The territory of West Frisia is located in the Netherlands.
Lordship of Frisia / Lordship of Friesland during the Guelderian Wars
Frise department 1811 - 1814 part of France
The territory of West Frisia is located in the Netherlands.
Lordship of Frisia / Lordship of Friesland during the Guelderian Wars
Frise department 1811 - 1814 part of France
1. Netherlands – The Netherlands, also informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country. Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country also ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life. The Netherlands also ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder, Nether and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Boven, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, however, changed over time tremendously
2. Vlieland – Vlieland is a municipality and island in the northern Netherlands. The municipality of Vlieland has only one town, Oost-Vlieland. It is the second-least densely populated municipality in the Netherlands, Vlieland is one of the West Frisian Islands, lying in the Wadden Sea. It is the island from the west in the chain. The island was separated from the mainland in St. Lucias flood in 1287. Vlieland was named after the Vlie, the seaway between it and Terschelling that was the estuary of the river IJssel in medieval times, the northern part of the island of Texel, Eierland, once was the southwestern part of Vlieland. A storm surge in 1296 probably separated Eierland from Vlieland, until 1942 Vlieland, like Terschelling, was part of the province of North Holland. During the Second World War, Vlieland became part of the German Atlantic Wall, the Germans built two anti-aircraft batteries and stationed more soldiers on the island than there were inhabitants. They also repartitioned the island to Friesland and the situation was not reversed after the war, the mail station in the western part of the island is a reminder that in the past mail was delivered by ferry from Texel. Because of this history, Vlieland natives do not speak Frisian, the original dialect, Vlielands, was related to the dialect of Texel and to other Dutch dialects in North Holland. The last native speaker, Petronella de Boer-Zeylemaker, died in 1993 at the age of 107, Vlieland can be reached by ferry from the Frisian town of Harlingen on the mainland. Ferries are operated by Doeksen and the journey takes 45 minutes to 1.5 hours to cross the Wadden Sea, tourists are not allowed to bring cars with them on the ferry. A summer-only ferry service runs between De Cocksdorp on the island of Texel and the westernmost point of Vlieland. The most common form of transport on the island is the bicycle, a bus service runs from the ferry terminal to the village and campgrounds after the arrival of a ferry, and some time before departure. There is a small heliport near the village, but it is only used for SAR flights. Vlieland, being the outermost of the Frisian barrier islands, sees its climate the most moderated by the North- and Wadden Sea. As is the case with the other West Frisian islands, sunshine hours are among the highest in the Netherlands, and quite possibly among the highest in the North Sea basin. Temperature extremes are rare, on average only 6 times a year does the daytime high exceed 25 degrees, and a high above thirty happens on average only once every three years
3. Terschelling – Terschelling is a municipality and an island in the northern Netherlands, one of the West Frisian Islands. It is situated between the islands of Vlieland and Ameland, Wadden Islanders are known for their resourcefulness in using anything and everything that washes ashore. With few trees to use for timber, most of the farms, the islands are surrounded by shipwrecks, and even today many containers wash ashore that are blown off the decks of container ships in the North Sea. The main source of income on Terschelling is tourism, there is some agriculture, but a large part of the island has become a nature reserve. Terschelling is well known for the yearly Oerol Festival during which performances are played throughout the island, making use of its landscape. Terschelling can be reached by ferry from the mainland Frisian town Harlingen, the island in its current shape was formed in the Middle Ages from a sandy area called De Schelling in the west and the original island Wexalia in the east. The name Wexalia, Wuxalia, or Wecsile is the name of eastern Terschelling. However, this disappeared at the end of the Middle Ages. The last appearance of the name Wexalia is in a treaty between Folkerus Reijner Popma, then ruler of Terschelling, with king Edward IV of England in 1482. The oldest traces of civilisation on Terschelling date from around 850 and this hill was later used as a burial ground and is known as the Striperkerkhof. Historically, tensions existed between the inhabitants of West-Terschelling, with its orientation towards the sea, and the more agriculturally oriented inhabitants of East-Terschelling. In 1612 this led to the division of the island into independent political entities, only after the French occupation at the start of the 19th century was