Van Cortlandt Park
Van Cortlandt Park is a 1,146-acre park located in the borough of the Bronx in New York City. Owned by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, it is managed with assistance from the Van Cortlandt Park Conservancy and the Friends of Van Cortlandt Park; the park, the city's third-largest, was named for the Van Cortlandt family, prominent in the area during the Dutch and English colonial periods. Van Cortlandt Park's sports facilities include golf courses and several miles of paths for running, as well as facilities for baseball, cricket, cross-country running, horseback riding, rugby, softball, swimming and track and field; the park contains five major hiking trails and other walking trails. Its natural features include Tibbetts Brook. Contained within the park is the Van Cortlandt House Museum, the oldest surviving building in the Bronx, the Van Cortlandt Golf Course, the oldest public golf course in the country; the land that Van Cortlandt Park now occupies was purchased by Jacobus Van Cortlandt from John Barrett around 1691.
His son Frederick died before its completion. The land was used during the Revolutionary War when the Stockbridge militia was destroyed by the Queen's Rangers. In 1888, the family property was made into a public parkland; the Van Cortlandt House, which would be designated as a historic landmark, was converted into a public museum, new paths were created across the property to make it more passable. In the 1930s, the Robert Moses-directed construction of the Henry Hudson Parkway and Mosholu Parkway fragmented Van Cortlandt Park into its six discontinuous pieces; the last remaining freshwater marsh in New York State, Tibbetts Brook, was dredged and landscaped to accommodate construction, causing large-scale ecological disruption within the park. The 1975 New York City fiscal crisis caused much of the park to fall into disrepair. Gradual improvements began taking place from the late 1980s on including the addition of new pathways and security. In 2014, the "Van Cortlandt Park Master Plan 2034" was published, providing a concrete blueprint of the park's proposed redevelopment in the following years.
The forest in what is now Van Cortlandt Park has been around for 17,000 years, since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. The Wiechquaskeck Lenapes were among the first recorded people to inhabit in the area now referred to as Van Cortlandt Park, they settled in the area around the 15th centuries. The Lenapes used the geographic features of the area to support their community, they formed a village named Keskeskick, whose name translates to "sharp grass or sedge marsh" in the Unami language. The strip of land on the Hudson River's east bank, between the current-day Spuyten Duyvil Creek and Yonkers, was sold to the Dutch West India Company in the early 17th century. Adriaen van der Donck, a Dutch settler, bought the land from the company in 1646. Van der Donck paid the Indian chief Tacharew, whose tribe used to live on the land, as a friendly gesture, he built a house upon the land. The house was built between Broadway, it faced south because this was the location of a natural marshland. What is now the parade ground was used by van der Donck for farming.
Upon van der Donck's 1655 death, the Indians launched an attack on the colony, now known as the Peach War. This forced the settlers, including van der Donck's widow. Following the takeover of the New Netherland colony by the British in 1664, the claim to the estate was awarded to Hugh O'Neale, the new husband of van der Donck's widow. Owing to the O'Neales living far away from the land, the claim was awarded to O'Neale's brother-in-law and van der Donck's widow's brother, Elias Doughty, who proceeded to sell off the portions of the property. In 1668, a portion of the land was sold to William Betts, an English turner, his son-in-law George Tippett, whom Tibbetts Brook would be named for; this property included the modern park parade grounds. Next, Doughty sold a 2,000-acre tract of land, including the current site of the Van Cortlandt House, to Frederick Philipse, Thomas Delavall, Thomas Lewis. Philipse bought out Delavall's and Lewis's land shares, making the land part of the Philipsburg Manor, which extended from Spuyten Duyvil Creek to the Croton River in modern Westchester County.
