Barbuda is an island in the Eastern Caribbean, and forms part of the state of Antigua and Barbuda. It has a population of about 1,638, most of live in the town of Codrington. Barbuda is located north of Antigua, in the middle of the Leeward Islands, to the south are the islands of Montserrat and Guadeloupe, and to the west and north west are Nevis, St. Kitts, St. Barts, and St. Martin. The Ciboney were the first to inhabit the island of Barbuda in 2400 BC, early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English, who formed a colony in 1666. In 1685 Barbuda was leased to brothers Christopher and John Codrington, the Codrington family produced food on their land in Barbuda, and transported slaves as labour for their sugarcane plantations on Antigua. There was more than one slave rebellion at Codrington during the 1740s, all the slaves were freed in 1834. Despite a common belief, even by Barbudans themselves, the island was never used as a farm for slave-breeding experiments. At most, the Codringtons considered using Barbuda as a nursery, where children would be fed and cared for to work on Antiguan plantations.
In 1719, Codrington and the island of Barbuda had its first census, the first map of Barbuda was made in the second half of the 18th century. The map shows eight catching pens for holding captured runaway slaves, there were several defensive cannon gun battery units around the island perimeter. There was a plantation in the Meadow and Guava area. On November 1,1981, the island gained its independence as an part of Antigua and Barbuda. In a 1989 election the Barbuda Independence Movement received too few votes to qualify for a seat in the national parliament, Barbuda is home to the Frigate Bird Sanctuary, which is located in the Codrington Lagoon. Other points of interest include Highland House and the Indian Cave, barbudas climate and geography is conducive to tourism. Many tourists are attracted by the islands beaches, activities include a bird sanctuary, snorkeling and caving. Only two operating resorts are located on the island, the rest are abandoned after poor management, difficult infrastructure, the total land area is 160.56 km2.
The capital and largest city is Codrington, with a population of 1,000. The island is mostly limestone with little topographical variation
History of Antigua and Barbuda
The history of Antigua and Barbuda can be separated into three distinct eras. In the first, the islands were inhabited by three successive Amerindian societies, the islands were neglected by the first wave of European colonisation, but were settled by England in 1632. Under British control, the islands witnessed an influx of both Britons and African slaves, in 1981, the islands were granted independence as the modern state of Antigua and Barbuda. Antigua was first settled by pre-agricultural Amerindians known as Archaic People, the earliest settlements on the island date to 2900 BC. They were succeeded by ceramic-using agriculturalist Saladoid people who migrated up the chain from Venezuela. They were replaced by Arawakan speakers around 1200 AD, the Arawaks were the first well-documented group of Antiguans. They paddled to the island by canoe from Venezuela, ejected by the Caribs—another people indigenous to the area, Arawaks introduced agriculture to Antigua and Barbuda, among other crops, the famous Antiguan Black pineapple.
For example, a popular Antiguan dish, Ducuna is a sweet, steamed dumpling made from grated potatoes, flour. In addition, one of the Antiguan staple foods, fungee, is a paste made of cornmeal. The bulk of the Arawaks left Antigua about 1100 A. D and those who remained were subsequently raided by the Caribs. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Caribs superior weapons and seafaring prowess allowed them to defeat most Arawak nations in the West Indies—enslaving some, the Catholic Encyclopedia does make it clear that the Spanish explorers had some difficulty identifying and differentiating between the various native peoples they encountered. As a result, the number and types of groups in existence at the time may be much more varied. According to A Brief History of the Caribbean and African diseases, malnutrition, no researcher has conclusively proven any of these causes as the real reason for the destruction of West Indian natives. In fact, some believe that the psychological stress of slavery may have played a part in the massive number of native deaths while in servitude.
Others believe that the abundant, but starchy, low-protein diet may have contributed to severe malnutrition of the Indians who were used to a diet fortified with protein from sea-life. The Indigenous West Indians made excellent sea vessels that used to sail the Atlantic. As a result and Arawaks populated much of South American, relatives of the Antiguan Arawaks and Caribs still live in various countries in South America, notably Brazil and Colombia. The smaller remaining native populations in the West Indies maintain a pride in their heritage, Christopher Columbus sighted islands in 1493 during his second voyage naming the larger one Santa Maria de la Antigua
Flag of Anguilla
The national flag of Anguilla, a British overseas territory, consists of a Blue Ensign with the British flag in the canton, charged with the coat of arms of Anguilla in the fly. The coat of arms consists of three dolphins, which were featured on the earlier Anguillan flag, and which stand for friendship, the flag is Anguillas third flag other than as part of Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla. The islands first flag was a red flag featuring the name of the island in yellow, variants to this flag were widely used, with some substituting red for purple and some not bearing the name of Anguilla. This flag was widely disliked, and was replaced during Anguillas brief period of independence by the Dolphin Flag, which is still widely seen around the island. This flag was a banner of the arms found on the current Blue Ensign, the Blue Ensign for Anguilla was adopted in 1990. It is used on land, it is used at sea by vessels operated by the Government of Anguilla. Anguillas civil ensign—that is the ensign worn on civilian vessels registered in Anguilla—is the undifferenced Red Ensign, Anguilla has not yet adopted a distinctive version of the Red Ensign.
Ashore, the flag is commonly used as an all-purpose civil flag, either in place of. The Union Jack defaced with the Anguilla coat of arms is used by the Governor, Anguilla at Flags of the World
Head of state
A head of state is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. In some countries, the head of state is a figurehead with limited or no executive power, while in others. Former French president Charles de Gaulle, while developing the current Constitution of France, some academic writers discuss states and governments in terms of models. An independent nation state normally has a head of state, the non-executive model, in which the head of state has either none or very limited executive powers, and mainly has a ceremonial and symbolic role. In parliamentary systems the head of state may be merely the chief executive officer, heading the executive branch of the state. This accountability and legitimacy requires that someone be chosen who has a majority support in the legislature and it gives the legislature the right to vote down the head of government and their cabinet, forcing it either to resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution. In parliamentary constitutional monarchies, the legitimacy of the head of state typically derives from the tacit approval of the people via the elected representatives.
In reality, numerous variants exist to the position of a head of state within a parliamentary system, the king had the power of declaring war without previous consent of the parliament. For example, under the 1848 constitution of the Kingdom of Italy, the Statuto Albertino—the parliamentary approval to the government appointed by the king—was customary, so, Italy had a de facto parliamentarian system, but a de jure presidential system. These officials are excluded completely from the executive, they do not possess even theoretical executive powers or any role, even formal, hence their states governments are not referred to by the traditional parliamentary model head of state styles of His/Her Majestys Government or His/Her Excellencys Government. Within this general category, variants in terms of powers and functions may exist, the constitution explicitly vests all executive power in the Cabinet, who is chaired by the prime minister and responsible to the Diet. The emperor is defined in the constitution as the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people and he is a ceremonial figurehead with no independent discretionary powers related to the governance of Japan.
Today, the Speaker of the Riksdag appoints the prime minister, Cabinet members are appointed and dismissed at the sole discretion of the prime minister. In contrast, the contact the President of Ireland has with the Irish government is through a formal briefing session given by the taoiseach to the president. However, he or she has no access to documentation and all access to ministers goes through the Department of the Taoiseach. The president does, hold limited reserve powers, such as referring a bill to the court to test its constitutionality. The most extreme non-executive republican Head of State is the President of Israel, semi-presidential systems combine features of presidential and parliamentary systems, notably a requirement that the government be answerable to both the president and the legislature. The constitution of the Fifth French Republic provides for a minister who is chosen by the president
Grenada is an island country consisting of Grenada itself and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. Grenada is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela, and southwest of Saint Vincent, Grenada is known as the Island of Spice because of the production of nutmeg and mace crops, of which it is one of the worlds largest exporters. Its size is 344 square kilometres, with a population of 110,000. The national bird of Grenada is the critically endangered Grenada dove, before the arrival of Europeans, Grenada was inhabited by indigenous Arawaks and, Island Caribs. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his voyage to the Americas. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, French settlement and colonisation began in 1650 and continued for the next century. On 10 February 1763 Grenada was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris, British rule continued, except for a period of French rule between 1779 and 1783, until 1974.
