Adelaide Metro is the public transport system of Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. It is an intermodal system offering an integrated network of bus and train service throughout the metropolitan area to 63 million riders annually, with an average daily ridership of 173,000 people; the system has evolved over the past fifteen years, patronage increased during the 2014–15 period, a 5.5 percent increase on the 2013 figures due to electrification of frequented lines. Adelaide Metro began in 2000 with the privatisation of existing government-operated bus and train routes; the Glenelg tram, the only of Adelaide's tramways to survive the 1950s, was integrated into the current system. Services are now run by four private operators and united with common ticketing systems and livery and signage under the supervision of South Australia's Department of Planning and Infrastructure. Since the last fifteen years, energy sustainability and eco-friendly transport has been a major focus for Adelaide Metro.
Despite this 80 percent of Adelaide's metropolitan buses still run on diesel fuel rather than biodiesel or batteries. Adelaide Metro has faced criticism for punctuality issues, "unreliable" services, ageing buses and incidents of coarse language and assault on some lines; the complaints increased since the system switched to a private operator in October 2011. The Adelaide Metro received 7,562 feedback reports–more than 40 a day–in 2012. In order to counteract these problems and increase accountability, performance data will now be published weekly as opposed to quarterly by the Adelaide Metro; this will highlight how trains and buses are performing in terms of punctuality and service, as well as comparisons to interstate public transport. The 2014 service figures indicate that the system performed better in 2014 than it did the previous year; the Adelaide Metro is a brand introduced in April 2000 following the second round of tenders privatisation of government-operated bus services. The public transport system in Adelaide has been known under several names.
The State Transport Authority was formed in 1974, combining the metropolitan rail operations of the former South Australian Railways Commission, the bus and tram operations of the former Municipal Tramways Trust. Adelaide removed all tramlines during the 1960s leaving only the Glenelg line; this tramline was extended in 2007 by the Department Of Transport, Energy & Infrastructure, again to the Adelaide Entertainment Centre in 2010. In July 1994, the STA was abolished and government public transport services were transferred to TransAdelaide, a publicly owned corporation. In 1995–96, there was a partial tendering of the bus services. TransAdelaide retained three contract regions, Serco won two contract regions, Hills Transit a joint venture between Australian Transit Enterprises and TransAdelaide, one. Services were run and marketed under each operator's name, presenting a disjointed network to the public; the 2000 round of tenders saw the end of TransAdelaide's direct operation of bus services in its own right, although it retained the train and tram services.
Serco won the North-South, Outer North, Outer North-East contract areas, SouthLink the Outer South contract area, Torrens Transit the East-West contract area and City Free services and Transitplus, a joint venture between Australian Transit Enterprises and TransAdelaide, the Hills Contract area. The Adelaide Metro brand was applied across all transport operators, appearing to the public as a unified network, with common livery, timetable designs and a city Information Centre; the State Government pledged that the Adelaide Metro would use cleaner fuels like biodiesel and natural gas in an effort to make Adelaide a carbon neutral city, however nearly 80 percent of the Adelaide Metro buses are still run on diesel, harmful for the environment due to the presence of sulfur. The largest element of Adelaide's public transport system is a fleet of diesel and natural gas powered buses; the majority of services terminate in the Adelaide city centre, suburban railway stations or shopping centre interchanges.
As contracts are revised for privatised bus operations, more cross suburban routes are added to the network, whereas in the past bus routes were focused on moving passengers from the suburbs to the CBD. A major component of the Adelaide Metro bus service is the O-Bahn guided busway to Modbury carrying around 9 million passengers a year. From opening in 1986 until August 2011 it was the world's longest busway, with a length of 12 kilometres and remains the world's fastest busway with a maximum permitted speed of 100 km/h. Away from the O-Bahn, whilst there have been dedicated bus lanes and bus only signal phases at some traffic lights provided for a number of years, a major improvement to bus priority and reliability arrived with the delivery in July 2012 of the CBD Bus Lane project. Adelaide Metro buses are operated by: Torrens Transit – North-South, East-West and Outer North East contract areas SouthLink – Outer South, Outer North and Hills contract areas. Companies which had operated Adelaide Metro services in the past but which no longer operate in Adelaide are: Serco – ended its contract in 2004, at the contracted half-term break-point, after failing to renegotiate its contract on better terms.
