehicle electronics from radiation of Heusweiler radio transmitter.
The transmitter has yet to be removed - together with the wire netting. Pirmasens-Winzeln is one of only four "left slip roads" in German autobahn network: coming from Zweibrücken, left lane is exit to Winzeln and right lane stays A 8. Towards Zweibrücken exit and access are as usual. A 8 and A 62 should meet here in an interchange. After A 8 section Pirmasens -Karlsruhe had been cancelled the "interchange" was used for Winzeln slip road. In Gruibingen motorway service Gruibingen was built according to feng shui philosophy. At Drakensteiner Hang between Mühlhausen and Hohenstadt A 8 is divided into separate northbound and southbound routes on either side of the peak. Near Adelsried is Autobahnkirche Maria, Schutz der Reisenden, it was built 1956 as first of meanwhile 42 in Germany. For extension of section Ulm/Elchingen - Augsburg - Munich a new kind of finanzial funding was used, an operator model: consortiums of constructing companies funded semselves their work and get for it lorry road charges for 30 years.
They are responsible for maintenance during this period. For transit traffic around Munich road marks signalize to use orbital motorway A99 north/east at Eschenried and Munich-South interchanges, but those who are familiar with place use A 99 west - Mittlerer Ring - A 995 as a shorter and faster route. However this route leads through Munich and therefore authorities want to keep transit traffic out of town. Austria demands toll for its autobahns, so many drivers who don't want to pay for the short section border - Salzburg use slip roads Bad Reichenhall or Schwarzbach and country roads which sometimes causes traffic jams. Geographic data related to Bundesautobahn 8 at OpenStreetMap Bundesautobahn 8 – detailed route plan
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway, designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow ingress- and egress-regulated. Common English terms are freeway and expressway. Other similar terms include parkway; some of these may be limited-access highways, although this term can refer to a class of highway with somewhat less isolation from other traffic. In countries following the Vienna convention, the motorway qualification implies that walking and parking are forbidden, they are reserved for the use of motorized vehicles only. A controlled-access highway provides an unhindered flow of traffic, with no traffic signals, intersections or property access, they are free of any at-grade crossings with other roads, railways, or pedestrian paths, which are instead carried by overpasses and underpasses. Entrances and exits to the highway are provided at interchanges by slip roads, which allow for speed changes between the highway and arterials and collector roads. On the controlled-access highway, opposing directions of travel are separated by a median strip or central reservation containing a traffic barrier or grass.
Elimination of conflicts with other directions of traffic improves safety and capacity. Controlled-access highways evolved during the first half of the 20th century. Italy opened its first autostrada in A8, connecting Milan to Varese. Germany began to build its first controlled-access autobahn without speed limits in 1932 between Cologne and Bonn, it rapidly constructed a nationwide system of such roads. The first North American freeways opened in the New York City area in the 1920s. Britain influenced by the railways, did not build its first motorway, the Preston By-pass, until 1958. Most technologically advanced nations feature an extensive network of freeways or motorways to provide high-capacity urban travel, or high-speed rural travel, or both. Many have a national-level or international-level system of route numbering. There are several international standards which give some definitions of words such as motorways, but there is no formal definition of the English language words such as "motorway", "freeway" and "expressway", or of the equivalent words in other languages such as "autoroute", "Autobahn", "autostrada", "autocesta", that are accepted worldwide—in most cases these words are defined by local statute or design standards or regional international treaties.
Descriptions that are used include: Vienna Convention on Road Signs and Signals"Motorway" means a road specially designed and built for motor traffic, which does not serve properties bordering on it, which:Is provided, except at special points or temporarily, with separate carriageways for the two directions of traffic, separated from each other either by a dividing strip not intended for traffic or, exceptionally, by other means. Exit is marked with another symbol:; the definitions of "motorway" from the OECD and PIARC are identical. British StandardsMotorway: Limited-access dual carriageway road, not crossed on the same level by other traffic lanes, for the exclusive use of certain classes of motor vehicle. ITE Freeway: A divided major roadway with full control of access and with no crossings at grade; this definition applies to toll as well as toll-free roads. Freeway A: This designates roadways with greater visual complexity and high traffic volumes; this type of freeway will be found in metropolitan areas in or near the central core and will operate through much of the early evening hours of darkness at or near design capacity.