Philipse's wife died, he remarried Olof Stevense Van Cortlandt's daughter, herself a widow. Philipse's daughter Eva married Jacobus Van Cortlandt, Mrs. Philipse's brother; the land that Van Cortlandt Park now occupies was acquired by Van Cortlandt from Philipse in the mid-to-late 1690s. In 1699, Van Cortlandt dammed Tibbetts Brook in order to power a sawmill, creating Van Cortlandt Lake as a mill pond in the process. In 1732, Van Cortlandt acquired an additional parcel from the Tippett family; the estate was passed on to Jacobus's son Frederick Van Cortlandt and family in 1739. In 1748, Frederick built the Van Cortlandt House on the former Tippett property, but died before its completion; the Van Cortlandts did not live in that house, instead staying in Manhattan most of the time. A family burial ground was created in 1749 to be known as "Vault Hill." Frederick, buried in Vault Hill, had willed the massive home and surrounding l
Melrose is a residential neighborhood in the southwestern section of the New York City borough of the Bronx. It adjoins the business and one-time theater area known as The Hub. Melrose is rectangular-shaped, being bordered by Third Avenue on the east, 149th Street on the south, Park Avenue on the west and 161st Street to the north. Melrose Avenue and Third Avenue are the primary thoroughfares through Melrose; the neighborhood is part of Bronx Community Board 1, its ZIP Codes include 10451, 10455 and 10456. The area is patrolled by the New York City Police Department's 40th Precinct. New York City Housing Authority property in the area is patrolled by P. S. A. 7 at 737 Melrose Avenue. Predominantly German-American in the 19th century it was home to Haffen Brewing Company; the German population waned post-WWII. The neighborhood until the 1960s was Irish and Italian, it is now Latino. Grupo TACA operates a Bronx-area TACA Satellite at 570 Melrose Avenue. Melrose is considered part of the socioeconomic South Bronx.
Melrose was a village in the town of Morrisania, in the county of Westchester before being incorporated into New York City in 1874 as part of the Twenty-Third Ward. A dense working-class neighborhood, the housing, hastily built to capitalize on the turn of the 20th century immigrant escape from Manhattan soon became unsuitable to all but the poorest. A mass exodus soon took place as New York City policy–induced arson soon ravaged the neighborhood throughout the 1960s and 1970s. In 1973, the City of New York dismantled the Third Avenue El due to low ridership. By the 1980s the neighborhood had decayed and much of the original housing stock was lost. Vacant buildings and lots became commonplace. Since the mid-1990s, but in the 2000s, significant renewal has taken place. A prominent player in the revitalization efforts has been the group Nos Quedamos which in English means "we stay". Many abandoned structures have been renovated and many lots have been constructed on. In most recent years the area has seen a significant "Green" construction boom.
Leading the borough in the number of LEED certified apartment buildings, the largest being Via Verde, winner of the 2013 Rudy Bruner Award for Urban Excellence silver medal. Melrose is home to The Bronx campus of Boricua College. Despite lingering social problems due to a continued significant poverty presence, Melrose has come a long way from a "forgotten" neighborhood. Four historic Melrose churches date to before 1900; the German Methodist Church 790 Elton Ave. The German Reformed Church 744 Elton Ave. Immaculate Conception Church 389 E. 150th St. and the German Lutheran Church 376 E. 156th St. The Melrose neighborhood has grown since Jimmy Carter's famous visit to the Bronx in 1977 and will continue to do so as the city's last parcels are sold for development. Many parcels are still in the development phase, but will skyrocket the Melrose population. In 2012, residents expressed concern regarding the Melrose Metro-North station in the neighborhood. Residents would like to see more frequent service, but track and capacity limitations hinder the amount of service available for the stop.
Other concerns regarded the lack of handicap access, the past closure of the main entrance to the stop. The main entrance was closed when the community was at the height of its turmoil, but as the community has regained its footing the desire to have the station open to the primary commercial street, East 161st Street, has grown. Melrose is a high-density neighborhood with a population consisting of Latin Americans and African Americans. Half of the population lives below the federal poverty line. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Melrose, including northeastern Mott Haven, was 39,214, a change of 6,019 from the 33,195 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 396.81 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 98.8 inhabitants per acre. The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 1.5% White, 27.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 69.1% of the population.
The entirety of Community District 1, which comprises Melrose and Mott Haven, had 98,403 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 77.6 years. This is lower than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are youth and middle-aged adults: 28% are between the ages of between 0–17, 28% between 25–44, 21% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 12% and 10% respectively. As of 2017, the median household income in Community Districts 1 and 2, including Longwood, was $20,966. In 2018, an estimated 29% of Melrose and Mott Haven residents lived in poverty, compared to 25% in all of the Bronx and 20% in all of New York City. One in eight residents were unemployed, compared to 9 % in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 58% in Melrose and Mott Haven, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 58% and 51% respectively.
Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Melrose and Mott Haven are considered to be low-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying. Melrose is dominated by large residential housing complexes of various types public housing, tenement style apartment buildings. Most of the original housing stock which consisted of older multi-u
Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem, it is considered one of the most elegant streets in the world. A narrower thoroughfare, much of Fifth Avenue south of Central Park was widened in 1908, sacrificing its wide sidewalks to accommodate the increasing traffic; the midtown blocks, now famously commercial, were a residential district until the start of the 20th century. The first commercial building on Fifth Avenue was erected by Benjamin Altman who bought the corner lot on the northeast corner of 34th Street in 1896, demolished the "Marble Palace" of his arch-rival, A. T. Stewart. In 1906 his department store, B. Altman and Company, occupied the whole of its block front; the result was the creation of a high-end shopping district that attracted fashionable women and the upscale stores that wished to serve them. Lord & Taylor's flagship store was once located on Fifth Avenue near the Empire State Building and the New York Public Library, but has since closed.
In the 1920s, traffic towers controlled important intersections from 14th to 59th Streets. Fifth Avenue originates at Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village and runs northwards through the heart of Midtown, along the eastern side of Central Park, where it forms the boundary of the Upper East Side and through Harlem, where it terminates at the Harlem River at 142nd Street. Traffic crosses the river on the Madison Avenue Bridge. Fifth Avenue serves as the dividing line for house numbering and west-east streets in Manhattan, just as Jerome Avenue does in the Bronx, it separates, for example, East 59th Street from West 59th Street. From this zero point for street addresses, numbers increase in both directions as one moves away from Fifth Avenue, The building lot numbering system worked on the East Side as well, before Madison & Lexington Aves. were retrofitted into the street grid, confusing the building numbers. Confusingly, an address on a cross street cannot be predicted at the intersection of Madison Ave. or Lexington Ave. as these were added decades after the building numbers.
It's. The "most expensive street in the world" moniker changes depending on currency fluctuations and local economic conditions from year to year. For several years starting in the mid-1990s, the shopping district between 49th and 57th Streets was ranked as having the world's most expensive retail spaces on a cost per square foot basis. In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Fifth Avenue as being the most expensive street in the world; some of the most coveted real estate on Fifth Avenue are the penthouses perched atop the buildings. The American Planning Association compiled a list of "2012 Great Places in America" and declared Fifth Avenue to be one of the greatest streets to visit in America; this historic street has many world-renowned museums and stores, luxury apartments, historical landmarks that are reminiscent of its history and vision for the future. By 2018 portions of Fifth Avenue had large numbers of vacant store fronts for long periods, part of a citywide trend of vacant store fronts attributed to high rental costs.
Fifth Avenue from 142nd Street to 135th Street carries two-way traffic. Fifth Avenue carries one-way traffic southbound from 135th Street to Washington Square North; the changeover to one-way traffic south of 135th Street took place on January 14, 1966, at which time Madison Avenue was changed to one way uptown. From 124th Street to 120th Street, Fifth Avenue is cut off by Marcus Garvey Park, with southbound traffic diverted around the park via Mount Morris Park West. Fifth Avenue is the traditional route for many celebratory parades in New York City; the longest running parade is the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade. Parades held are distinct from the ticker-tape parades held on the "Canyon of Heroes" on lower Broadway, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade held on Broadway from the Upper West Side downtown to Herald Square. Fifth Avenue parades proceed from south to north, with the exception of the LGBT Pride March, which goes north to south to end in Greenwich Village; the Latino literary classic by New Yorker Giannina Braschi, entitled "Empire of Dreams," takes place on the Puerto Rican Day Parade on Fifth Avenue.
Bicycling on Fifth Avenue ranges from segregated with a bike lane south of 23rd Street, to scenic along Central Park, to dangerous through Midtown with heavy traffic during rush hours. There is no dedicated bike lane along Fifth Avenue. In July 1987 New York City Mayor Edward Koch proposed banning bicycling on Fifth and Madison Avenues during weekdays, but many bicyclists protested and had the ban overturned; when the trial was started on Monday, August 24, 1987 for 90 days to ban bicyclists from these three avenues from 31st Street to 59th Street between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. on weekdays, mopeds would not be banned. On Monday, August 31, 1987, a state appeals court judge halted the ban for at least a week pending a ruling after opponents against the ban brought a lawsuit. Fifth Avenue is one of the few major streets in Manhattan along. Instead, Fifth Avenue Coach offered a service more to the taste of fashionable gentlefolk, at twice the fare. Double-decker buses were operated by the Fifth Avenue Coach Company until 1953, again by MTA Regional Bus Operations from 1976 to 1978.
