West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages. The three most prevalent West Germanic languages are English and Dutch; the family includes other High and Low German languages including Afrikaans and Yiddish, in addition to other Franconian languages, like Luxembourgish, Ingvaeonic languages next to English, such as the Frisian languages and Scots. Additionally, several creoles and pidgins are based on Dutch and German as they were languages of colonial empires; the West Germanic languages share many lexemes not existing in North Germanic or East Germanic—archaisms as well as common neologisms. Most scholars doubt that there was a Proto-West-Germanic proto-language common to the West Germanic languages and no others, though a few maintain that Proto-West-Germanic existed. Most agree that after East Germanic broke off, the remaining Germanic languages, the Northwest Germanic languages, divided into four main dialects: North Germanic, the three groups conventionally called "West Germanic", namely North Sea Germanic, ancestral to Anglo-Frisian and Old Saxon Weser-Rhine Germanic, ancestral to Low Franconian and the Central German dialects of Old High German Elbe Germanic, ancestral to the Upper German dialects of Old High German and the extinct Langobardic language.

Although there is quite a bit of knowledge about North Sea Germanic or Anglo-Frisian, linguists know nothing about "Weser-Rhine Germanic" and "Elbe Germanic". In fact, these two terms were coined in the 1940s to refer to groups of archaeological findings rather than linguistic features. Only were these terms applied to hypothetical dialectal differences within both regions. Today, the small number of Migration Period runic inscriptions from this area—many of them illegible, unclear or consisting only of one word a name—is insufficient to identify linguistic features specific to the two supposed dialect groups. Evidence that East Germanic split off before the split between North and West Germanic comes from a number of linguistic innovations common to North and West Germanic, including: The lowering of Proto-Germanic ē to ā; the development of umlaut. The rhotacism of /z/ to /r/; the development of the demonstrative pronoun ancestral to English this. Under this view, the properties that the West Germanic languages have in common separate from the North Germanic languages are not inherited from a "Proto-West-Germanic" language, but may have spread by language contact among the Germanic languages spoken in central Europe, not reaching those spoken in Scandinavia or reaching them much later.

Rhotacism, for example, was complete in West Germanic at a time when North Germanic runic inscriptions still distinguished the two phonemes. There is evidence that the lowering of ē to ā occurred first in West Germanic and spread to North Germanic since word-final ē was lowered before it was shortened in West Germanic, whereas in North Germanic the shortening occurred first, resulting in e that merged with i. However, there are a number of common archaisms in West Germanic shared by neither Old Norse nor Gothic; some authors who support the concept of a West Germanic proto-language claim that not only shared innovations can require the existence of a linguistic clade but that there can be archaisms that cannot be explained as retentions lost in the North or East because this assumption can produce contradictions with attested features of these other branches. The debate on the existence of a Proto-West-Germanic clade was summarized: That North Germanic is.. A unitary subgroup is obvious, as all of its dialects shared a long series of innovations, some of them striking.

That the same is true of West Germanic has been denied, but I will argue in vol. ii that all the West Germanic languages share several unusual innovations that force us to posit a West Germanic clade. On the other hand, the internal subgrouping of both North Germanic and West Germanic is messy, it seems clear that each of those subfamilies diversified into a network of dialects that remained in contact for a considerable period of time. Several scholars have published reconstructions of Proto-West-Germanic morphological paradigms and many authors have reconstructed individual Proto-West-Germanic morphological forms or lexemes; the first comprehensive reconstruction of the Proto-West-Germanic language was published in 2013 by Wolfram Euler. If indeed Proto-West-Germanic existed, it must have been between the 4th centuries; until the late 2nd century AD, the language of runic inscriptions found in Scandinavia and in Northern Germany were so similar that Proto-North-Germanic and the Western dialects in the south were still part of one language.

After that, the split into West and North Germanic occurred. By the 4th and 5th centuries the great migration set in which helped diversify the West Germanic family more, it has been argued that, judging by their nearly identical syntax, the West Germanic dialects were enough related to have been mutually intelligible up to the 7th century. Over the course of this period, the dialects diverged successively; the High German consonant shift that occurred during the 7th century AD in what is now southern Germany and Switzerland can b

W. H. Burford & Sons

W. H. Burford and Sons was a soap and candle-making business founded in Adelaide in 1840 by William Henville Burford, an English butcher who arrived in the new colony in 1838, it was one of the earliest soapmakers in Australia, up to the 1960s when it closed, the oldest. In 1878 he took his two sons Benjamin and William into partnership as W. H. Burford & Sons, its expansion, accompanied by a number of takeovers, made it the dominant soap manufacturer in South Australia and Western Australia. Its founders were noted public figures in the young city of Adelaide. W. H. Burford and Sons was in turn taken over by J. Kitchen & Sons, who became Lever & Kitchen, part of the British Lever Brothers empire, which in 1930 merged with Dutch Margarine Unie to form the multi-national Unilever. W. H. Burford's first factory was on the corner of Grenfell Street and East Terrace the site of an Adelaide Electric Supply Company's building, in 1989, the Tandanya National Aboriginal Cultural Institute, it was little more than a tin shed in a vacant field.