From 1958 to 1962 Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies, on March 3,1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State. Herbert Blaize was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967, Eric Gairy served as Premier from August 1967 until February 1974. Independence was granted on February 7,1974, under the leadership of Eric Gairy, Bishop was freed by popular demonstration and attempted to resume power, but was captured and executed by soldiers. On October 25,1983, combined forces from the United States, the invasion was highly criticised by the governments of Britain and Tobago, and Canada, along with the United Nations General Assembly. Elections were held in December 1984 and were won by the Grenada National Party under Herbert Blaize who served as minister until his death in December 1989. On September 7,2004, after being hurricane-free for 49 years, the island was hit by Hurricane Ivan. On July 14,2005, Hurricane Emily struck the northern part of the island, the origin of the name Grenada is obscure, but it is likely that Spanish sailors renamed the island for the city of Granada.
By the beginning of the 18th century, the name Grenada, on his third voyage to the region in 1498, Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada and named it La Concepción in honour of the Virgin Mary. It is said that he may have named it Assumpción. However, history has accepted that it was Tobago he named Assumpción, in 1499, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci travelled through the region with the Spanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda and mapmaker Juan de la Cosa. Vespucci is reported to have renamed the island Mayo, which is how it appeared on maps for around the next 20 years, in the 1520s the Spanish named the islands to the north of Mayo as Los Granadillos, presumably after the mainland Spanish town
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
It performs the role of spreading responsibility and liability in the event of natural disaster, such as a hurricane. The main organ of the OECS, the Commission, is based in the city of Castries. The OECS was created on 18 June 1981, with the Treaty of Basseterre, the OECS is the successor of the Leewards Islands political organisation known as the West Indies Associated States. One prominent aspect of the modern day OECS economic bloc has been the accelerated pace of integration among its member states. All of the members-states of the OECS are either Full or Associate members of the Caribbean Community and were among the second batch of countries that joined the CARICOM Single Market, Martinique is currently negotiating to become an associate member of the Caribbean Community as well. The OECS currently has ten members, spread across the Eastern Caribbean, they form a near-continuous archipelago across the Leeward Islands and Windward Islands. The two most geographically isolated members and the British Virgin Islands, have associate membership of the organisation.
As a result, diplomatic missions of the OECS do not represent these two states, nor do OECS diplomatic missions represent Martinique, the third associate member. For the purposes of discussing the membership, they are treated as equals of the full members. Six of the members were formerly colonies of the United Kingdom, three others, the British Virgin Islands, and Montserrat remain overseas territories of the UK while Martinique continues to be an overseas department and region of France. Eight of the ten members consider Queen Elizabeth II to be sovereign, as well, the Queens likeness appears on the East Caribbean dollars coins and banknotes. All seven full members are the members of the OECS. The British Virgin Islands was the first associate member, joining on 22 November 1984 and Anguilla was the second, on 1 February 2015, it was announced that Martinique would become a new associate member of the OECS on 4 February 2015. The occasion will be marked by a ceremony in Martiniques capital.
It follows the unanimous vote in favour of Martiniques associate membership of the OECS in Martiniques Regional Assembly in November 2013, OECS Director General, Dr. Martinique officially acceded as an associate member on 4 February 2015. Didacus Jules, Director General of OECS, said that the OECS was fortunate that Martinique is now an Associate Member, the table lists full members in alphabetical order and associate members in chronological order of their joining the OECS. Although almost all of the current full and associate members are past or present British dependencies, the first was the United States Virgin Islands, which applied for associate membership in February 1990 and requested that US Federal Government allow the territory to participate as such. At that time, it was felt by the US government that it was not a time to make such a request
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
The country is known simply as Saint Vincent. Most of Saint Vincent lies within the Hurricane Belt, to the north of Saint Vincent lies Saint Lucia, to the east Barbados. Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a densely populated country with approximately 102,000 inhabitants and its capital is Kingstown, its main port. The main mother tongue is Vincentian Creole and the language is English. The island now known as Saint Vincent was originally named Youloumain by the native Island Caribs who called themselves Kalina/Carina, the Caribs aggressively prevented European settlement on Saint Vincent until 1719. The first Europeans to occupy St. Vincent were the French, following a series of wars and peace treaties, the islands were eventually ceded to the British. The French settlers cultivated coffee, indigo, the British captured the island from the French during the Seven Years War fought between 1754 and 1763. St Vincent was ceded to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris, on taking control of the island in 1763, the British laid the foundations of Fort Charlotte.
The island was restored to French rule in 1779 and regained by the British under the Treaty of Versailles, between 1783 and 1796, there was again conflict between the British and the Black Caribs, who were led by Paramount Chief Joseph Chatoyer. Between 1795 and 1796, with French support from Martinique, the Black Caribs fought a series of battles against the British and their uprising was eventually put down, resulting in almost 5,000 Black Caribs being exiled to the tiny island of Baliceaux off the coast of Bequia. Conflict between the British and the Black Caribs continued until 1796, in 1797 British General Sir Ralph Abercromby put an end to the open conflict by crushing an uprising which had been supported by the French radical, Victor Hugues. The British deported more than 5,000 Black Caribs to Roatán, in 1806 the building of Fort Charlotte was completed. The La Soufriere volcano erupted in 1812, like the French before them, the British used African slaves to work plantations of sugar, indigo, tobacco and cocoa until full emancipation in 1838.
The economy went into a period of decline with many abandoning their estates. Slavery was abolished in Saint Vincent in 1834, and an apprenticeship period followed which ended in 1838, after its end, labour shortages on the plantations resulted, and this was initially addressed by the immigration of indentured servants. In the late 1840s many Portuguese immigrants arrived from Madeira and between 1861 and 1888 shiploads of East Indian labourers arrived, conditions remained harsh for both former slaves and immigrant agricultural workers, as depressed world sugar prices kept the economy stagnant until the turn of the century. In 1902, La Soufrière volcano erupted, killing 2,000 people, much farmland was damaged, and the economy deteriorated. From 1763 until its independence in 1979, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines passed through various stages of colonial status under the British
The concept developed all in the United States after World War II. Accordingly, in order to possess national security, a nation needs to possess economic security, energy security, environmental security, the variety of definitions provide an overview of the many usages of this concept. National security objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, in 1990, Harvard University history professor Charles Maier defined national security through the lens of national power, National security. The variety of definitions provide an overview of the usages of this concept. National security objectively means the absence of threats to acquired values and subjectively, in 1990, Harvard University history professor Charles Maier defined national security through the lens of national power, National security. To be truly secure, a nation needs other forms of security, authorities differ in their choice of nation security elements. Besides the military aspect of security, the aspects of diplomacy or politics, environment and natural resources, the elements of national security correlate closely to the concept of the elements of national power.
Romm lists security from narcotic cartels, economic security, environmental security, military security is traditionally the earliest recognised form of national security. Military security implies the capability of a nation to defend itself, military security implies the capability of a nation to enforce its policy choices by use of military force. The term military security is considered synonymous with security in much of its usage, diplomacy and other interactions form the means of interaction between the objects. Historically, conquest of nations has made conquerors rich through plunder, access to new resources, economic security today forms, arguably, as important a part of national security as military security. The creation and protection of jobs that supply defense and non-defense needs are vital to national security, third world countries are less secure due to lack of employment for their citizens. Environmental security deals with issues which threaten the national security of a nation in any manner.