Freeway B: This designates all other divided roadways with full control of access where lighting is needed. In the European Union, for statistic and safety purposes, some distinction might be made between motorway and expressway, for instance a principal arterial might be considered as: Roads serving long distance and interurban movements. Includes expressways. Principal arterials may cross through urban areas; the traffic is characterized by full or partial access control. Other roads leading to a principal arterial are connected to it through side collector roads. In this view, CARE's definition stands that a motorway is understood as a public road with dual carriageways and at least two lanes each way. All entrances and exits are signposted and all interchanges are grade separated. Central barrier or median present throughout the road. No crossing is permitted. Restricted access to motor vehicles, prohibited to pedestrians, pedal cycles, agricultural vehicles; the minimum speed is not lower than the maximum speed is not higher than 130 km/h.
Motorways are designed to carry heavy traffic at high speed with the lowest possible number of accidents. They are designed to collect long-distance traffic from other roads, so that conflicts between long-di
Adolf Hitler was a German politician and leader of the Nazi Party. He rose to power as Chancellor of Germany in 1933 and Führer in 1934. During his dictatorship from 1933 to 1945, he initiated World War II in Europe by invading Poland in September 1939, he was involved in military operations throughout the war and was central to the perpetration of the Holocaust. Hitler was raised near Linz, he moved to Germany in 1913 and was decorated during his service in the German Army in World War I. In 1919, he joined the German Workers' Party, the precursor of the NSDAP, was appointed leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he was imprisoned. In jail, he dictated the first volume of his autobiography and political manifesto Mein Kampf. After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism, anti-semitism and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda, he denounced international capitalism and communism as part of a Jewish conspiracy.
By July 1932 the Nazi Party was the largest elected party in the German Reichstag, but did not have a majority, no party was able to form a majority parliamentary coalition in support of a candidate for chancellor. Former chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservative leaders persuaded President Paul von Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor on 30 January 1933. Shortly after, the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act of 1933, which began the process of transforming the Weimar Republic into Nazi Germany, a one-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism. Hitler aimed to eliminate Jews from Germany and establish a New Order to counter what he saw as the injustice of the post-World War I international order dominated by Britain and France, his first six years in power resulted in rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression, the abrogation of restrictions imposed on Germany after World War I, the annexation of territories inhabited by millions of ethnic Germans, which gave him significant popular support.
Hitler sought Lebensraum for the German people in Eastern Europe, his aggressive foreign policy is considered the primary cause of World War II in Europe. He directed large-scale rearmament and, on 1 September 1939, invaded Poland, resulting in Britain and France declaring war on Germany. In June 1941, Hitler ordered an invasion of the Soviet Union. By the end of 1941, German forces and the European Axis powers occupied most of Europe and North Africa. In December 1941, shortly after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour, Hitler declared war on the United States, bringing it directly into the conflict. Failure to defeat the Soviets and the entry of the United States into the war forced Germany onto the defensive and it suffered a series of escalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, he married his longtime lover Eva Braun. Less than two days on 30 April 1945, the two committed suicide to avoid capture by the Soviet Red Army. Under Hitler's leadership and racially motivated ideology, the Nazi regime was responsible for the genocide of at least 5.5 million Jews and millions of other victims who he and his followers deemed Untermenschen or undesirable.
Hitler and the Nazi regime were responsible for the killing of an estimated 19.3 million civilians and prisoners of war. In addition, 28.7 million soldiers and civilians died as a result of military action in the European theatre. The number of civilians killed during World War II was unprecedented in warfare, the casualties constitute the deadliest conflict in history. Hitler's father Alois; the baptismal register did not show the name of his father, Alois bore his mother's surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois's father. Alois assumed the surname "Hitler" spelled Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler; the name is based on "one who lives in a hut". Nazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper by a Jewish family in Graz, that the family's 19-year-old son Leopold Frankenberger had fathered Alois.
No Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, no record has been produced of Leopold Frankenberger's existence, so historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish. Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 in Braunau am Inn, a town in Austria-Hungary, close to the border with the German Empire, he was christened as "Adolphus Hitler". He was the fourth of six children born to his third wife, Klara Pölzl. Three of Hitler's siblings—Gustav and Otto—died in infancy. Living in the household were Alois's children from his second marriage: Alois Jr. and Angela. When Hitler was three, the family moved to Germany. There he acquired the distinctive lower Bavarian dialect, rather than Austrian German, which marked his speech throughout his life; the family returned to Austria and settled in Leonding in 1894, in June 1895 Alois retired to Hafeld, near Lambach, where he farmed and kept bees. Hitler attended Volksschule (a state-owned primary schoo
International E-road network
The international E-road network is a numbering system for roads in Europe developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. The network is numbered from E 1 up and its roads cross national borders, it reaches Central Asian countries like Kyrgyzstan, since they are members of the UNECE. European main international traffic arteries are defined by ECE/TRANS/SC.1/2016/3/Rev.1 which consider three types of roads: motorways, express roads, ordinary roads. In most countries, roads carry the European route designation beside national road numbers. Other countries like Belgium and Sweden have roads with exclusive European route signage, while at the other end of the scale, British road signs do not show the routes at all. Denmark uses exclusive European routes, but uses formal names for every motorway, which the motorways are referred to, for instance in news and weather forecasts. Other continents have similar international road networks, e.g. the Pan-American Highway in the Americas, the Trans-African Highway network, the Asian Highway Network.
UNECE was formed in 1947, their first major act to improve transport was a joint UN declaration no. 1264, the Declaration on the Construction of Main International Traffic Arteries, signed in Geneva on September 16, 1950, which defined the first E-road network. It was envisaged that the E-road network would be a motorway system comparable to the US Interstate Highway System; the declaration was amended several times before November 15, 1975, when it was replaced by the European Agreement on Main International Traffic Arteries or "AGR", which set up a route numbering system and improved standards for roads in the list. The AGR last went through a major change in 1992 and in 2001 was extended into Central Asia to include the Caucasus nations. There were several minor revisions since, last in 2008; the route numbering system is as follows: Reference roads and intermediate roads, called Class-A roads, have numbers from 1 to 129. North-south routes have odd numbers. Numbers count upward from west to east and from north to south, with some exceptions.
Branch and connecting roads, called Class-B roads, have three-digit numbers above 130. Reference roads are roads numbered 5-95 ending with 0 or 5 or having odd numbers 101-129, they go across Europe and are several thousand kilometres long. North-south reference roads have numbers that end with the digit 5 from 5 to 95, or odd numbers from 101 to 129, increasing from west to east. East-west reference roads have two-digit numbers that end with the digit 0, increasing from north to south. Intermediate roads are roads numbered 1 to 99, they are considerably shorter than the reference roads. They have numbers between those of the reference roads between. Like reference roads, north-south intermediate roads have odd numbers. Class-B roads have three-digit numbers: the first digit is that of the nearest reference road to the north, the second digit is that of the nearest reference road to the west, the third digit is a serial number. North-south Class-A roads located eastwards of road E 99 have three-digit odd numbers from 101 to 129.
Other rules for Class-A roads above apply to these roads. Class-B roads located eastwards of E 101 have 3-digit numbers beginning with 0, from 001 to 099. In the first established and approved version, the road numbers were well ordered. Since a number of exceptions to this principle have been allowed. Two Class-A roads, namely E 47 and E 55, have been allowed to retain their pre-1992 numbers, E 6 and E 4 within Sweden and Norway; these exceptions were granted because of the excessive expense connected with re-signing not only the long routes themselves, but the associated road network in the area, since Sweden and Norway have integrated the E-roads into their national networks and they are signposted as any other national route. These roads maintain their new numbers from Denmark and southward, though, as do other European routes within Scandinavia. Further exceptions are E 67, going from Finland to Czech Republic, assigned around year 2000 because it was best available number for this new route, most of E 63 in Finland E 8 in Finland and E 82.
These irregularities exist just because it is hard to maintain good order when extending the network, the UNECE does not want to change road numbers unnecessarily. Because the Socialist People's Republic of Albania refused to participate in international treaties such as the AGR, it was conspicuously excluded from the route scheme, with E 65 and E 90 making noticeable detours to go around it. In the 1990s, Albania opened up to the rest of Europe, but only ratified the AGR in August 2006, so its integration into the E-road network remains weak. Where the European routes are signed, green signs with white numbers are used. There are different strategies for determining how to signpost the roads. Sweden and Denmark have integrated the E-road numbers into their networks, meaning that the roads have no other national number. In Belgium, E-numbers are traditionally associated with highways though other grade E-roads pass through the country; as a result, the E-number is signposted only on the highway portions of the E-road network, while for non-motorways only the national number is shown.
Serbia has a similar principle. In most of the countries the E-roads form a network on top of the national network; the green signs are frequent enough to sho