Hughes Airwest was an airline in the western United States, backed by the Summa Corporation of Howard Hughes. The original name for the airline was Air West. Hughes Airwest flew routes in the western U. S. and to several destinations in Canada. Its headquarters were on the grounds of San Francisco International Airport in unincorporated San Mateo County, California. On April 17, 1968, three "local service" airlines in the western U. S. merged to form Air West: Pacific Air Lines, which operated as Southwest Airways when it was founded in 1941, was based in San Francisco and flew along the coast and California's Central Valley, linking cities from Medford, Oregon, to Southern California. Pacific operated Boeing 727-100s and Fairchild F-27s in 1968. Bonanza Air Lines routes reached west from its Phoenix base to Southern California and north to Las Vegas and Salt Lake City. Bonanza flew Douglas DC-9-10s and Fairchild F-27s in 1968, with a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 on order, delivered after the merger.
West Coast Airlines, based at Boeing Field in Seattle, served the Pacific Northwest, Utah and northern California. West Coast operated Douglas DC-9-10s, Fairchild F-27s and Piper Navajos in 1968; the initial Air West fleet included Boeing 727-100s, Douglas DC-9s, Fairchild F-27s, Piper Navajos. The first new addition to the Air West fleet was a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30, ordered by Bonanza Air Lines. Hungry for another adventure in the airline industry, TWA's former owner Howard Hughes sought the airline in 1968, the deal was finalized in 1970; the airline was renamed Hughes Air West and its call sign became "Hughes Air." It expanded to several cities in the western United States and Mexico. With the new yellow paint scheme, unveiled 28 September 1971, the airline began calling itself Hughes Airwest, two words instead of the initial three word name; the airline participated in some movies in the 1970s, notably The Gauntlet with Clint Eastwood and Sondra Locke in 1977. Eastwood's character arrives in Las Vegas from Phoenix on the airline and when he phones the airport for flight departure times, Locke's character sarcastically called the airline, "Air Worst."
In 1977, the airline was operating service from both Burbank and Orange County to Denver via an interchange flight agreement with the original Frontier Airlines. Hughes Airwest would subsequently introduce its own jet service to Denver from a number of cities in the western U. S. Like other local service airlines in the 1970s, Hughes Airwest eliminated many stops and opened longer routes. Service expanded to resorts in Mexico. Hughes Airwest became an all-jet airline with Boeing 727-200s, Douglas DC-9-10s and McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30s when it ended Fairchild F-27 turboprop flights in 1979. In September 1979 the airline was grounded for two months by a walkout by their ticket agents, reservations handlers, office employees, without a contract for over a year. During 1979 several airlines showed interest in buying Hughes Airwest, including Alaska and Allegheny, with the latter soon becoming USAir; the strike was resolved in late October and flights resumed in November. Four months they were the target of a buyout by Republic Airlines, finalized on October 1, 1980, for $38.5 million.
Republic had been formed in July 1979 via the merger of North Central Airlines and Southern Airways, the first under airline deregulation. Republic was acquired by Northwest Airlines in 1986, which in turn was merged into Delta Air Lines in 2010; the original headquarters were in two buildings in downtown San Mateo, California, on the San Francisco peninsula. Its new headquarters were located in San Mateo; the airline scheduled the move to a new headquarters from Thursday August 25, 1973, to August 28, 1973. The complex was on a hill overlooking San Francisco Bay; the airline relocated two departments from the offices at San Francisco International Airport: flight control and reservations. Hughes Airwest's planes were recognizable by their banana-yellow tail colors, their airplanes were dubbed "flying bananas" and the airline launched an advertising campaign with the catchphrase "Top Banana in the West." Most nicknames given to Hughes Airwest airplanes in aviation books and magazines have to do with bananas.