Serco had informed the Minister for Transport that it was not willing to continue to operate the bus services for a further five years on the terms contained in the existing Contract
Captain Charles Napier Sturt was a British explorer of Australia, part of the European exploration of Australia. He led several expeditions into the interior of the continent, starting from both Sydney and from Adelaide, his expeditions traced several of the westward-flowing rivers, establishing that they all merged into the Murray River. He was searching to prove his own passionately held belief that there was an "inland sea" at the centre of the continent. Charles Sturt was born in Bengal, British India, the eldest son of Thomas Lenox Napier Sturt, a judge under the British East India Company. At the age of five, Charles was sent to relations in England to be educated, after attending a preparatory school he was sent to Harrow in 1810. In 1812, Charles went to read with a Mr. Preston near Cambridge, but his father was not wealthy and had difficulty finding the money to send him to Cambridge University, or to establish him in a profession. An aunt made an appeal to the Prince Regent and, on 9 September 1813, Sturt was gazetted as an ensign with the 39th Regiment of Foot in the British Army.
Sturt saw action with the Duke of Wellington in the Peninsular War and against the Americans in Canada during the War of 1812, returning to Europe a few days after the Battle of Waterloo. Sturt was gazetted lieutenant on 7 April 1823 and promoted captain on 15 December 1825. With a detachment from his regiment, Sturt escorted convicts aboard the Mariner to New South Wales, arriving in Sydney on 23 May 1827. Sturt found the conditions and climate in New South Wales much better than he expected and he developed a great interest in the country; the Governor of New South Wales, Sir Ralph Darling, formed a high opinion of Sturt and appointed him major of brigade and military secretary. Sturt became friendly with Allan Cunningham, Hamilton Hume and other explorers. Sturt was keen to explore the Australian interior its rivers. Sturt received approval from Governor Darling on 4 November 1828 to explore the area of the Macquarie River in western New South Wales, it was not, until 10 November that the party started out.
It consisted of his servant Joseph Harris, three soldiers and eight convicts. Hume's experience proved to be useful. A week was spent at Wellington Valley breaking in oxen and horses and on 7 December the real start into comparatively little known country was made. 1828–29 was a period of drought and there was difficulty in getting sufficient water. The courses of the Macquarie and Castlereagh rivers had been followed, though its importance was scarcely sufficiently realized, the Darling River had been discovered; the party returned to Wellington Valley on 21 April 1829. The expedition proved that northern New South Wales was not an inland sea, but deepened the mystery of where the western-flowing rivers of New South Wales went. In 1829 Governor Darling approved an expedition to solve this mystery. Sturt proposed to travel down the Murrumbidgee River, whose upper reaches had been seen by the Hume and Hovell expedition. In place of Hume, unable to join the party, George Macleay went "as a companion rather than as an assistant".
A whaleboat built in sections was carried with them, assembled, on 7 January 1830 the eventful voyage down the Murrumbidgee began. In January 1830 Sturt's party reached the confluence of the Murrumbidgee and a much larger river, which Sturt named the Murray River, it was in fact the same river which Hovell had crossed further upstream and named the Hume. Sturt's party encountered some hostility from the Aboriginal people, he remarked. Sturt proceeded down the Murray, until he reached the river's confluence with the Darling. Sturt had now proved that all the western-flowing rivers flowed into the Murray. In February 1830, the party reached a large lake. A few days they reached the sea. There they made the disappointing discovery that the mouth of the Murray was a maze of lagoons and sandbars, impassable to shipping; the party faced the ordeal of rowing back up the Murray and Murrumbidgee, against the current, in the heat of an Australian summer. Their supplies ran out and when they reached the site of Narrandera in April they were unable to go any further.