Terschelling again united as one entity. The Dutch navigator Willem Barentsz was born on Terschelling around 1550, in 1666 West-Terschelling was ransacked by the English. The English fleet had originally planned to attack the Dutch merchant fleet which was moored before the coast of Vlieland, when the Dutch vessels retreated towards Terschelling, the English followed, destroyed 150 Dutch vessels, and landed in the harbour of West-Terschelling. The town was burnt to the ground by the English on this occasion which would become known as Holmess Bonfire after the English admiral Sir Robert Holmes, the Great Fire of London in the very same year was considered by some to have been Gods retribution. On the island of Terschelling both Dutch, the language of the Netherlands, and Frisian are spoken. However, the use of the three dialects is on the decline, and all three are slowly being replaced by the standard Dutch language, the island is known for being one of only two Wadden islands where cranberries grow, the other being the island of Vlieland. In 1840, a barrel of cranberries, apparently packed by sailors as an antiscorbutic, washed ashore on the islands coast, the cranberries, finding the environment favourable, established themselves on the island
4. East Frisia – East Frisia or Eastern Friesland is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony. It is the section of Frisia between West Frisia in the Netherlands and North Frisia in Schleswig-Holstein. Administratively Ostfriesland belongs to three districts, namely Aurich, Leer, Wittmund and to the city of Emden, there are 465,000 people living in an area of 3,144.26 square kilometres. There is a chain of islands off the coast, called the East Frisian Islands and these islands are Borkum, Juist, Norderney, Baltrum, Langeoog, Spiekeroog and Wangerooge. The geographical region of East Frisia was inhabited in Paleolithic times by reindeer hunters of the Hamburg culture, later there were Mesolithic and Neolithic settlements of various cultures. The period after prehistory can only be reconstructed from archaeological evidence, access to the early history of East Frisia is possible in part through archaeology and in part through the studying of external sources such as Roman documents. The first proven historical event was the arrival of a Roman fleet under Drusus in 12 BC, the earlier settlements, known solely through material remnants but whose peoples name for themselves remains unknown, led up to the invasion of Germanic tribes belonging to the Ingvaeonic group. Those were Chauci mentioned by Tacitus, and Frisians, the region between the rivers Ems and Weser was thereupon inhabited by the Chauci, however, after the second century AD there is no mention of the Chauci. They were partly displaced by Frisian expansion after about 500, and were partially absorbed into the Frisian society. Saxons also settled the region and the East Frisian population of medieval times is based on a mixture of Frisian, nevertheless, the Frisian element is predominant in the coastal area, while the population of the higher Geest area expresses more Saxon influence. Historical information becomes clearer by early Carolingian time, when a Frisian kingdom united the area from present-day West Frisia throughout East Frisia up to the river Weser. It was ruled by kings like the famous Radbod whose known names were mentioned in folk tales until recent times. Frisia was a kingdom, and it was crushed by Pippin of Herstal in 689. East Frisia then became part of the Frankish Empire, charles the Great then divided East Frisia into two counties. At this time, Christianization by the missionaries Liudger and Willehad started, one part of East Frisia became a part of the diocese of Bremen, with the decay of the Carolingian empire, East Frisia lost its former bindings, and a unity of independent self-governed districts was established. Their elections were held every year to choose the Redjeven, who had to be judges as well as administrators or governors and this system prevented the establishment of a feudalistic system in East Frisia during mediaeval times. Frisians regarded themselves as people not obliged to any foreign authority. This period is called the time of the Friesische Freiheit and is represented by the still well-known salute Eala Frya Fresena that affirmed the non-existence of any feudality
5. North Frisia – North Frisia or Northern Friesland is the northernmost portion of Frisia, located primarily in Germany between the rivers Eider and Wiedau/Vidå. It includes a number of islands, e. g. Sylt, Föhr, Amrum, Nordstrand, the geestland islands along the North Frisian coastline were already densely settled in times of the early Roman Empire while the marshes further inland were not suited for settling. Only a few ancient marshland settlements have found during archaeological excavations, namely in the modern area of southern Sylt. With the beginning of the Migration Period, the number of settlements in North Frisia became ever lesser, a new increase in population in the 8th century has been attributed to immigration but it is thought that the area had not been completely depopulated before. The Frisians migrated to North Frisia from the South in two waves, during the 8th century A. D. they mostly settled on the islands Heligoland, Sylt, Föhr, Amrum and presumably also in parts of the Eiderstedt peninsula. The coastal marshlands of the mainland were settled in a second wave, while the marshland and its bogs had to be drained, the higher geestland cores of the islands were in turn mostly barren and needed fertilisation before a proper agriculture could be established. During the Middle Ages, trade flourished between North Frisia and East Anglia, England, in particular, pottery was imported from the town of Ipswich and it has been suggested that relations between Frisians and East Anglians must have lasted for several centuries. In 1252, an army of North Frisians from all territories between the Eiderstedt peninsula and the northern islands succeeded in defeating a Danish army led by king Abel. Salt making became a trade in the 14th and 15th century when the North Frisians used saline peat as a resource. The salt trade coincided with an increase in international herring fishery off Heligoland, treaties of 14th century farmers from Edoms Hundred with Hamburg based merchants and even the Counts of Flanders respectively have been preserved. The Frisian Uthlande region used to have its own jurisdiction, it was laid down for the first time in the so-called Siebenhardenbeliebung in 1424. North Frisia as a region was first recorded in 1424 although Saxo Grammaticus had written about Frisia minor, several floods such as the Grote Mandrenke in 1362 and the Burchardi Flood of 1634 damaged great parts of the North Frisian coastal area. In these floods entire islands were destroyed and a part of North Frisian language was torn apart in linguistical and political terms. Around the year 1700, Föhr had a population of roughly 6,000 people,1,600 of whom were whalers. At the height of Dutch whaling in the year 1762,1,186 seamen from Föhr were serving on Dutch whaling vessels alone, another example is the London-based South Sea Company whose commanding officers and harpooners were exclusively from Föhr. In the early 18th century, Sylt island was home to 20 captains who took part in the Greenland whaling, until 1864, North Frisia was a part of the Danish Duchy of Schleswig but was transferred to Prussia after the Second Schleswig War. During this time of German-Danish conflicts, a North Frisian identity was propagated by people such as Christian Feddersen who simultaneously denounced nationalist tendencies, the North Frisian coat of arms has been attributed to him. While not designed according to rules, the shield contains a Frisian eagle on the right side
6. West Friesland (region) – For the historical region also named West Friesland, see West Friesland Not to be confused with the West Friesland Dutch dialect. West Friesland is a region in the Northwest of the Netherlands. The River Vlie, is an extension of the IJssel branch of the Rhine River, the river divides the northern Netherlands into two parts, the western and the eastern part. In the eleventh century, heavy rainfall caused the river to flood large parts of the land. The Zuiderzee bay was formed, separating West Friesland from the contemporary Province of Friesland, because of this, the toponym West Friesland was applied more to the Westflinge area than to the original West Friesland. For approximately 300 years, West Friesland operated as an area as the West Frisians did not wish to be vassals of lords from Holland. Floris V, Count of Holland, attempted to unite Holland and West Friesland during his reign and it was his successor, John I, who achieved ultimate victory over the West Frisians in 1297. During the time of the United Provinces, West Friesland had its own independent Admiralty of the Northern Quarter, any admiral serving within this admiralty or the two other Hollandic admiralties had the title of Admiral of Holland and West Frisia. The West Frisian language has disappeared from the region and the later West Frisian dialects are now slowly disappearing, although these dialects are subdialects of Hollandic Dutch, they were strongly influenced in vocabulary and grammar by a West Frisian substratum. The first inhabitants of Alkmaar, Oudorp, and St Pancras likely settled along the beach ridges of the Vroonermeer in the 9th century AD. Better known as Vroonen, this settlement subsequently grew into a village, in the late 13th century, when the Dutch conquered West Frisians, the victors crossed the village and set it on fire. The few surviving inhabitants fled the region, after a long time, people returned to Vroonen and a chapel was built. The village of St Pancras was founded around this church, the reclamation of the North Holland lakes was a purely private business affair intended for the establishment of new tracts of fertile land. Investors financed the operation and leased their new land to farmers, the exact location of West Friesland is not clearly defined, but it has been suggested that it comprised the area north of an imaginary line through Hoorn and Alkmaar. Within this historical region is the region of West Friesland. The region covers an area of about 800 km2, delineated by the Westfriese Omringdijk and it consists of the following municipalities, Major cities include Hoorn and Alkmaar. The traditional dialect of the region is the West Frisian dialect of Hollandic Dutch, the contemporary region is similar in size and location to the historical district of Westflinge which itself was a part of a much larger historical region of West Friesland. Frisia Frisian Islands The region website