Apart from their all-yellow scheme, the airplanes featured a blue logo on the vertical stabilizer that resembled three diamonds connected. The name Hughes Airwest, in stylized lettering, was featured unconventionally below the front passenger windows; this livery was devised by the southern California design firm of Mario Armond Zamparelli, following the crash of Flight 706 in June 1971, caused by a mid-air collision with a U. S. Marine Corps F-4B jet fighter near Duarte, California. In late 1971, the company launched a new marketing campaign which included new colors and repainted planes; the cabin windows had a metallized PET film coating but this proved too costly to maintain. Zamparelli designed the uniforms of the flight attendants in the new colors in Sundance Yellow trimmed with Universe Blue. After the sale in October 1980 the all-yellow paint scheme was replaced by Republic's white with blue and green trim, the mallard "Herman the Duck." Douglas DC-9-14/15/31/32 - 49 (includes 17 Douglas DC-9-10s and 32 McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30s.
Bonanza Air Lines and West Coast Airlines both operated DC-9-10s when they merge
Southern Airways was an airline in the United States from its founding by Frank Hulse in 1949 until 1979 when it merged with North Central Airlines to become Republic Airlines, which on October 1, 1986, became part of Northwest Airlines, which merged into Delta Air Lines in 2008. Southern corporate headquarters was in Birmingham, with operations headquartered at William B. Hartsfield Airport, near Atlanta; as a local service airline, Southern Airways covered the south-central U. S. In 1955 their network spanned from Memphis south to New Orleans and east to Charlotte and Jacksonville. In August 1953 Southern flew to 29 airports and in August 1967 to 50. Like other Local Service airlines Southern was subsidized. In May 1968 Southern's routes extended from Tri-Cities in Tennessee south to New Orleans and Jacksonville, east from Baton Rouge and Monroe, Louisiana to the coast at Myrtle Beach and Charleston. In 1968 a route sprouted northward: three weekday Douglas DC-9-10s from Columbus GA nonstop to Washington Dulles and on to New York LaGuardia.
These originated at Eglin Air Force Base, FL. Like most local service airlines Southern flew only Douglas DC-3s for the first few years. In 1961 they began adding 22 40-passenger secondhand Martin 4-0-4s acquired from Eastern Air Lines, newer aircraft that were pressurised and had a rear ventral stairway; the last DC-3 flight was in 1967. Southern's first 65-75 passenger Douglas DC-9 series 10s arrived in 1967 followed by 85-95 passenger McDonnell Douglas DC-9 series 30s in 1969; the last scheduled flight by a Martin was on 20 April 1978 from Atlanta to Gadsden and back. Some DC-9s were bought new and some used. Both airlines had purchased these aircraft new from Douglas. Unlike other local service airlines Southern did not operate turboprops during the 1960s and 1970s, but by the time of the merger with North Central, Southern had replaced their Martin 4-0-4s with several 19-passenger Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner "Metro II"s. By 1971 Southern was flying south to Orlando and Miami. U. S. government regulation didn't allow Southern to fly nonstop from New York or Washington, D.
C. to Atlanta, so Southern had nonstops to Columbus, Georgia on to Dothan, Alabama. Many flights made six intermediate stops en route. With more DC-9s, many routes once served with prop aircraft were served with jets that linked small cities to Atlanta and Memphis: Columbus, Georgia to Washington, DC continuing to New York City. Meridian, Mississippi to Birmingham, Alabama. Tuscaloosa, Alabama to Atlanta and Columbus, Mississippi. Muscle Shoals/Florence, Alabama to Memphis and Huntsville/Decatur, Alabama with continuing eastbound service to Atlanta. Greenville, Mississippi to Memphis and Monroe, Louisiana with continuing southbound service to Baton Rouge and New Orleans. Columbia, South Carolina to Greenville/Spartanburg and Charleston, South Carolina. Albany, Georgia to Atlanta, Georgia. One DC-9-14 aircraft operated a "milk run" multi-stop routing from Miami to Orlando, Panama City, Eglin AFB, Gulfport, New Orleans, Atlanta, Memphis, St Louis and Chicago Midway. Time en route was 32 minutes. By the mid-1970s Southern's system had expanded to St. Louis, Detroit, Ft. Lauderdale and Grand Cayman in the Caribbean, Southern's only international destination.
