A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Old Shawneetown, Illinois
Old Shawneetown is a village in Gallatin County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the village had a population of 193, down from 278 at the 2000 census. Located along the Ohio River, Shawneetown served as an important United States government administrative center for the Northwest Territory; the village was devastated by the Ohio River flood of 1937. The village's population was moved several miles inland to New Shawneetown. At least one record suggests that a village was established here by the Pekowi Shawnee led by Peter Chartier about 1748. In early November 1803, Lewis and Clark are believed to have stopped at Old Shawneetown on their way to Fort Massac, just down the Ohio River. After the American Revolution, Shawneetown served as an important United States government administrative center for the Northwest Territory. Shawneetown and Washington, D. C. share the distinction of being the only towns chartered by the United States government. Old Shawneetown is the site of the first bank chartered in Illinois, in 1816.
In a log cabin, it was replaced in 1822 with a brick structure now known as the John Marshall House. Local legend states that the Shawneetown Bank refused to buy the first bonds issued by the city of Chicago on the grounds that no city located that far from a navigable river could survive. Another historic bank building, the Bank of Illinois, was constructed in 1839-41 to house the offices of the Bank of Illinois at Shawneetown, it housed numerous other financial institutions before it was closed in the 1930s. This fine example of Greek Revival architecture survives as the Shawneetown Bank State Historic Site. Residents long remembered the visit by Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette of France to the city on May 8, 1825, as a high point for the early community's social history. Claudia Cassidy and drama critic for the Chicago Tribune Peter Chartier, Shawnee Indian chief Robert G. Ingersoll, orator Michael Kelly Lawler, Union Army officer John McLean, U. S. congressman John Alexander McClernand, Civil War general and U.
S. congressman Bluford Wilson, Union Army officer James Harrison Wilson, Union Army general Old Shawneetown is located in southeastern Gallatin County at 37°41′54″N 88°8′13″W, on the northwest bank of the Ohio River. Illinois Route 13 passes through the village. To the east it crosses the Shawneetown Bridge over the Ohio, becoming Kentucky Route 56 and leading 13 miles to Morganfield, Kentucky. To the west, IL 13 leads 3 miles to Shawneetown, the Gallatin County seat, 23 miles to Harrisburg. According to the 2010 census, Old Shawneetown has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 278 people, 100 households, 69 families residing in the village. The population density was 531.7 people per square mile. There were 146 housing units at an average density of 279.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the village was 99.64% White and 0.36% Native American. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.08% of the population. There were 100 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 20.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.0% were non-families.
24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.36. In the village, the population was spread out with 33.8% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 22.7% from 45 to 64, 8.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.7 males. The median income for a household in the village was $18,214, the median income for a family was $20,625. Males had a median income of $25,625 versus $13,750 for females; the per capita income for the village was $9,379. About 33.3% of families and 39.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 60.6% of those under the age of eighteen and 33.3% of those sixty five or over. List of cities and towns along the Ohio River 1887. History of Gallatin, Hamilton and Williamson Counties, Illinois.
Chicago: Goodspeed Publishing Co. Musgrave, Jon, ed. 2002. Handbook of Old Gallatin County and Southeastern Illinois. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 464 pages. Musgrave, Jon. 2004, Rev. ed. 2005. Slaves, Sex & Mr. Crenshaw: The Real Story of the Old Slave House and America's Reverse Underground R. R.. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 608 pages. Waggoner, Horace Q. interviewer. 1978. "Lucille Lawler Memoir" Shawneetown Bank Project. Sangamon State University. Springfield, Ill
Williamson County, Illinois
Williamson County is a county located in the southern part of the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 66,357, its county seat is Marion. Williamson County is included in IL Metropolitan Statistical Area; this area of Southern Illinois is known as Little Egypt. Williamson is a growing county in the Metro Lakeland area and is located 88 miles southeast of St. Louis, Missouri. Via the nearby intersection of Interstates 57 and 24, Illinois Route 13, a primary east-west four-lane expressway, the city has access to the major communities of Murphysboro, Carterville, Herrin and Harrisburg; the Metro Lakeland area of Jackson-Williamson counties has a total of 120,000 residents. Carbondale and Marion are the key urban areas in Metro Lakeland, with a combined population of more than 65,000. Over 235,000 people live within 35 miles. Williamson County was formed from Franklin County on February 28, 1839, was named for Williamson County, Tennessee. Many of its early settlers were from the Uplands South, traveling via the Ohio River from Kentucky and Virginia.
