Funk & Wagnalls
Funk & Wagnalls was an American publisher known for its reference works, including A Standard Dictionary of the English Language, the Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia. The encyclopedia was renamed Funk & Wagnalls New Standard Encyclopedia in 1931 and in 1945, it was known as New Funk & Wagnalls Encyclopedia, Universal Standard Encyclopedia, Funk & Wagnalls Standard Reference Encyclopedia, Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia; the last printing of Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia was in 1997. As of 2018, annual Yearbooks are still in production; the I. K. Funk & Company, founded in 1875, was renamed Funk & Wagnalls Company after two years, became Funk & Wagnalls Inc. Funk & Wagnalls Corporation. Isaac Kaufmann Funk founded the business in 1875 as I. K. Funk & Company. In 1877, Adam Willis Wagnalls, one of Funk's classmates at Wittenberg College, joined the firm as a partner and the name of the firm was changed to Funk & Wagnalls Company. During its early years, Funk & Wagnalls Company published religious books.
The publication of The Literary Digest in 1890 marked a shift to publishing of general reference dictionaries and encyclopedias. The firm published The Standard Dictionary of the English Language in 2 volumes in 1893 & 1895 and Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia in 1912. In 1913, the New Standard Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language was published under the supervision of Isaac K. Funk; the New Standard Unabridged Dictionary was revised until 1943, a edition, supervised by Charles Earl Funk. The encyclopedia was based upon Chambers's Encyclopaedia: "Especially are we indebted to the famous Chambers's Encyclopaedia... With its publishers we have arranged to draw upon its stores as as we have found it of advantage so to do."Wilfred J. Funk, the son of Isaac Funk, was president of the company from 1925 to 1940. Unicorn Press obtained the rights to publish the encyclopedia, by 1953 that firm began to sell the encyclopedia through a supermarket continuity marketing campaign, encouraging consumers to include the latest volume of the encyclopedia on their shopping lists.
Grocery stores in the 1970s in the Midwest kept about four volumes in a rotation, dropping the last and adding the latest until all volumes could be acquired with the initial first volume being 99 cents. The first several volumes were gold painted along the edges and the volumes were not; these volumes were $2.99 and toward the volumes the price had increased with the inflation of the 1970s. If one did not go shopping on a weekly basis, or delivery was spotty, there was a good chance that a volume might be missed to complete the set. In 1965, Funk & Wagnalls Co. was sold to Reader's Digest. In 1971, the company, now Funk and Wagnalls, was sold to Dun & Bradstreet. Dun and Bradstreet retained Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, but other reference works were relinquished to other publishers. In 1984, Dun & Bradstreet sold Funk & Wagnalls, Inc. to a group of Funk & Wagnalls executives, who in turn sold it to Field Corporation in 1988. In 1991, the company was sold to K-III Holdings, in 1993 Funk & Wagnalls Corporation acquired the World Almanac.
In 1998, as part of the Information division of Primedia Inc. the encyclopedia content appeared on the Web site "funkandwagnalls.com". This short-lived venture was shut down in 2001. Ripplewood Holdings bought Primedia's education division in 1999, which became part of Reader's Digest Association in 2007. In 2009, Funk & Wagnalls was acquired by World Book Encyclopedia. After failing to purchase rights to the text of the Encyclopædia Britannica and World Book Encyclopedia for its Encarta digital encyclopedia, Microsoft reluctantly used the text of Funk & Wagnalls encyclopedia for the first editions of its encyclopedia; this licensed text was replaced over the following years with content Microsoft created itself. 18?? – The Preacher's Homiletic Commentary on the Old Testament 18?? – The Preacher's Homiletic Commentary on the New Testament 1890 – The Literary Digest 1891 – The Encyclopedia of Missions 1893-95 – The Standard Dictionary of the English Language 1901/1906 – The Jewish Encyclopedia, 12 volumes 1906 – The World's Famous Orations, 10 volume set 1909 – Standard Bible Dictionary 1912 – Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia 1913 - 1943 The New Standard Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Two volumes 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 1 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 2 1915 – Women of all nations: a record of their characteristics, manners and influence, Volume 3 1920 – Funk and Wagnall's Student's Standard Dictionary of the English language 1927 – The World's One Hundred Best Short Stories, 10 volumes 1929 – Pocket Library of the World's Essential Knowledge, 10 volumes 1929 – The World's 1000 Best Poems, 10 volumes 1936 – A New Standard Bible Dictionary 1946 - Funk and Wagnalls New Practical Standard Dictionary, 2 volumes Re-Copyrighted in 1949, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954 1955 ***First hand account from volumes dated 1955.