Southern Airways called itself the "Route of the Aristocrats" and they used the slogan "Nobody's Second Class on Southern" in their television commercials. They were famous for their promotional shot glasses: for a time, differently designed shot glasses were issued each year. Original Southern shot. During the early 1970s before strict airport security was implemented across the United States, several airlines experienced hijackings. Southern Airways Flight 49, a DC-9 en route from Memphis to Miami was hijacked on November 10, 1972 during a stop in Birmingham, Alabama; the three hijackers boarded the plane armed with handguns and hand grenades. At gunpoint, the hijackers took the airplane, the plane’s crew of four, 27 passengers to nine American cities, to Havana, Cuba. During the long flight the hijackers threatened to crash the plane into the Oak Ridge, nuclear facilities, insisted on talking with President Richard Nixon, demanded a ransom of $10 million. Southern Airways was only able to come up with $2 million.
The pilot talked the hijackers into settling for the $2 million when the plane landed in Chattanooga for refueling. Upon landing in Havana the Cuban authorities arrested the hijackers and, after a brief delay, sent the plane and crew back to the United States; the hijackers and $2 million stayed in Cuba. Southern Airways accounted for the $2 million by debiting it to an account entitled "Hijacking Payment." This account was reported as a type of receivable under "other assets" on Southern's balance sheet. The company maintained that they would be able to collect the cash from the Cuban government and that, therefore, a receivable existed. Southern Airways was repaid $2 million by the Cuban government, attemptin
Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States. It borders the state of Montana to the east and northeast, Wyoming to the east and Utah to the south, Washington and Oregon to the west. To the north, it shares a small portion of the Canadian border with the province of British Columbia. With a population of 1.7 million and an area of 83,569 square miles, Idaho is the 14th largest, the 12th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. Idaho prior to European settlement was inhabited by Native American peoples, some of whom still live in the area. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area disputed between the U. S. and the United Kingdom. It became U. S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.
Forming part of the Pacific Northwest, Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. In the state's north, the isolated Idaho Panhandle is linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone – the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone; the state's south includes the Snake River Plain, while the south-east incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous, contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains; the United States Forest Service holds about 38 % of the most of any state. Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, mining and tourism. A number of science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, the state contains the Idaho National Laboratory, the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield; the official state nickname is the "Gem State".
The name's origin remains a mystery. In the early 1860s, when the United States Congress was considering organizing a new territory in the Rocky Mountains, eccentric lobbyist George M. Willing suggested the name "Idaho", which he claimed was derived from a Shoshone language term meaning "the sun comes from the mountains" or "gem of the mountains". Willing claimed he had invented the name. Congress decided to name the area Colorado Territory when it was created in February 1861. Thinking they would get a jump on the name, locals named a community in Colorado "Idaho Springs". However, the name "Idaho" did not fall into obscurity; the same year Congress created Colorado Territory, a county called Idaho County was created in eastern Washington Territory. The county was named after a steamship named Idaho, launched on the Columbia River in 1860, it is unclear after Willing's claim was revealed. Regardless, part of Washington Territory, including Idaho County, was used to create Idaho Territory in 1863.
Despite this lack of evidence for the origin of the name, many textbooks well into the 20th century repeated as fact Willing's account the name "Idaho" derived from the Shoshone term "ee-da-how". A 1956 Idaho history textbook says:"Idaho" is a Shoshoni Indian exclamation; the word consists of three parts. The first is "Ee", which in English conveys the idea of "coming down"; the second is "dah", the Shoshoni stem or root for both "sun" and "mountain". The third syllable, "how", denotes the exclamation and stands for the same thing in Shoshoni that the exclamation mark does in the English language; the Shoshoni word is "Ee-dah-how", the Indian thought thus conveyed when translated into English means, "Behold! the sun coming down the mountain. An alternative etymology attributes the name to the Plains Apache word "ídaahę́", used in reference to The Comanche. Idaho borders six U. S. states and one Canadian province. The states of Washington and Oregon are to the west and Utah are to the south, Montana and Wyoming are to the east.