Sturt sent two men overland in search of supplies and they returned in time to save the party from starvation, but Sturt went blind for some months and never recovered his health. By the time they arrived back in Sydney they had rowed and sailed nearly 2,900 kilometres of the river system. Sturt served as Commander on Norfolk Island where mutiny was brewing among the convicts, but in 1832 he was obliged to go to England on sick leave and arrived there completely blind. In 1833 he published his Two Expeditions into the Interior of Southern Australia during the years 1828, 1829, 1830 and 1831, of which a second edition appeared in 1834. For the first time the public in England realized the importance of Sturt's work. Governor Darling's somewhat tardy but appreciative dispatch of 14 April 1831, his request for Sturt's promotion, had had no result, nothing came of the request by Sir Richard Bourke who had succeeded Darling that Viscount Goderich should give "this deserving officer your Lordship's protection and support".
Though it seems to have been impossible to persuade the colonial office of the value of Sturt's work his book had one important effect. It was read by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, led to the choice of South Australia for the new settlement in contemplation. In May 1834, in view of his services, Sturt appl
Krispy Kreme Doughnuts, Inc. is an American doughnut company and coffeehouse chain founded in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Krispy Kreme founder Vernon Rudolph bought a yeast-raised recipe from a New Orleans chef and, in 1937, rented a building in what is now historic Old Salem in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, began selling to local grocery stores. Steady growth preceded an ambitious expansion as a public company in the period 2000-2016, which proved unprofitable. In 2016, the company returned to private ownership under JAB Holding Company, a private Luxembourg-based firm. In 1933, eighteen-year-old Vernon Rudolph, along with his brother Lewis Rudolph, began working for his uncle, Ishmael Armstrong, who owned a small general store in Paducah, Kentucky that sold a wide variety of goods, including its popular doughnuts. While the exact origin of the doughnut recipe remains a mystery, it is believed that Ishmael Armstrong was inspired by an Ohio River barge cook named Joseph LeBeouf, famous for his light and fluffy doughnuts.
The store struggled during the Great Depression, so in 1934, Vernon and Ishmael decided to move to the larger city of Nashville, Tennessee where they hoped business would be better. The uncle and nephew focused on selling their doughnuts and opened "The Krispy Kreme Doughnut Company" in a rented store on Gallatin Road; the shop did so well that Vernon's father, Plumie left Kentucky and moved to Nashville to help sell doughnuts. In 1937, Vernon Rudolph opened his own store, deciding on Winston-Salem, North Carolina for the location when he learned that his favorite cigarette company, Camel Cigarettes, was headquartered in the small North Carolina city. Rudolph sold to convenience stores; the first store in North Carolina was located in a rented building on South Main Street in Winston-Salem in what is now called historic Old Salem. The Krispy Kreme logo was designed by Benny Dinkins, a local architect; the first Krispy Kreme bakery outside the South opened in Akron, Ohio, in 1939. Expansion occurred in the 1950s, including an early store in Savannah, Georgia.
By the 1960s, Krispy Kreme was known throughout the Southeast, it began to expand into other areas. In 1976, Krispy Kreme Doughnut Corporation became a wholly owned subsidiary of Beatrice Foods of Chicago, Illinois; the headquarters for Krispy Kreme remained in Winston-Salem. A group of franchisees purchased the corporation back from Beatrice Foods in 1982. In May 2016, JAB Beech, a German investment firm, announced it made an offer to purchase the company for $1.35 billion over the following two months that would make the company owned. The transaction closed on July 27, 2016. In December 2017, Krispy Kreme moved corporate operations to Charlotte, NC. Krispy Kreme began another phase of rapid expansion in the 1990s, opening stores outside the southeastern United States where most of their stores were located. In December 2001, Krispy Kreme opened its first store outside the U. S. in Mississauga, Canada. On April 5, 2000, the corporation went public on the NASDAQ at $21 using the ticker symbol KREM.