Today, local bus service along Fifth Avenue is provided by the MTA's M1, M2, M3, M4 buses. The M5 and Q32 run on Fifth Avenue in Midtown, while the M55 runs on Fifth Avenue south of 44th Street
Queens is the easternmost of the five boroughs of New York City. It is the largest borough geographically and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the southwestern end of Long Island. To its east is Nassau County. Queens shares water borders with the boroughs of Manhattan and the Bronx. Coterminous with Queens County since 1899, the borough of Queens is the second largest in population, with an estimated 2,358,582 residents in 2017 48% of them foreign-born. Queens County is the second most populous county in the U. S. state of New York, behind Brooklyn, coterminous with Kings County. Queens is the fourth most densely populated county among New York City's boroughs, as well as in the United States. If each of New York City's boroughs were an independent city, Queens would be the nation's fourth most populous, after Los Angeles and Brooklyn. Queens is the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. Queens was established in 1683 as one of the original 12 counties of New York; the settlement was named for the English queen Catherine of Braganza.
Queens became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898, from 1683 until 1899, the County of Queens included what is now Nassau County. Queens has the most diversified economy of the five boroughs of New York City, it is home to John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, both among the world's busiest, which in turn makes the airspace above Queens among the busiest in the United States. Landmarks in Queens include Flushing Meadows–Corona Park; the borough has diverse housing, ranging from high-rise apartment buildings in the urban areas of western and central Queens, such as Jackson Heights, Flushing and Long Island City, to somewhat more suburban neighborhoods in the eastern part of the borough, including Douglaston–Little Neck and Bayside. European colonization brought English settlers, as a part of the New Netherland colony. First settlements occurred in 1635 followed by early colonizations at Maspeth in 1642, Vlissingen in 1643. Other early settlements included Jamaica.
However, these towns were inhabited by English settlers from New England via eastern Long Island subject to Dutch law. After the capture of the colony by the English and its renaming as New York in 1664, the area became known as Yorkshire; the Flushing Remonstrance signed by colonists in 1657 is considered a precursor to the United States Constitution's provision on freedom of religion in the Bill of Rights. The signers protested the Dutch colonial authorities' persecution of Quakers in what is today the borough of Queens. Queens County included the adjacent area now comprising Nassau County, it was an original county of New York State, one of twelve created on November 1, 1683. The county is assumed to have been named after Catherine of Braganza, since she was queen of England at the time; the county was founded alongside Kings County, Richmond County. However, the namesake is in dispute. On October 7, 1691, all counties in the Colony of New York were redefined. Queens gained South Brother Islands as well as Huletts Island.
On December 3, 1768, Queens gained other islands in Long Island Sound that were not assigned to a county but that did not abut on Westchester County. Queens played a minor role in the American Revolution, as compared to Brooklyn, where the Battle of Long Island was fought. Queens, like the rest of what became New York City and Long Island, remained under British occupation after the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and was occupied throughout most of the rest of the Revolutionary War. Under the Quartering Act, British soldiers used, as barracks, the public inns and uninhabited buildings belonging to Queens residents. Though many local people were against unannounced quartering, sentiment throughout the county remained in favor of the British crown; the quartering of soldiers in private homes, except in times of war, was banned by the Third Amendment to the United States Constitution. Nathan Hale was captured by the British on the shore of Flushing Bay in Queens before being executed by hanging in Manhattan for gathering intelligence.
From 1683 until 1784, Queens County consisted of five towns: Flushing, Jamaica and Oyster Bay. On April 6, 1784, a sixth town, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead; the seat of the county government was located first in Jamaica, but the courthouse was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. After the war, various buildings in Jamaica temporarily served as courthouse and jail until a new building was erected about 1787 in an area near Mineola known as Clowesville; the 1850 United States Census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition and distance of the old courthouse, several sites were in contention for the constru
Concourse is a neighborhood in the southwestern section of the New York City borough of the Bronx which includes the Bronx County Courthouse, the Bronx Museum of the Arts, Yankee Stadium. The neighborhood is divided into three subsections: West Concourse, East Concourse, Concourse Village; the neighborhood is part of Bronx Community Board 4, its ZIP Codes are 10451 and 10452. The local subway is the IND Concourse Line, operating along the Grand Concourse, the IRT Jerome Avenue Line, operating along River Avenue; the area is patrolled by the NYPD's 44th Precinct. The neighborhood is in the South Bronx in the southwestern part of the borough, centered on the intersection of Grand Concourse and 161st Street, it is bordered to the west by the Harlem River. The neighborhoods follows a street grid with avenues crossing east/west streets. Retail is located on streets, with the exception of Morris Avenue, the avenues are residential above 153rd Street; the neighborhood character is more industrialized along the river with the exception of park space and the Bronx Terminal Market.