Idaho shares a short border with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north. The landscape is rugged with some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the United States. For example, at 2.3 million acres, the Frank Church-River of No Return Wilderness Area is the largest contiguous area of protected wilderness in the continental United States. Idaho is a Rocky Mountain state with scenic areas; the state has snow-capped mountain ranges, vast lakes and steep canyons. The waters of the Snake River rush through the deepest gorge in the United States. Shoshone Falls plunges down rugged cliffs from a height greater than Niagara Falls; the major rivers in Idaho are the Snake River, the Clark Fork/Pend Oreille River, the Clearwater River, the Salmon River. Other significant rivers include the Coeur d'Alene River, the Spokane River, the Boise River, the Payette River; the Salmon River empties into the Snake in Hells Canyon and forms the southern boundary of Nez Perce County on its north shore, of which Lewiston is the county seat.
The Port of Lewiston, at the confluence of the Clearwater and the Snake Rivers is the farthest inland seaport on the West Coast at 465 river miles from the Pacific at Astoria, Oregon. Idaho's highest point is 12,662 ft, in the Lost River Range north of Mackay. Idaho's lowest poi
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria is the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of 85,792, while the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria has a population of 367,770, making it the 15th most populous Canadian metropolitan area. Victoria is the 7th most densely populated city in Canada with 4,405.8 people per square kilometre, a greater population density than Toronto. Victoria is the southernmost major city in Western Canada, is about 100 kilometres from British Columbia's largest city of Vancouver on the mainland; the city is about 100 km from Seattle by airplane, ferry, or the Victoria Clipper passenger-only ferry which operates daily, year round between Seattle and Victoria, 40 kilometres from Port Angeles, Washington, by ferry Coho across the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and, at the time, British North America, Victoria is one of the oldest cities in the Pacific Northwest, with British settlement beginning in 1843.
The city has retained a large number of its historic buildings, in particular its two most famous landmarks, Parliament Buildings and the Empress hotel. The city's Chinatown is the second oldest in North America after San Francisco's; the region's Coast Salish First Nations peoples established communities in the area long before non-native settlement several thousand years earlier, which had large populations at the time of European exploration. Known as "The Garden City", Victoria is an attractive city and a popular tourism destination with a thriving technology sector that has risen to be its largest revenue-generating private industry. Victoria is according to Numbeo; the city has a large non-local student population, who come to attend the University of Victoria, Camosun College, Royal Roads University, the Victoria College of Art, the Canadian College of Performing Arts, high school programs run by the region's three school districts. Victoria is popular with boaters with its rugged beaches.
Victoria is popular with retirees, who come to enjoy the temperate and snow-free climate of the area as well as the relaxed pace of the city. Prior to the arrival of European navigators in the late 1700s, the Victoria area was home to several communities of Coast Salish peoples, including the Songhees; the Spanish and British took up the exploration of the northwest coast, beginning with the visits of Juan Pérez in 1774, of James Cook in 1778. Although the Victoria area of the Strait of Juan de Fuca was not penetrated until 1790, Spanish sailors visited Esquimalt Harbour in 1790, 1791, 1792. In 1841 James Douglas was charged with the duty of setting up a trading post on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, upon the recommendation by George Simpson a new more northerly post be built in case Fort Vancouver fell into American hands. Douglas founded Fort Victoria on the site of present-day Victoria in anticipation of the outcome of the Oregon Treaty in 1846, extending the British North America/United States border along the 49th parallel from the Rockies to the Strait of Georgia.