On May 17, 2001, Krispy Kreme switched to the New York Stock Exchange, with the ticker symbol KKD, which it carried until its private acquisition. The stock reached what would be its all-time high of $50 on the New York Stock Exchange in August 2003, a gain of 135 percent from its IPO price. For the fiscal year ending in February 2004, the company reported sales of $665.6 million and operating profits of $94.7 million from 400 stores. The market considered the company as having "solid fundamentals, adding stores at a rapid clip and showing increasing sales and earnings." Since it had lost 75-80% of its value by 2005, amid earnings declines, as well as an SEC investigation over the company's alleged improper accounting practices. In May 2004, the company missed quarterly estimates for the first time and suffered its first loss as a public company. Chairman and CEO Scott Livengood attributed the poor results to the low-carbohydrate diet craze; this explanation was viewed with skepticism by analysts, as "blaming the Atkins diet for disappointing earnings carried a whiff of desperation", as rival donut chain, Dunkin' Donuts has not suffered from the low-carb trend over the same compared period.
Analysts suggested that Livengood had expanded the chain too after the IPO, which concentrated certain markets with too many stores. While this approach grew revenues and profits at the parent-company level, due to royalty payments from new franchisees, which increased sales, this reduced the profitability of individual franchisees in the long run as they were forced to compete with one another. For the 2003-04 fiscal year, while the parent enjoyed a 15 percent increase in second-quarter revenues, same-store sales increased only a tenth of a percent during that time. By contrast, McDonald's focused on profitability at the franchise level. Krispy Kreme had supermarkets and gas stations carry their donuts, which soon contributed up to half of the chain's sales, creating further market saturation as well as increasing competition to its franchisees. All this expansion devalued Krispy Kreme brand's novelty, by making the once-specialty donuts ubiquitous as the newer sales outlets required pre-made donuts as opposed to the ones made fresh in factory stores, which alienated brand devotees.
Besides royalty payments from new stores, the parent company enjoyed significant profits by requiring franchisees to purchase mix
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth
Islamic College of South Australia
The Islamic College of South Australia is in West Croydon, a suburb of Adelaide, South Australia. It offers classes from kindergarten to year 12, it has been a working school since 1997 but opened in 1926, where it first set up next to the Wandana Mosque on Wandana Avenue in Gilles Plains. It moved to 22A Cedar Avenue in West Croydon in 2000; the Islamic College of South Australia is owned and managed by the Australian Federation of Islamic Councils. In 2012 the school was in dispute with AFIC in regards to financial irregularities, which were uncovered during a federal audit. In 2013 a female staff member was dismissed for failing to adhere to the school's dress code; the teachers' union took the matter to Fair Work Australia. In May 2015 parents with-held their children from attending the college and have accused the board of firing principals and teachers; the Imams Council of South Australia expressed its concern, the federal education minister said he takes these issues seriously. In July 2015, a member of the board took a male student to a haircut salon, forcing him to get a haircut without his mother's permission.
In October 2015 the entire school board was sacked. That December, all government funding for the college was frozen. In February 2017 the federal Minister for Education and Training, Simon Birmingham, said the school had failed to meet obligations relating to governance, to financial management and to regular reporting, he said that federal funding for the school would cease in April 2017. In March 2017 it was reported that, following a police request, the Australian Securities and Investments Commission had been undertaking financial investigations into the more than $1 million missing and the high rentals paid to AFIC. Islam in Australia Islamic organisations in Australia Islamic schools and branches http://icosa.sa.edu.au/
Croydon Park, South Australia
Croydon Park is a north-western suburb of Adelaide 5.9 km from the CBD, in the state of South Australia, Australia and is within the City of Port Adelaide Enfield. It is adjacent to Dudley Park, Devon Park, Renown Park, Regency Park, Ferryden Park Kilkenny, West Croydon; the post code for Croydon Park is 5008. It is bounded to the south by Lamont Street and Torrens Road, to the north by Regency Road and in the east and west by Harrison Road and Goodall Avenue respectively. Croydon Park is predominantly a residential suburb, with a warehousing presence on the northern edges near Regency Road; the suburb is not served by a public primary school. Croydon Park Primary School was closed at the end of 1997 due to declining enrolments; the former site at Hudson Avenue was developed into housing. The closest primary schools are Challa Gardens Primary School, to the west in Kilkenny, or Brompton Primary School in Brompton. However, St. Margaret Mary's; the local high school was Croydon High School, in adjacent West Croydon.
Polonia Reserve, the base of State League football team Croydon Kings is located on the eastern side of Croydon Park. As of 2011 Census, Croydon Park had a population of 3,998: 50.3 % male. The median age of the Croydon Park population was 36 years, 1 year below the national median of 37. 47.5% of people living in Croydon Park were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were Vietnam 10.4%, India 4.8%, Greece 2.9%, Italy 2.8%, China 2.1%. 40.3% of people spoke only English at home. The religious make up of Croydon Park is 26.1% Catholic, 15.4% No Religion, 12.5% Buddhism, 10.4% Eastern Orthodox, 4.7% Islam. 40.7% of people are married, 38.6% have never married and 9.1% are divorced and 3.1% are separated. 50.9% of the people living in Croydon Park are employed full-time, 33% are working on a part-time basis. The main occupations of people from Croydon Park are Labourers 17.9%, Professionals 14.8%, Technicians and Trades Workers 14.3%, Clerical and Administrative Workers 13.5%, Community and Personal Service Workers 11.8%, Sales Workers 9%, Machinery Operators And Drivers 9%, Managers 6.7%.
Croydon Park has an unemployment rate of 10.6%. The Croydon Park area was a post war returned soldier housing estate, it subsequently attracted waves of European immigration. Over time, the children of these immigrants have vacated the area, leaving a elderly population; this is reflected in the declining enrolment rates at nearby schools, with Croydon Park Primary School and Croydon Primary School in the nearby suburb of Croydon, both being closed at the end of 1997. Today however, the area has started to attract interest from many home buyers due to its close proximity to the CBD; the 300, 230 and 232 bus routes serve Regency Road. The 230 and 232 serve Pym Street and Days and Harrison Roads; the 251, 252, 253 and 254 serve Torrens Road. All of the bus routes except 300 travel between Arndale Central Shopping Centre; the 300 bus is a cross metropolitan circular bus service
Electoral district of Croydon (South Australia)
Croydon is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. Named after the suburb of Croydon, it is a 18.78 km2 suburban electorate in Adelaide's inner north-west. In addition to Croydon, it includes Angle Park, Athol Park, Brompton, Croydon Park, Devon Park, Dudley Park, Ferryden Park, Mansfield Park, Regency Park, Renown Park, West Croydon, Woodville Gardens. Croydon was created in the 1998 electoral distribution as a safe Labor seat, replacing the abolished Spence, it was first contested at the 2002 state election, where it was won by future Attorney-General and Speaker Michael Atkinson, the previous member for Spence since 1989. The seat is split between the marginal federal seats of Adelaide and Hindmarsh and the safe federal Labor seat of Port Adelaide. Following the 2014 election Croydon became Labor's safest seat on an 18.9 percent margin. The 2016 redistribution by the electoral districts boundaries commission saw the northern boundary of Croydon district extended northwards from the vicinity of Regency Road to Grand Junction Road.
The southwestern boundary changed, with Beverley, Woodville Park and Flinders Park being absorbed by the neighbouring districts of Cheltenham and West Torrens. In February 2017, Atkinson announced his intention to resign from parliament and not recontest the seat as of the 2018 election. Upper house MP Peter Malinauskas succeeded him at the 2018 election. ECSA profile for Croydon: 2018 ABC profile for Croydon: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Croydon: 2018