Other large retail nodes are located at Concourse Plaza. Smaller retail nodes are located on 167th Street; the elevation varies from sea level at the Harlem River short to its highest point of elevation of 110 feet in Franz Sigel Park. In fact, George Washington and his troops utilized some of these elevations during the American Revolutionary War as vantage points to monitor activity along the Harlem River. Elevation can vary with the Grand Concourse 20 feet higher than adjacent avenues in some instances. From European settlement through the late 1800s, the Concourse area occupied wooded lands and rocky formations within and on the periphery of the estate of the prominent Morris family who farmed in what is now Southwest Bronx; until 1845, the area was part of the Town of Westchester within Westchester County. After the subdivision of the Town of Westchester in 1845, the Concourse area became part of the Town of West Farms. In 1855, West Farms was further subdivided and the Town of Morrisania was created.
With the promise of city services, the Morrisania along with the Towns of West Farms and Kingsbridge seceded from Westchester County to join Manhattan as part of New York County. The three towns were referred to as the "Annexed District". In 1896, the vast majority of what is now the Bronx joined New York County. In 1898 the City of Greater New York and Borough of the Bronx were formed, all former Westchester County annexations within New York County were reconstituted into the independent County of the Bronx in 1914. Expansion of the subway system enabled rapid development of the Concourse; the first subway crossed under 149th Street into the area in 1906 and is now the IRT White Plains Road Line. The IRT Jerome Avenue Line opened a decade in 1917 and spurred enormous development in the area. Concurrent with subway development and inspired by the City Beautiful movement, the New York City built the Grand Boulevard and Concourse. Modeled after Paris’ Champs-Élysées, the original boulevard stretched from the Bronx Courthouse to near Van Cortlandt Park, but was extended south to 138th Street by supplanting an the existing Mott Avenue.
The Grand Concourse was further improved by the extension of the IND Concourse Line under most of its length in 1933. Yankee Stadium was built 1923 when Jacob Ruppert moved the team from the Polo Grounds in Manhattan, where the Yankees shared space with the New York Giants, to the Bronx. With the exception of a brief period in the 1970s, the Yankees have been in Concourse for 100 years. Infrastructure and services brought residents; some of the 500,000 people who moved to the borough in the 1920s lived in the Concourse. The new construction to accommodate those residents was inspired by the City Beautiful movement and the 1901 Tenement House Act, which mandated light and fire protection; this yielded 5- and 6- story multifamily residential buildings throughout the neighborhood built in a variety of styles from Tudor and Colonial Revival to Art Deco and Art Moderne. In the late 1930s the Works Progress Administration dubbed the area “the Park Avenue for the Middle Class”, the area maintained that reputation through the 1950s.
The Concourse inspired visits by presidential candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy. However, after 1960, the area began to decline due to white flight, incentives to move to the suburbs, the development of Co-Op City, disinvestment by New York City, arson. While no buildings burned down in the Concourse during the period, the population of the area declined until the 1990s when the population started to rebound. Recent developments in the Concourse include construction and neighborhood improvements, the neighborhood is gentrifying as of 2012; the Yankees built a new stadium in 2009. The former stadium was demolished; the Bronx Museum of the Arts undertook a major expansion in 2006, is exploring another addition. The Bronx Hall of Justice opened in 2007; the Bronx Terminal Market opened in 2009 as did the adjacent Mill Pond Park, which includes a Stadium Tennis Center. The New York City Department of Transportation is in the process of making capital and safety improvements to the Grand Concourse with much of the work completed within the Concourse neighborhood.
A redesign of 161st Street during the 2000 reconstruction of the Grand Concourse brought additional pedestr
Upper Manhattan is the most northern region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan. Its southern boundary has been variously defined, but 96th Street, the northern boundary of Central Park at 110th Street, 125th Street or 155th Street are some common usages. Upper Manhattan is taken to include the neighborhoods of Marble Hill, Washington Heights, East Harlem and parts of the Upper West Side; the George Washington Bridge connects Washington Heights in Upper Manhattan across the Hudson River to Fort Lee, New Jersey, is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge. In the late 19th century, the IRT Ninth Avenue Line and other elevated railroads brought people to the rustic Upper Manhattan; until the late 20th century it was less influenced by the gentrification that had taken place in other parts of New York over the previous 30 years. Like other residential areas, Upper Manhattan is not a major center of tourism in New York City, although some tourist attractions lie within it, such as Grant's Tomb, the Apollo Theater, The Cloisters, Sylvia's Restaurant, the Hamilton Grange, the Morris–Jumel Mansion, Minton's Playhouse, Sugar Hill, Riverside Church, the National Jazz Museum in Harlem and the Dyckman House, along with Fort Tryon Park, most of Riverside Park, Riverbank State Park, Sakura Park, other parks.