Erected in 1843 as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post on a site called Camosun known as "Fort Albert", the settlement was renamed Fort Victoria in November 1843, in honour of Queen Victoria. The Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort; the Songhees' village was moved north of Esquimalt. The crown colony was established in 1849. Between the years 1850-1854 a series of treaty agreements known as the Douglas Treaties were made with indigenous communities to purchase certain plots of land in exchange for goods; these agreements contributed to a town being laid out on the site and made the capital of the colony, though controversy has followed about the ethical negotiation and upholding of rights by the colonial government. The superintendent of the fort, Chief Factor James Douglas was made the second governor of the Vancouver Island Colony, would be the leading figure in the early development of the city until his retirement in 1864; when news of the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland reached San Francisco in 1858, Victoria became the port, supply base, outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 within a few days.
Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy was established in Esquimalt and today is Canada's Pacific coast naval base. In 1866 when the island was politically united with the mainland, Victoria was designated the capital of the new united colony instead of New Westminster – an unpopular move on the Mainland – and became the provincial capital when British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Port of Victoria became one of North America's largest importers of opium, serving the opium trade from Hong Kong and distribution into North America. Opium trade was legal and unregulated until 1865 the legislature issued licences and levied duties on its import and sale; the opium trade was banned in 1908. In 1886, with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway terminus on Burrard Inlet, Victoria's position as the commercial centre of British Columbia was irrevocably lost to the city of Vancouver, British Columbia.
The city subsequently began culti
Boeing Field King County International Airport, is a public airport owned and operated by King County, five miles south of downtown Seattle, Washington. The airport is sometimes referred to as KCIA; the airport has some passenger service, but is used by general aviation and cargo. It is named for the founder of William E. Boeing; the airport's property is in Seattle just south of Georgetown, with its southern tip extending into Tukwila. It has more than 375,000 operations yearly. Except for the World War II period, when it was taken over by the U. S. government, Boeing Field was Seattle's main passenger airport from its construction in 1928 until Seattle-Tacoma International Airport began operations in the late 1940s. The Boeing Company continues to use the field for testing and delivery of its airplanes, it is still a major regional cargo hub, it is used by Air Force One when the President of the United States visits the Seattle area. The August 1946 OAG lists 24 United Airlines weekday departures, 10 weekly flights on Northwest Airlines and several Pan Am Douglas DC-3s a week to Juneau via Annette Island Airport, which served Ketchikan.
Boeing Field has no scheduled passenger jet airline service. The last jet service was on Hughes Airwest in 1971 and before that by predecessors Air West and West Coast Airlines, all using DC-9s. A proposal by Southwest Airlines in June 2005 was submitted to King County to relocate from Seattle-Tacoma International Airport to Boeing Field, but was rejected by King County Executive Ron Sims in October. A similar proposal by Alaska Airlines was rejected. Southwest Airlines said; the transfer of ownership of Boeing Field from King County to the Port of Seattle was proposed in 2007 as part of a land swap with land owned by the Port. The National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 called it a primary commercial service airport. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 34,597 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 35,863 in 2009 and 33,656 in 2010; the airport covers 634 acres at an elevation of 21 feet. It has two asphalt runways: 14R/32L is 10,007 by 200 feet and 14L/32R is 3,709 by 100 feet.
In the year ending January 1, 2018 the airport had 184,182 aircraft operations, average 504 per day: 78% general aviation, 16% air taxi, 5% airline, <1% military. 384 aircraft were based at this airport: 229 single-engine, 40 multi-engine, 88 jet, 26 helicopter, 1 glider. The runway numbers were updated from 13/31 to 14/32 in August 2017, due to shifting magnetic headings; the Boeing Company has facilities at the airport. Final preparations for delivery of Boeing 737 aircraft after the first test flight are made at Boeing Field. Boeing facilities at the airport have included a paint hangar and flight test facilities; the initial assembly of the 737 was at Boeing Field in the 1960s because the factory in Renton was at capacity building the Boeing 707 and Boeing 727. After 271 aircraft, production moved to Renton in late 1970. Production of military airborne early warning and control aircraft based on the 737, such as Project Wedgetail aircraft and Peace Eagle aircraft is located at Boeing Field.
The Museum of Flight is on the southwest corner of the field. Among the aircraft on display is an ex-British Airways Concorde, lent to the museum from BA, a supersonic airliner that landed at Boeing Field on its first visit to Seattle on November 15, 1984. Aircraft on the airfield can be seen from the museum; the King County International Airport contracts with the King County Sheriff's Office for police services. Deputies assigned to the airport wear a mix of both Police and Fire uniforms, turnouts etc. which includes single Police, Fire/ARFF patch, drive King County International Airport Police patrol cars. There are 17 patrol officers/sergeants and one chief assigned full-time to the airport. Officers assigned to the airport are required to obtain a Washington State Fire Fighter One certification and an Emergency Medical Technician certification. Boeing Field had scheduled passenger flights on West Coast Airlines Douglas DC-9-10s, Fairchild F-27s and Douglas DC-3s to Idaho, Washington state, northern California, western Montana, northern Utah and Calgary in Alberta.
The April 28, 1968 West Coast timetable shows nonstop flights to Aberdeen, WA/Hoquiam, WA, Boise, ID, Olympia, WA, Pasco, WA, Portland, OR, Salt Lake City, UT, Spokane, WA, Tacoma, WA, Wenatchee, WA and Yakima, WA. West Coast DC-9s flew nonstop to Boise, Portland, Salt Lake City and Yakima, direct to San Francisco and Medford. F-27s flew to Alberta. West Coast, which had its headquarters in the Seattle area and operated all of its flights from Boeing Field, merged with Pacific Air Lines and Bonanza Air Lines to form Air West which continued at Boeing Field until it moved to Seattle-Tacoma International Airport in 1971. Aeroamerica, an airline based at Boeing Field from 1971 to 1982 which operated Boeing 707s and Boeing 720s, flew nonstop to Spokane, Washington. Air Oregon, a commuter airline, scheduled Swearingen Metros in 1979 to its hub in Oregon. Helijet, a helicopter airline based at Vancouver International Airport in British Columbia, operated scheduled Sikorsky S-76 twin engine helicopter flights to the Victoria Harbour Heliport in British Columbia with direct one stop service to Helijet's Vancouver Harbour Heliport next to downtown Vancouver, B.
C. before ceasing flights on the route. Washing
Westlake is a neighborhood in the city of Seattle, in the U. S. state of Washington, named after its location on the western shore of Lake Union. It is a narrow neighborhood, there being only a few blocks between the shoreline and its western limit at Aurora Avenue N. beyond, Queen Anne. To the south beyond Aloha Street is South Lake Union, to the north across the Fremont Cut is Fremont, its main thoroughfares are Dexter and Westlake Avenues N.. Tom Hanks's character in Sleepless in Seattle lived in a Westlake houseboat. Prior to its dissolution, West Coast Airlines had its headquarters in Westlake. Seattle City Clerk's Neighborhood Map Atlas — Westlake
McDonnell Douglas DC-9
The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. It first flew and entered airline service in 1965; the DC-9 was designed for short flights. The final DC-9 was delivered in October 1982. DC-9-based airliners including the MD-80, MD-90 and Boeing 717 followed in production. With the final deliveries of the 717 in 2006, production of the DC-9/MD-80/90/717 aircraft family ceased after 41 years and 2441 units built. During the 1950s Douglas Aircraft studied a short- to medium-range airliner to complement their higher capacity, long range DC-8. A medium-range four-engine Model 2067 was studied but it did not receive enough interest from airlines and it was abandoned. In 1960, Douglas signed a two-year contract with Sud Aviation for technical cooperation. Douglas would market and support the Sud Aviation Caravelle and produce a licensed version if airlines ordered large numbers. None were ordered and Douglas returned to its design studies after the cooperation deal expired. In 1962, design studies were underway.
The first version had a gross weight of 69,000 lb. This design was changed into. Douglas gave approval to produce the DC-9 on April 8, 1963. Unlike the competing but larger Boeing 727 trijet, which used as many 707 components as possible, the DC-9 was an all-new design; the DC-9 has two rear-mounted Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engines small, efficient wings, a T-tail. The DC-9's takeoff weight was limited to 80,000 lb for a two-person flight crew by Federal Aviation Agency regulations at the time. DC-9 aircraft have five seats across for economy seating; the airplane seats 80 to 135 passengers depending on seating arrangement. The DC-9 was designed for short to medium routes to smaller airports with shorter runways and less ground infrastructure than the major airports being served by larger designs like the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8. Accessibility and short field characteristics were called for. Turnarounds were simplified by built-in airstairs, including one in the tail, which shortened boarding and deplaning times.
The tail-mounted engine design facilitated a clean wing without engine pods, which had numerous advantages. For example, flaps could be longer, unimpeded by pods on the leading edge and engine blast concerns on the trailing edge; this simplified design improved airflow at low speeds and enabled lower takeoff and approach speeds, thus lowering field length requirements and keeping wing structure light. The second advantage of the tail-mounted engines was the reduction in foreign object damage from ingested debris from runways and aprons. However, with this position, the engines could ingest ice streaming off the wing roots. Third, the absence of engines in underslung pods allowed a reduction in fuselage ground clearance, making the aircraft more accessible to baggage handlers and passengers; the problem of deep stalling, revealed by the loss of the BAC One-Eleven prototype in 1963, was overcome through various changes, including the introduction of vortilons, small surfaces beneath the wing's leading edge used to control airflow and increase low speed lift.
The first DC-9, a production model, flew on February 25, 1965. The second DC-9 flew a few weeks with a test fleet of five aircraft flying by July; this allowed the initial Series 10 to gain airworthiness certification on November 23, 1965, to enter service with Delta Air Lines on December 8. The DC-9 was always intended to be available in multiple versions to suit customer requirements, The first stretched version, the Series 30, with a longer fuselage and extended wing tips, flew on August 1, 1966, entering service with Eastern Air Lines in 1967; the initial Series 10 would be followed by the improved -20, -30, -40 variants. The final DC-9 series was the -50, which first flew in 1974; the DC-9 was a commercial success with 976 built when production ended in 1982. The DC-9 is one of the longest-lasting aircraft in operation, its last successor, the Boeing 717, was produced until 2006. The DC-9 family was produced in 2441 units: 1191 MD-80s, 116 MD-90s and 155 Boeing 717s; this compares to 8,000 Airbus A320s delivered as of February 2018 and 10,000 Boeing 737s completed as of March 2018.
Studies aimed at further improving DC-9 fuel efficiency, by means of retrofitted wingtips of various types, were undertaken by McDonnell Douglas. However, these did not demonstrate significant benefits with existing fleets shrinking; the wing design makes retrofitting difficult. The DC-9 was followed by the introduction of the MD-80 series in 1980; this was called the DC-9-80 series. It was a lengthened DC-9-50 with a higher maximum takeoff weight, a larger wing, new main landing gear, higher fuel capacity; the MD-80 series features a number of variants of the Pratt & Whitney JT8D turbofan engine having higher thrust ratings than those available on the DC-9. The series includes the MD-81, MD-82, MD-83, MD-88, shorter fuselage MD-87; the MD-80 series was further developed into the McDonnell Douglas MD-90 in the early 1990s. It has yet another fuselage stretch, an electronic flight instrument system, new International Aero V2500 high-bypass turbofan engines. In comparison to the successful MD-80 few MD-90s were built.
The final variant was the MD-95, renamed the Boeing 717-200 after McDonnell Douglas's merger with Boeing in 1997 and before aircraft deliveries began. The fuselage length and wing are similar to those of the DC-9-30, but much use was made of lighter, modern materials. Power is supplied by two BMW/Rolls-Royce BR715 high-bypass turbofan en