1949/50 – Funk & Wagnalls standard dictionary of folklore and legend, 2 volumes. A one-volume edition with minor revisions was released in 1972. 1957 – The Fashion Dictionary 19?? – Funk & Wagnalls standard handbook of synonyms and prepositions 1968 – Handbook of Indoor Games & Stunts 1971 – Standard Dictionary of the English Language
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg and Duluth, are many miles inland, with access from the sea via river or canal. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan. Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea. Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty China and Canopus, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BCE.
In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period, the island of Dejima was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice. Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer function as modern ports. In more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn and Dunwich have been lost to coastal erosion. Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, canal, road and air routes.
Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland, such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres and freight-forwarders and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes, reach stackers and forklift trucks. Ports have specialised functions: some tend to cater for passenger ferries and cruise ships; some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch.
In modern times, ports decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London was a major international port on the River Thames, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport, a small semi-automated container port thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub. In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned by the state and by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport and the Manchester Ship Canal. Though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters.
For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp, an inland port on the River Scheldt, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities; the terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A fishing port is a harbor for landing and distributing fish, it may be a recreational facility, but it is commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo.
An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto, Duluth-Superior, C
Big-game fishing known as offshore sportfishing, offshore gamefishing, or blue-water fishing is a form of recreational fishing, targeting large fish such as tuna and marlin which game fisherman regard as having "sporting qualities". Big-game fishing started as a sport after the invention of the motor boat. Charles Frederick Holder, a marine biologist and early conservationist, is credited with founding the sport in 1898, he went on to publish many articles and books on the subject, noted for their combination of accurate scientific detail with exciting narratives. Purpose built. An example is the Crete, in use at Catalina Island, California, in 1915, shipped to Hawaii the following year. According to a newspaper report at that time, the Crete had "... a deep cockpit, a chair fitted for landing big fish and leather pockets for placing the pole." The billfish, larger tunas and sharks are the main species recognized as big-game fish, with many anglers considering the Atlantic tarpon a big-game species.
Smaller game fish, such as dolphinfish, smaller tuna species such as albacore and skipjack tuna, plus barracuda, are caught as by-catch or taken deliberately for use as live or dead bait. Most of the locations where the sport was developed, such as Avalon, California; as the vessels used for sportfishing became larger, longer-ranged and more seaworthy, big-game species are now pursued on grounds ranging from 60 or 70 miles' distance from port, such as the submarine canyons of the United States continental shelf, to hundreds of miles as in the case of the San Diego long range fishery, where large live-aboard vessels range far out into the Pacific searching for tuna schools. Today big-game fishing is carried out from ports in tropical and temperate coasts worldwide; the United States has the world's largest saltwater fishing industry and along the entire length of the East Coast, from Key West to the Gulf of Maine, big-game anglers pursue a variety of tropical and temperate sportfish ranging from sailfish and dolphinfish in the Florida Keys to giant bluefin tuna in Massachusetts and in Canadian waters.
The West Coast lacks the influence of the warm Gulf Stream current, most big game species are confined to California, a birthplace of the sport. Some of the same species that were fished for by the pioneers of the sport - Pacific bluefin tuna, broadbill swordfish and striped marlin - are still fished for today. Billfish and tuna are pursued in all the Latin American coastal nations, many of which are renowned for the excellence of their fishing. Mexico, Costa Rica, Venezuela and Guatemala have the largest fleets of sport fishing boats. Costa Rica's pacific coast the coast of the Guanacaste Province, is famous for its fishing because of the ocean currents and the government catch and release laws. Rio San Juan in Nicaragua is famous for sport fishing for giant tarpon; the government presently enforces release. An annual International tarpon fishing tournament has been held for many years; the 55th annual tournament was held September 13th & 14th 2015. In the United Kingdom big-game tunny fishing off Scarborough was in fashion in the 1930s for a few years.
Tunny was the name used in Britain at that time for Atlantic bluefin tuna. Colonel Edward Peel landed a world-record tunny of 798 pounds, capturing the record by 40 pounds from one caught off Nova Scotia by the American champion Zane Grey. In some areas big-game species can be caught by land-based anglers practicing land-based game fishing, with the rock platforms of Jervis Bay in New South Wales, Australia being the most well-known. Black marlin of up to 200 lbs have been caught here by anglers floating out baits on balloons. Big-game fishing requires a boat of sufficient seaworthiness and range to transport the crew to the fishing grounds and back. Boats that fit these requirements may be as small as the 18 to 21-foot trailerable boats used along the Australian coast, in New Zealand and on the lee coasts of the Hawaiian Islands where they are known as the "mosquito fleet". At the other extreme the 100-foot and larger vessels of the San Diego long range fleet and similar, although less refined "party boats" operating from New England, transport 25, 30 or more anglers in search of yellowfin and bigeye tuna.
The cost of a suitable boat, electronics and the operating costs can be substantial. Many big-game anglers prefer to use charter services where they hire the use of a boat and equipment, the fish-finding expertise of a captain, in preference to maintaining their own. Either way, big-game fishing can be an expensive pursuit, one in which the wealthy have tended to feature prominently; the classic sport fisherman Most of the features of the classic sport fisherman were developed in the 1920s and 1930s as existing motor cruisers and commercial fishing vessels were adapted for fishing with outriggers, fighting chairs and other ancillaries such as bait boxes and flybridge helm stations. These boats, though crude by modern standards, scored many pioneering big game catches of huge bluefin tuna, broadbill swordfish and marlin. Through the 1930s and 1940s sportfishermen in Florida, amongs
A sailfish is a fish of the genus Istiophorus of billfish living in colder areas of all the seas of the earth. They are predominantly blue to gray in colour and have a characteristic dorsal fin known as a sail, which stretches the entire length of the back. Another notable characteristic is the elongated bill, resembling that of the swordfish and other marlins, they are, described as billfish in sport-fishing circles. Two sailfish species have been recognized. No differences have been found in mtDNA, morphometrics or meristics between the two supposed species and most authorities now only recognized a single species, found in warmer oceans around the world. FishBase continues to recognize two species: Atlantic sailfish. Indo-Pacific sailfish. Sailfish grow reaching 1.2–1.5 m in length in a single year, feed on the surface or at middle depths on smaller pelagic forage fish and squid. Sailfish were estimated to reach maximum swimming speeds of 35 m/s, but research published in 2015 and 2016 indicate sailfish do not exceed speeds between 10–15 m/s.
During predator–prey interactions, sailfish reached burst speeds of 7 m/s and did not surpass 10 m/s. Sailfish do not grow to more than 3 m in length and weigh over 90 kg. Sailfish have been reported to use their bills for hitting schooling fish by tapping or slashing at them; the sail is kept folded down when swimming and raised only when the sailfish attack their prey. The raised sail has been shown to reduce sideways oscillations of the head, to make the bill less detectable by prey fish; this strategy allows sailfish to put their bills close to fish schools or into them without being noticed by the prey before hitting them. Sailfish attack one at a time, the small teeth on their bills inflict injuries on their prey fish in terms of scale and tissue removal. About two prey fish are injured during a sailfish attack, but only 24% of attacks result in capture; as a result, injured fish increase in number over time in a fish school under attack. Given that injured fish are easier to catch, sailfish benefit from the attacks of their conspecifics but only up to a particular group size.
A mathematical model showed that sailfish in groups of up to 70 individuals should gain benefits in this way. The underlying mechanism was termed protoco-operation because it does not require any spatial co-ordination of attacks and could be a precursor to more complex forms of group hunting; the bill movement of sailfish during attacks on fish is either to the left or to the right side. Identification of individual sailfish based on the shape of their dorsal fins identified individual preferences for hitting to the right or left side; the strength of this side preference was positively correlated with capture success. These side-preferences are believed to be a form of behavioural specialization that improves performance. However, a possibility exists that sailfish with strong side preferences could become predictable to their prey because fish could learn after repeated interactions in which direction the predator will hit. Given that individuals with right- and left-sided preferences are about frequent in sailfish populations, living in groups offers a way out of this predictability.
The larger the sailfish group, the greater the possibility that individuals with right- and left-sided preferences are about frequent. Therefore, prey fish should find it hard to predict in which direction the next attack will take place. Taken together, these results suggest a potential novel benefit of group hunting which allows individual predators to specialize in their hunting strategy without becoming predictable to their prey; the injuries that sailfish inflict on their prey appear to reduce their swimming speeds, with injured fish being more found in the back of the school than uninjured ones. When a sardine school is approached by a sailfish, the sardines turn away and flee in the opposite direction; as a result, the sailfish attacks sardine schools from behind, putting at risk those fish that are the rear of the school because of their reduced swimming speeds. Schultz, Ken Ken Schultz's Field Guide to Saltwater Fish pp. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471449959. Images from National Geographic
Ernest Miller Hemingway was an American journalist, short-story writer, noted sportsman. His economical and understated style—which he termed the iceberg theory—had a strong influence on 20th-century fiction, while his adventurous lifestyle and his public image brought him admiration from generations. Hemingway produced most of his work between the mid-1920s and the mid-1950s, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954, he published seven novels, six short-story collections, two non-fiction works. Three of his novels, four short-story collections, three non-fiction works were published posthumously. Many of his works are considered classics of American literature. Hemingway was raised in Illinois. After high school, he reported for a few months for The Kansas City Star before leaving for the Italian Front to enlist as an ambulance driver in World War I. In 1918, he was wounded and returned home, his wartime experiences formed the basis for his novel A Farewell to Arms. In 1921, he married Hadley Richardson.