During one of the recessions that faced the colony, Burford was forced to sell the land lease it back to keep the business running. The second factory, opened in 1900 at Sturt Street owned by competitor Tidmarsh & Co, occupied 4 acres of floor space and employed over 200 men, its most salient feature was the brick chimney – 152 ft 4in in height and a flue diameter of 4 ft, still standing. The boiler room housed four boilers, one of, 27 ft long and 7 ft 6in in diameter and the largest to have been built in South Australia; the still-room had six large stills: four for distillation of stearine and two for glycerine. The building was organised so that manufacture started on the top floor and progressed by chutes or conveyors to the second floor for wrapping and packaging, thence to the ground floor, all with a minimum of handling; the smell emanating from the Sturt Street factory, despite installation of deep drainage, was the source of much complaint from neighbours. In 1887 Burfords took over Apollo Soap Ltd of Adam Street, Hindmarsh.

The factory, which continued to be called the "Apollo Works", was the site of work peripheral to the core business of soap and candle making, such as rendering down of animal fats and grinding of corn, bone and blacking, the manufacture of wooden packing crates. In 1888 they took over Frearson's Printing Works, whose factory was on Adam Street; these premises were destroyed by fire on 25 December 1907. In February 1919 the Sturt Street premises were destroyed by fire. Rather than rebuild in the city, a new factory was set up in Dry Creek near the railway station where there had once been a smelter. Manufacture resumed in 1922. Much was made at the time of a model suburb to serve employees of the soap works and the nearby abattoirs. "Burford Garden Suburb" as it was named, was designed by W. J. Earle, the town planner behind Cadbury's model town at Claremont, Tasmania; the Dry Creek lots were snapped up they were offered for sale. The greater part of the Sturt Street property was sold around the same time.

"Burford Gardens" as the name of a suburb has since vanished, though its streets remain: Flame Avenue, Gum Avenue, Wattle Avenue, Grevillea Avenue and Bushwood Avenue, all in what is now known as Dry Creek. In Western Australia, the Victoria Park factory opened in 1897. After taking over the Swan Soap and Candle Company Ltd. the Rocky Bay factory opened in 1899, Kalgoorlie factories opened later. In 1924 Burford's merged with rival soap makers J. Kitchen and Sons of Melbourne and Lever Brothers of Sydney as Australian Producers Co-Partnership Ltd. In 1928 Kitchen's Fremantle factory was destroyed by fire, Burford's was able to make up the shortfall by manufacturing to Kitchen specifications, the product being wrapped and distributed by the Kitchen factory; this opened the way for further rationalization, by 1937 all Burford factories were under the control of J Kitchen & Sons. In 1932 Associated Producers became Associated Enterprises Pty Ltd, renamed Lever Associated Enterprises Pty Ltd in 1944.

By 1948 production by Burfords in Adelaide had been wound down and in 1957 Unilever bought out W. H. Burford & Sons. Products manufactured during the history of W. H. Burford & Sons include: Soaps: "Burford's Prize No 1" soap, "Signal" soap, mottled soap, yellow soap, transparent soap, White Naptha soap, Apollo laundry soap in various sized bars, Borax soap, "Sayso" carbolic family soap, "Snowflakes" extract of soap powder, Dr Bayley's medicated soap, sulphur soap, White Dove soap, kerosene soap "Exhibition" candles, carriage candles, bedroom candles, piano candles "Brunswick" stove blacking "Excelsior" blacklead Linoleum polish Boot polish, boot cream "Swansdown" starch Soda crystals Magic Egg Preserver "Southern Sky" washing blue Snow-white starch Lubricating oils Greases Bone manure When Burford's soapworks and Peacock's tannery were founded on Grenfell Street, there were no residences nearby, but as the population grew nearby, the number of complaints about smells grew until, in 1866, a case was brought against Burford in the Supreme Court.