The scope and nature of environmental threats to security and strategies to engage them are a subject of debate. While all environmental events are not considered significant of being categorised as threats, many transnational issues, romm classifies these as, Transnational environmental problems that threaten a nations security, in its broad defined sense. These include global environmental problems such as climate change due to warming and loss of biodiversity. Environmental or resource problems that threaten a nations security, traditionally defined and these would be problems whose outcomes would result in conventional threats to national security as first or higher order outcomes. Environmentally threatening outcomes of warfare, e. g. Prabhakaran Paleris 2008 definition of a resource is. a support inventory, biotic or abiotic, renewable or expendable. for sustaining life at a heightened level of well-being
The Blue Ensign is a flag, one of several British ensigns, used by certain organisations or territories associated with the United Kingdom. It is used either plain, or defaced with a badge or other emblem, the evolution of the Blue Ensign followed that of the Union Jack. The ensign originated in the 17th century with the St Georges cross in the canton, the Acts of Union 1707 united England and Wales with Scotland in the Kingdom of Great Britain, thus producing a new Blue Ensign with the new Union Flag in the canton. With the Act of Union 1800, Ireland joined the United Kingdom and St Patricks Cross was added to the Union Flag and, accordingly, to the cantons of all British ensigns from 1 January 1801. Prior to the reorganisation of the Royal Navy in 1864, the blue ensign had been the ensign of one of three squadrons of the Royal Navy, the Blue Squadron. The number and rank of such crew members required has varied over the years, as have the conditions required. Royal Research Ships by warrant whether manned by former Royal Navy personnel or Merchant Navy personnel, british-registered Yachts belonging to members of the following yacht clubs, Permission for yachts to wear the blue ensign was suspended during both World War I and World War II.
Since 1864, the Blue Ensign is defaced with a badge or emblem, the blue ensign was approved by the British Admiralty in 1868 for use by ships owned by the Canadian government. net
Saint Lucia is a sovereign island country in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Part of the Lesser Antilles, it is located north/northeast of the island of Saint Vincent, northwest of Barbados and it covers a land area of 617 km2 and reported a population of 165,595 in the 2010 census. The French were the islands first European settlers and they signed a treaty with the native Carib Indians in 1660. England took control of the island from 1663 to 1667, in ensuing years, it was at war with France 14 times, and rule of the island changed frequently. In 1814, the British took definitive control of the island, because it switched so often between British and French control, Saint Lucia was known as the Helen of the West Indies. Representative government came about in 1840, from 1958 to 1962, the island was a member of the Federation of the West Indies. On 22 February 1979, Saint Lucia became an independent state of the Commonwealth of Nations associated with the United Kingdom, Saint Lucia is a mixed jurisdiction, meaning that it has a legal system based in part on both the civil law and English common law.
The Civil Code of St. Lucia of 1867 was based on the Quebec Civil Code of 1866 and it is a member of La Francophonie. One of the Windward Islands, Saint Lucia was named after Saint Lucy of Syracuse by the French, the islands first European settlers, the French pirate François le Clerc frequently visited Saint Lucia in the 1550s. It was not until around 1600 that the first European camp was started by the Dutch at what is now Vieux Fort, in 1605 an English vessel called the Olive Branch was blown off-course on its way to Guyana, and the 67 colonists started a settlement on Saint Lucia. After five weeks only 19 survived due to disease and conflict with the Caribs, the French officially claimed the island in 1635. The English attempted the next European settlement in 1639, and that too was wiped out by Caribs, in 1643 a French expedition sent out from Martinique established a permanent settlement on the island. De Rousselan was appointed the governor, took a Carib wife. In 1664, Thomas Warner claimed Saint Lucia for England and he brought 1,000 men to defend it from the French, but after two years, only 89 survived with the rest dying mostly due to disease.
In 1666 the French West India Company resumed control of the island, in 1722, George I of Great Britain granted both Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent to The 2nd Duke of Montagu. He in turn appointed Nathaniel Uring, a merchant sea captain and adventurer, Uring went to the islands with a group of seven ships, and established settlement at Petit Carenage. Unable to get support from British warships, he and the new colonists were quickly run off by the French. During the Seven Years War Britain occupied Saint Lucia for a year, Britain handed the island back to the French at the Treaty of Paris in 1763