It became a center of coal mining, attracting numerous European immigrants in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Labor tensions rose as workers sought to improve their wages and conditions. Mine owners resisted and several episodes of violence resulted during strikes and other work actions. Resulted in several episodes of violence. Williamson County is referred to as "Bloody Williamson," due to several outbreaks of violence that have few parallels in American history; these include the Bloody Vendetta, armed confrontation between families and associates during the waning days of Reconstruction. In June 1915, a Sicilian miner was lynched in Johnston City, Illinois by a mob of 300 Americans as a suspect in the fatal shooting of a wealthy local resident; the Illinois National Guard was deployed to prevent rioting between the miner's supporters and Americans. They were later ordered to various locations during the 1920s to separate warring parties and attempt to keep order. Severe weather in Williamson County is not uncommon.
The northwest section of the county suffered extensive damage during the Tri-State Tornado of 1925. The county was struck by two tornadoes on May 29, 1982, which killed 10 people in the Marion, Illinois tornado outbreak. On May 8, 2009, the cities of Carterville and Marion were damaged by the May 2009 Southern Midwest derecho. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 444 square miles, of which 420 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water. Franklin County Saline County Pope County Johnson County Union County Jackson County Crab Orchard National Wildlife Refuge Williamson County Regional Airport is the local airport; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 66,357 people, 27,421 households, 17,999 families residing in the county. The population density was 157.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 30,359 housing units at an average density of 72.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.7% white, 3.8% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races.
Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 23.6% were German, 17.3% were Irish, 16.0% were English, 9.0% were American, 6.1% were Italian. Of the 27,421 households, 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.4% were non-families, 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age was 40.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,579 and the median income for a family was $50,929. Males had a median income of $41,428 versus $30,901 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,164. About 13.3% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.3% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over. United States Penitentiary, Marion is located in Southern Precinct in Williamson County.
Williamson County lies on the border between humid continental climate and humid subtropical climate, with neither large mountains nor large bodies of water to moderate its temperature. It is subject to both cold Arctic air and hot, humid tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico and, along with the rest of the midwestern United States, is home to some of the largest temperature extremes in the world; the region has four distinct seasons. Spring is the wettest season and produces erratic severe weather ranging from tornadoes to winter storms. Summers are hot and humid, with only occasional and brief respite, the humidity makes the heat index rise to temperatures feeling well above 100 °F. Fall is mild with lower humidity and can produce intermittent bouts of heavy rainfall, with the first snow flurries forming in late November. Winters are cold with periodic snow and temperatures below freezing. Winter storm systems, such as Alberta clippers and Panhandle hooks, can bring days of heavy freezing rain, ice pellets, snowfall.
The normal high temperature in July is 90 °F, the normal low temperature in January is 19 °F (−6 °C
St. Louis Cardinals
The St. Louis Cardinals are an American professional baseball team based in St. Louis, Missouri; the Cardinals compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division. Busch Stadium has been their home ballpark since 2006. One of the most successful franchises in baseball history, the Cardinals have won 11 World Series championships, the second-most in Major League Baseball and the most in the National League, their 19 National League pennants rank third in NL history. In addition, St. Louis has won 13 division titles in the Central divisions. While still in the old American Association, named as the St. Louis Browns, the team won four AA league championships, qualifying them to play in the professional baseball championship tournament of that era, they tied in 1885 and won outright in 1886 and lost in 1888 for the early trophy Hall Cup versus the New York Giants. The others both times against the Chicago Cubs, in the first meetings of the Cardinals–Cubs rivalry between nearby cities of St. Louis and Chicago that continues to this day.