The jury appeared to be convinced by the argument that the complainants had chosen to build knowing what trades were carried on there so had no right to complain, found for the defendant. The Council had other plans. In 1919

Incidental imaging finding

In medical or research imaging, an incidental finding is an unanticipated finding, not related to the original diagnostic inquiry. As with other types of incidental findings, they may represent a diagnostic and philosophical dilemma because the significance is unclear. While some coincidental findings may lead to beneficial diagnoses, others may lead to overdiagnosis in the form of unnecessary testing and treatment, i.e. the "cascade effect."Incidental findings are common in imaging. For instance, around 1 in every 3 cardiac MRIs result in an incidental finding. Incidence is similar for chest CTs; as the use of medical imaging increases, the chance of detecting incidental findings is expected to increase. Incidental adrenal masses on imaging are common. Differential diagnosis include adenoma, cyst, pheochromocytoma, adrenal cancer, metastatic cancer and tuberculosis; some of these lesions are identified by radiographic appearance. Thus, clinical guidelines have been developed to aid in decision-making.

Although adrenal incidentalomas are common, they are not cancerous - less than 1% of all adrenal incidentalomas are malignant. The first considerations are size and radiographic appearance of the mass. Suspicious adrenal masses or those ≥4 cm are recommended for complete removal by adrenalectomy. Masses <4 cm may be recommended for removal if they are found to be hormonally active, but are otherwise recommended for observation. All adrenal masses should receive hormonal evaluation. Hormonal evaluation includes: 1-mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test 24-hour urinary specimen for measurement of fractionated metanephrines and catecholamines Blood plasma aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity, if hypertension is presentOn CT scan, benign adenomas are of low radiodensity. A radiodensity equal to or below 10 Hounsfield units is considered diagnostic of an adenoma. An adenoma shows rapid radiocontrast washout. If the hormonal evaluation is negative and imaging suggests benign lesion, follow up may be considered.

Imaging at 6, 12, 24 months and repeat hormonal evaluation yearly for 4 years is recommended, but there exists controversy about harm/benefit of such screening as there is a high subsequent false-positive rate and overall low incidence of adrenal carcinoma. Autopsy series have suggested, it has been estimated that 10% of the adult population may harbor such endocrinologically inert lesions. When encountering such a lesion, long term surveillance has been recommended. A baseline pituitary hormonal function test should be done, including measurements of serum levels of TSH, prolactin, IGF-1, adrenal function, testosterone in men, estradiol in amenorrheic women. Incidental thyroid masses may be found in 9% of patients undergoing bilateral carotid duplex ultrasonography; some experts recommend that nodules > 1 cm or those with ultrasonographic features of malignancy should be biopsied by fine needle aspiration. Computed tomography is inferior to ultrasound for evaluating thyroid nodules. Ultrasonographic markers of malignancy are: solid hypoechoic appearance irregular or blurred margins intranodular vascular spots or pattern microcalcificationsIncidental parathyroid masses may be found in 0.1% of patients undergoing bilateral carotid duplex ultrasonography.

The American College of Radiology recommends the following workup for thyroid nodules as incidental imaging findings on CT, MRI or PET-CT: Studies of whole body screening computed tomography find abnormalities in the lungs of 14% of patients. Clinical practice guidelines by the American College of Chest Physicians advise on the evaluation of the solitary pulmonary nodule. Most renal cell carcinomas are now found incidentally. Tumors less than 3 cm in diameter less have aggressive histology. A CT scan is the first choice modality for workup of solid masses in the kidneys. Hemorrhagic cysts can resemble renal cell carcinomas on CT, but they are distinguished with Doppler ultrasonography. In renal cell carcinomas, Doppler US shows vessels with high velocities caused by neovascularization and arteriovenous shunting; some renal cell carcinomas are hypovascular and not distinguishable with Doppler US. Therefore, renal tumors without a Doppler signal, which are not obvious simple cysts on US and CT, should be further investigated with contrast-enhanced ultrasound, as this is more sensitive than both Doppler US and CT for the detection of hypovascular tumors.

The increasing use of MRI during diagnostic work-up for back or lower extremity pain, has led to a significant increase in the number of incidental findings that are most clinically inconsequential. The most common include: vertebral hemangioma fibrolipoma Tarlov cystSometimes asymptomatic findings can present with symptoms and these cases when identified cannot be considered as incidentalomas; the concept of the "incidentaloma" has been criticized, as such lesions do not have much in common other than the history of an incidental identification and the assumption that they are clinically inert. It has been proposed just to say that such lesions have been "incidentally found." The underlying pathology shows no unifying histological concept