7. Lordship of Frisia – The Lordship of Frisia or Lordship of Friesland was a feudal dominion in the Netherlands. It was formed in 1524 when Emperor Charles V finally conquered Frisia, the remaining territory east of the Lauwers River was conquered by Charlemagne in the course of the Saxon Wars until 785. During the decline of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, by the 870 Treaty of Meerssen, the Frisian lands passed to the Kingdom of East Francia under Louis the German, while the robberies continued. However, the raids still did not stop and moreover Godfrid entangled into a rebellion with his brother-in-law, the Frisian representatives met in the Upstalsboom thing near present-day Aurich in East Frisia under the motto Eala Frya Fresena to pass resolutions and to dispense justice. In 925 the Frisian lands together with Lotharingia were finally incorporated into East Francia by King Henry the Fowler, the Viking raids continued until the early 11th century. The Emperor granted his estates to the loyal Bishop Conrad of Utrecht, the Utrecht Bishops asserted themselves in the city of Groningen, apart from that the Frisians had maintained their privileges against all attempts to subdue them. However, at the same time Frisia itself was war-torn by the conflict between Vetkopers and Schieringers. Moreover, especially in East Frisia the actual power shifted gradually from the original cooperative towards several chieftain dynasties. In 1464 the Habsburg emperor Frederick III elevated the mighty chief Ulrich and his descendants of the Cirksena dynasty to heritable Counts of East Frisia, an Imperial State they held until 1744. Duke Albert had been a follower of the Habsburgs in their struggle around the Burgundian heritage and had freed the King from custody at Brügge ten years before. However, the Saxon duke had to face resistance by the inhabitants. Frisia was a possession of Alberts son Duke George of Saxony, Frisia was largely controlled by local rebels, supported by troops of Duke Charles II of Guelders, who had been at war with Burgundy and Saxony for several years. In 1515, George sold his title to Frisia to Charles, however, by the purchase Charles gained control of only a few cities, Leeuwarden, Harlingen, and Franeker. In 1519, Charles succeeded to his full inheritance, in 1522, he sent a Habsburg army under Georg Schenck van Toutenburg to subdue the rebellious parts of the Netherlands. In 1523, Van Toutenburg drove the Guelders forces out of Frisia, Van Toutenburg also defeated the Frisians rebels under Wijerd Jelckama, who was publicly beheaded in Leeuwarden. Frisia was now firmly in the hands of Charles and incorporated into the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands, Van Toutenburg became Stadtholder and ruled the province for him. When Charles abdicated in 1556, Frisia was inherited by Philip II of Spain with the rest of the Netherlands, in 1566, Frisia joined the rebellion against Spanish rule. In 1577, George van Lalaing was appointed Stadtholder of Frisia, a moderate, trusted by both sides, he tried to reconcile the rebels with the Crown
8. Frisia – Frisia is the traditional homeland of the Frisians, a Germanic people that speaks Frisian languages, which together with English form the Anglo-Frisian language group. In English, both terms, Frisia and Friesland are used, dialects with strong Frisian substrates, including Low German and Low Franconian, are also spoken in West Frisia. In the northern province of Groningen, people speak Gronings, a Low Saxon dialect with a strong Frisian substrate, rural Groningen was originally part of the Frisian lands east of River Lauwers and by law and language closer linked to East Frisia than to the west. East Frisia is also the name of a county in that region. Only people from that area consider themselves as East Frisians, the German name Ostfriesland distinguishes the former county from Ost-Friesland, which means the whole eastern Frisian area. The North Sea island of Heligoland, while not part of the Nordfriesland district, is part of traditional North Frisia. A half-million Frisians in the province of Friesland in the Netherlands speak West Frisian, several thousand people in Nordfriesland and Heligoland in Germany speak a collection of North Frisian dialects that are often unintelligible to each other. A small number of Saterland Frisian language speakers live in four villages in Lower Saxony, in the Saterland region of Cloppenburg county, many Frisians speak Low Saxon dialects, especially in East Frisia, where the local dialects are called Oostfreesk. In the Province of Friesland and North Frisia are also areas, Frisia has changed dramatically over time, both through floods and through a change in identity. It is part of the supposed Nordwestblock which is a historic region linked by language. The people, later to be known as Frisii, began settling in Frisia in the 6th century BC, according to Pliny the Elder, in Roman times, the Frisians lived on terps, man-made hills. According to other sources, the Frisians lived along a broader expanse of the North Sea coast, Frisia at this time comprised the present provinces of Friesland and parts of North Holland and Utrecht. Frisian presence during the Early Middle Ages has been documented from North-Western Flanders up to the Weser River Estuary, according to archaeological evidence, these Frisians were not the Frisians of Roman times, but descendants from Anglo-Saxon immigrants from the German Bight, arriving during the Great Migration. By the 8th century, ethnic Frisians also started to colonize the coastal areas North of the Eider River under Danish rule, the nascent Frisian languages were spoken all along the southern North Sea coast. Today, the region is sometimes referred to as Greater Frisia or Frisia Magna. Distant authors seem to have made little distinction between Frisians and Saxons, some East Anglian sources called the mainland inhabitants Warnii, rather than Frisians. During the 7th and 8th centuries, Frankish chronologies mention the northern Low Countries as the kingdom of the Frisians, according to Medieval legends, this kingdom comprised the coastal seelande provinces of the Netherlands, from the Scheldt River to the Weser River and further East. Archaeological research does not confirm this idea, as the petty kingdoms appear to have rather small
9. Gronings dialect – Gronings and the strongly related varieties in East Frisia have a strong Frisian influence and take a remarkable position within West Low German. The dialect is characterized by an accent and vocabulary, which differ strongly from the other Low Saxon dialects. The name Gronings can almost be defined geographically, as can be seen on the map below and this is especially true for the northern part of Drenthe. The Drents, spoken in the north of the province of Drenthe is somewhat related with the Groninger language, but the core linguistics is Drents. For the dialects in the southeast, called Veenkoloniaals, its a bit different on both sides of the Groningen-Drenthe border, as the dialect spoken there is more related to Gronings. In the Frisian municipality of Kollumerland en Nieuwkruisland, the dialect called Westerkwartiers is also spoken. The latter is spoken in the Frisian village of Kollumerpomp and has more West Frisian influences, most words are written the same way, but the pronunciation can differ. North German Low Saxon, Dat eenzige, dat wi nich doot, is Snabbelkraam uutdeeln, Standard Dutch, Het enige wat we niet doen is snoep uitdelen. Standard German, Das einzige, was wir nicht machen, ist Süßigkeiten austeilen, scots, The anerly thing we dinnae dae is gie oot snashters. English, The only thing we dont do is hand out sweets, there are many uncertainties about the classification and categorization of Gronings. Some linguists see it as a variety of Low German, also called Nedersaksisch in the Netherlands and these words are actually more political than linguistic, because they unite a large group of very differing varieties. Categorizing Gronings as Low German could be considered correct, but there is controversy surrounding the existence of the unity of Low German. Others, especially German linguists, see Gronings-East Frisian as a group of German dialects. The Frisian influence, the sounds ou, ai and ui, Gronings-East Frisian would be categorized as Friso-Saxon dialects instead of Low German. Other linguists categorize all Gronings-East Frisian dialects as North Low German, in that case, all the other Low German varieties in the Netherlands are categorized as Westphalian. Dutch linguists in particular classify Gronings as Dutch Low Saxon, in Germany also called Westplatt, in this case the Dutch influence is crucial, while the dialects on the other side of the national border are strongly influenced by High German languages. In this case there is no separation between Groningen-East Frisian and Westphalian, but rather a difference between Groningen and East Frisian, the national border would equal the linguistic border. The Gronings dialects are a kind of mix between two languages, Old Frisian and Middle Low German, Frisian was spoken in the Ommelanden, while the city, the surrounding rural area called Gorecht and the eastern lordship of Westerwolde were Low Saxon
10. Friso-Saxon dialects – Friso-Saxon is a collective name for a group of West Germanic dialects found around the North Sea coast. Although they are forms of Low German/Low Saxon, these dialects have experienced strong influence from the Frisian languages, most of the Friso-Saxon dialects were historically Frisian dialects, until Frisian was replaced with Low Saxon in the Late Middle Ages. However, Frisian has remained a substratum since then in the regions concerned, the only exception to this rule is Stellingwarfs, a Low Saxon dialect which has undergone influence especially from West Frisian