With origins as one of the early professional baseball clubs in St. Louis and the nation, entrepreneur Chris von der Ahe purchased a barnstorming club in 1881 known as the Brown Stockings, established them as charter members of the old American Association base ball league which played 1882 to 1891, the following season. Upon the discontinuation of the AA, St. Louis joined the continuing National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs known as the National League, in 1892. Cardinals achievements that have impacted MLB and sports events in general include manager/owner Branch Rickey's pioneering of the farm system, Rogers Hornsby's two batting Triple Crowns, Dizzy Dean's 30-win season in 1934, Stan Musial's 17 MLB and 29 NL records, Bob Gibson's 1.12 earned run average in 1968, Whitey Herzog's Whiteyball, Mark McGwire breaking the single-season home run record in 1998, the 2011 championship team's unprecedented comebacks. The Cardinals have won 105 or more games in four different seasons and won 100 or more a total of nine times.
Cardinals players have won 20 league MVPs, four batting Triple Crowns, three Cy Young Awards. Baseball Hall of Fame inductees include Lou Brock, Dizzy Dean, Bob Gibson, Whitey Herzog, Rogers Hornsby, Joe Medwick, Stan Musial, Branch Rickey, Red Schoendienst, Ozzie Smith, Bruce Sutter. In 2018, Forbes valued the Cardinals at $1.9 billion, making them the 7th-most valuable franchise in MLB. Since their purchase in 1995, owner William DeWitt, Jr.'s investment group has seen enormous growth from the $147 million purchase price. John Mozeliak is the President of Baseball Operations, Mike Girsch is the general manager and Mike Shildt is the manager; the Cardinals are renowned for their strong fan support: despite being in one of the sport's mid-level markets, they see attendances among the league's highest, are among the Top 3 in MLB in local television ratings. Professional baseball began in St. Louis with the inception of the Brown Stockings in the National Association in 1875; the NA folded following that season, the next season, St. Louis joined the National League as a charter member, finishing in third place at 45-19.
George Bradley hurled the first no-hitter in Major League history. The NL expelled St. Louis from the league after 1877 due to a game-fixing scandal and the team went bankrupt. Without a league, they continued play as a semi-professional barnstorming team through 1881; the magnitudes of the reorganizations following the 1877 and 1881 seasons are such that the 1875–1877 and 1878–1881 Brown Stockings teams are not considered to share continuity as a franchise with the current St. Louis Cardinals. For the 1882 season, Chris von der Ahe purchased the team, reorganized it, made it a founding member of the American Association, a league to rival the NL. 1882 is considered to be the first year existence of the St. Louis Cardinals; the next season, St. Louis shortened their name to the Browns. Soon thereafter they became the dominant team in the AA, as manager Charlie Comiskey guided St. Louis to four pennants in a row from 1885 to 1888. Pitcher and outfielder Bob Caruthers led the league in ERA and wins in 1885 and finished in the top six in both in each of the following two seasons.
He led the AA in OBP and OPS in 1886 and finished fourth in batting average in 1886 and fifth in 1887. Outfielder Tip O'Neill won the first batting triple crown in franchise history in 1887 and the only one in AA history. By winning the pennant, the Browns played the NL pennant winner in a predecessor of the World Series; the Browns twice met the Chicago White Stockings – the Chicago Cubs prototype – tying one in a heated dispute and winning the other, thus spurring the vigorous St. Louis-Chicago rivalry that ensues to this day. During the franchise's ten seasons in the AA, they compiled an all-time league-high of 780 wins and.639 winning percentage. They lost just 432 contests while tying 21 others; the AA went bankrupt after the 1891 season and the Browns transferred to the National League. This time, the club entered an era of stark futility. Between 1892 and 1919, St. Louis managed just five winning seasons, finis
Paducah is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of McCracken County, United States. The largest city in the Jackson Purchase region, it is located at the confluence of the Tennessee and the Ohio rivers, halfway between St. Louis, Missouri, to the northwest and Nashville, Tennessee, to the southeast; the population was 24,941 in 2017, down from 25,024 during the 2010 U. S. Census. Twenty blocks of the city's downtown have been designated as a historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Paducah is the hub of its micropolitan area, which includes McCracken and Livingston counties in Kentucky and Massac County in Illinois. Paducah was first settled as "Pekin" around 1821 by William Pore; the town was renamed Paducah. Although local lore long connected this to an eponymous Chickasaw chief "Paduke" and his tribe of "Paducahs", authorities on the Chickasaw have since said that there was never any chief or tribe of that name, or anything like it, nor any words like them in the Chickasaw language.