The couple moved to Paris, where he worked as a foreign correspondent and fell under the influence of the modernist writers and artists of the 1920s "Lost Generation" expatriate community. His debut novel, The Sun Also Rises, was published in 1926. After his 1927 divorce from Richardson, Hemingway married Pauline Pfeiffer, he based For Whom the Bell Tolls on his experience there. Martha Gellhorn became his third wife in 1940, he was present at the liberation of Paris. Shortly after the publication of The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway went on safari to Africa, where he was killed in two successive plane crashes that left him in pain or ill-health for much of the rest of his life. Hemingway maintained permanent residences in Key West and Cuba. In 1959, he bought a house in Ketchum, where, in mid-1961, he ended his own life. Ernest Miller Hemingway was born on July 1899, in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, his father, Clarence Edmonds Hemingway, was a physician, his mother, Grace Hall Hemingway, was a musician.
Both were well-educated and well-respected in Oak Park, a conservative community about which resident Frank Lloyd Wright said, "So many churches for so many good people to go to." For a short period after their marriage and Grace Hemingway lived with Grace's father, Ernest Hall, their first son's namesake. Ernest Hemingway would say that he disliked his name, which he "associated with the naive foolish hero of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest"; the family moved into a seven-bedroom home in a respectable neighborhood with a music studio for Grace and a medical office for Clarence. Hemingway's mother performed in concerts around the village; as an adult, Hemingway professed to hate his mother, although biographer Michael S. Reynolds points out that Hemingway mirrored her energy and enthusiasm, her insistence that he learn to play the cello became a "source of conflict", but he admitted the music lessons were useful to his writing, as is evident in the "contrapuntal structure" of For Whom the Bell Tolls.
The family spent summers at Windemere near Petoskey, Michigan. Hemingway's father taught him to hunt and camp in the woods and lakes of Northern Michigan as a young boy; these early experiences in nature instilled a passion for outdoor adventure and living in remote or isolated areas. From 1913 until 1917, Hemingway attended River Forest High School, he took part in a number of sports such as boxing and field, water polo, football. He excelled in English classes, with his sister Marcelline, performed in the school orchestra for two years. During his junior year he had a journalism class, structured "as though the classroom were a newspaper office," with better writers submitting pieces to the school newspaper, The Trapeze. Hemingway and Marcelline both submitted pieces, he edited the Trapeze and the Tabula, imitating the language of sportswriters, taking the pen name Ring Lardner, Jr.—a nod to Ring Lardner of the Chicago Tribune whose byline was "Line O'Type."Like Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Theodore Dreiser, Sinclair Lewis, Hemingway was a journalist before becoming a novelist.
After leaving high school he went to work for The Kansas City Star as a cub reporter. Although he stayed there for only six months, he relied on the Star's style guide as a foundation for his writing: "Use short sentences. Use short first paragraphs. Use vigorous English. Be positive, not negative." Early in 1918, after applying to serve with, being turned down by, the US Army and Marines because of poor eyesight, Hemingway responded to a Red Cross recruitment effort in Kansas City and signed on to become an ambulance driver in Italy. He left New York in May and arrived in Paris as the city was under bombardment from German artillery. By June, he was at the Italian Front, it was around this time that he first met John Dos Passos, with whom he had a rocky relationship for decades. On his first day in Milan, he was sent to the scene of a munitions factory explosion, where rescuers retrieved the shredded remains of female workers, he described the incident in his non-fiction book Death in the Afternoon: "I remember that after we searched quite for the complete dead we collected fragments."
A few days he was stationed a
A marlin is a fish from the family Istiophoridae, which includes about 10 species. It has an elongated body, a spear-like snout or bill, a long, rigid dorsal fin which extends forward to form a crest, its common name is thought to derive from its resemblance to a sailor's marlinspike. More so than their close relatives, the scombrids, marlins are fast swimmers, reaching speeds of about 80 km/h; the larger species include the Atlantic blue marlin, Makaira nigricans, which can reach 5 m in length and 818 kg in weight and the black marlin, Istiompax indica, which can reach in excess of 5 m in length and 670 kg in weight. They are popular sporting fish in tropical areas; the marlins are perciform fish, most related to the swordfish and Scombridae. In the Nobel Prize-winning author Ernest Hemingway's 1952 novel The Old Man and the Sea, the central character of the work is an aged Cuban fisherman who, after 84 days without success on the water, heads out to sea to break his run of bad luck. On the 85th day, the old fisherman, hooks a resolute marlin.
Frederick Forsyth's story "The Emperor", in the collection No Comebacks, tells of a bank manager named Murgatroyd, who catches a marlin and is acknowledged by the islanders of Mauritius as a master fisherman. Marlin fishing Sailfish Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. "Istiophoridae" in FishBase. November 2005 version. Sepkoski, Jack. "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-05-19. "'Ghost Fish' Revelation May Alter Marlin's Status" from National Public Radio