Lower Manhattan Midtown Manhattan
Nassau County, New York
Nassau County is a county in the U. S. state of New York. At the 2010 census, the county's population was 1,400,000 estimated to have increased to 1,400,514 in 2017; the county seat is Mineola and the largest town is the Town of Hempstead. Nassau County is situated in western Long Island, bordering New York City's borough of Queens to the west, Suffolk County to the east, it is the most densely populated and second-most populous county in New York state outside of New York City, with which it maintains extensive rail and highway connectivity, is considered one of the central counties within the New York metropolitan area. Nassau County contains two cities, three towns, 64 incorporated villages, more than 60 unincorporated hamlets. Nassau County has a designated police department, fire commission, elected executive and legislative bodies. A 2012 Forbes article based on the American Community Survey reported Nassau County as the most expensive county and one of the highest income counties in the United States, the most affluent in the state of New York, with four of the nation's top ten towns by median income located in the county.
Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards. The name of the county comes from an old name for Long Island, at one time named Nassau, after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, a member of the House of Nassau, itself named for the German town of Nassau; the county colors are the colors of the House of Orange-Nassau. Several alternate names had been considered for the county, including "Bryant", "Matinecock", "Norfolk", "Sagamore". However, "Nassau" had the historical advantage of having at one time been the name of Long Island itself, was the name most mentioned after the new county was proposed in 1875; the area now designated Nassau County was the eastern 70% of Queens County, one of the original 12 counties formed in 1683, was contained within two towns: Hempstead and Oyster Bay. In 1784, the Town of North Hempstead, was formed through secession by the northern portions of the Town of Hempstead.
Nassau County was formed in 1899 by the division of Queens County, after the western portion of Queens had become a borough of New York City in 1898, as the three easternmost towns seceded from the county. When the first European settlers arrived, among the Native Americans to occupy the present area of Nassau County were the Marsapeque and Sacatogue. Dutch settlers in New Netherland predominated in the western portion of Long Island, while English settlers from Connecticut occupied the eastern portion; until 1664, Long Island was split at the present border between Nassau and Suffolk counties, between the Dutch in the west and Connecticut claiming the east. The Dutch did grant an English settlement in Hempstead, but drove settlers from the present-day eastern Nassau hamlet of Oyster Bay as part of a boundary dispute. In 1664, all of Long Island became part of the English Province of New York within the Shire of York. Present-day Queens and Nassau were just part of a larger North Riding. In 1683, Yorkshire was dissolved, Suffolk County and Queens County were established, the local seat of government was moved west from Hempstead to Jamaica.
By 1700 little of Long Island had not been purchased from the native Indians by the English colonists, townships controlled whatever land had not been distributed. The courthouse in Jamaica was torn down by the British during the American Revolution to use the materials to build barracks. In 1784, following the American Revolutionary War, the Town of Hempstead was split in two, when Patriots in the northern part formed the new Town of North Hempstead, leaving Loyalist majorities in the Town of Hempstead. About 1787, a new Queens County Courthouse was erected in the new Town of North Hempstead, near present-day Mineola, known as Clowesville; the Long Island Rail Road reached as far east as Hicksville in 1837, but did not proceed to Farmingdale until 1841 due to the Panic of 1837. The 1850 census was the first in which the population of the three western towns exceeded that of the three eastern towns that are now part of Nassau County. Concerns were raised about the condition of the old courthouse and the inconvenience of travel and accommodations, with the three eastern and three western towns divided on the location for the construction of a new one.
Around 1874, the seat of county government was moved to Long Island City from Mineola. As early as 1875, representatives of the three eastern towns began advocating the separation of the three eastern towns from Queens, with some proposals including the towns of Huntington and Babylon. In 1898, the western portion of Queens County became a borough of the City of Greater New York, leaving the eastern portion a part of Queens County but not part of the Borough of Queens; as part of the city consolidation plan, all town and county governments within the borough were dissolved. The areas excluded from the consolidation included all of the Town of North Hempstead, all of the Town of Oyster Bay, most of the Town of Hempstead. In 1899, following approval from the New York State Legislature, the three towns were separated from Queens County, the new county of Nassau was constituted. In preparation for the new county, in November 1898, voters had selected Mineol