Instead, it is probable that Clark named the town for the Comanche people, Paducah was formally established as a town in 1830 and incorporated as a city by the state legislature in 1838. By this time, steam boats traversed the river system, its port facilities were important to trade and transportation. In addition, developing railroads began to enter the region. A factory for making red bricks, a foundry for making rail and locomotive components became the nucleus of a thriving "River and Rail" economy. Paducah became the site of dry dock facilities for steamboats and towboats, thus headquarters for many barge companies; because of its proximity to coalfields further to the east in Kentucky and north in Illinois, Paducah became an important railway hub for the Illinois Central Railroad. This was the primary north-south railway connecting the industrial cities of Chicago and East St. Louis to the Gulf of Mexico at Gulfport and New Orleans, Louisiana; the Illinois Central system provided east-west links to the Burlington Northern and the Atchison and Santa Fe Railways.
In 1924 the Illinois Central Railroad began construction at Paducah of their largest locomotive workshop in the nation. Over a period of 190 days, a large ravine between Washington and Jones streets was filled with 44,560 carloads of dirt to enlarge the site, sufficient for the construction of 23 buildings; the eleven million dollar project was completed in 1927 as the fourth-largest industrial plant in Kentucky. The railroad became the largest employer in Paducah, having 1,075 employees in 1938; as steam locomotives were replaced through the 1940s and 1950s, the Paducah shops were converted to maintain diesel locomotives. A nationally known rebuilding program for aging diesel locomotives from Illinois Central and other railroads began in 1967; the shops became part of the Paducah and Louisville Railway in 1986. In the early 21st century they are operated by VMV Paducahbilt. At the outset of the Civil War, Kentucky attempted to take a neutral position. However, when a Confederate force occupied Columbus, a Union force under General Ulysses S. Grant responded by occupying Paducah.
Throughout most of the war, Col. Stephen G. Hicks was in charge of Paducah, the town served as a massive supply depot for Federal forces along the Ohio and Tennessee river systems. On December 17, 1862, under the terms of General Order No. 11, US forces required 30 Jewish families to leave their long-established homes. Grant was trying to break up a black market in cotton, in which he suspected Jewish traders were involved. Cesar Kaskel, a prominent local Jewish businessman, dispatched a telegram of complaint to President Lincoln and met with him; as there were similar actions taken by other Jewish businessmen and loud complaints by Congress about the treatment of their constituents, Lincoln ordered the policy to be revoked within a few weeks. On March 25, 1864, Confederate Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest raided Paducah as part of his campaign northward from Mississippi into Western Tennessee and Kentucky, he intended to re-supply the Confederate forces in the region with recruits, medical supplies and mules, to disrupt the Union domination of the regions south of the Ohio River.
Known as the Battle of Paducah, the raid was successful in terms of the re-supply effort and in intimidating the Union, but Forrest returned south. According to his report, "I drove the enemy to their gunboats and fort. Much of the fighting took place around Fort Anderson on the city's west side, in the present-day Lower Town neighborhood. Among the few houses that were not destroyed is the David Yeiser House, a single-story Greek Revival structure. Having read in the newspapers that 140 fine horses had escaped the raid, Forrest sent Brigadier General Abraham Buford back to Paducah, to get the horses and to keep Union forces busy there while he attacked Fort Pillow in Tennessee, his forces were charged with a massacre of United States Colored Troops among the Union forces whom they defeated at the fort. On April 14, 1864, Buford's men found the horses hidden in a Paducah foundry, as reported by the news
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe