Jordan Road, Hong Kong
Jordan Road is a road in Yau Ma Tei, Hong Kong. It spans from the West Kowloon Highway in West Kowloon, through Ferry Point to Gascoigne Road, is a major east-west road in southern Kowloon. Jordon Road known as Sixth Street, was renamed to its present name in a streets renaming notice as gazetted by the government in March 1909. In May 1909, Gascoigne Road South was merged into the new Jordon Road. According to a letter to the editor as published in the South China Morning Post of 31 May 1909, Jordan Road, like a few streets in the same area which were named after British diplomats, was renamed in honour of Sir John Jordan, the British Minister to China; the story suggested by some Chinese sources that the street was named after British pathologist G. P. Jordan, who served as Health Officer in Hong Kong for nearly thirty years, was a myth. In 1908, a stone obelisk was erected as a memorial to French sailors of the "Fronde" who had drowned in the 1906 typhoon. Located at the corner with Gascoigne Road, the monument has since been relocated to the Colonial Cemetery at Happy Valley.
Prior to the opening of the Cross-Harbor Tunnel in 1972, ferries such as the ones departing from Jordan Road were the only way to transport automobiles from Kowloon to Hong Kong. Once a quiet, suburban street, since the 1950s Jordan Road and its surrounding area have become one of the most overcrowded areas in Kowloon. At the end of the road, there was the Jordan Road Ferry Pier in Ferry Point, with ferries carrying passengers and vehicles to Central of Hong Kong Island; until the completion of the Cross-Harbour Tunnel, it was a major transport hub to and from the Hong Kong Island. There was an important bus terminus, Jordan Road Ferry Pier Bus Terminus, near the pier; the bus terminus hosted many routes to the New Territories. After the completion of major part of reclamation in West Kowloon, the bus terminus was moved to Jordan Bus Terminus in the new reclamation nearby. In 2011-2012, the bus terminus was closed and most routes were rerouted to Jordan; some go to Kowloon Railway Station bus terminus, near Kowloon Station of the Mass Transit Railway Airport Express.
These factors make Jordan Road an important transportation access point. Jordan Station of the MTR was named after Jordan Road, between the centres of Yau Ma Tei and Tsim Sha Tsui; the station's name is so used that it has replaced the traditional name, Kwun Chung, for the neighbourhood. Jordan, Hong Kong List of streets and roads in Hong Kong Google Maps of Jordan Road
Kwai Chung is an urban area within Tsuen Wan New Town in the New Territories of Hong Kong. Together with Tsing Yi Island, it is part of the Kwai Tsing District District of Hong Kong. Kwai Chung is the site of the container port, it is part of Tsuen Wan New Town. In 2000, it had a population of 287,000, its area is 9.93 km². Areas within Kwai Chung include: Kwai Fong, Kwai Hing, Lai King, Tai Wo Hau. In earlier times Kwai Chung was called Kwai Chung Tsz. Kwai Chung was a stream; the whole bay was reclaimed for land and the stream is no longer visible. Traditionally, Kwai Chung is divided into Upper Kwai Chung or Sheung Kwai Chung, Lower Kwai Chung or Ha Kwai Chung. Administratively, the former is called North Kwai Chung, the latter South Kwai Chung. Kwai Chung is the home of the principal commercial cargo handling area of Hong Kong, the Kwai Chung Container Terminal, one of the largest and busiest port facilities in the world; the main commercial port was relocated here from Yau Ma Tei in the 1980s, in preparation for the West Kowloon Reclamation, which has left the original waterfront of Yau Ma Tei half a mile inland.
List of areas of Hong Kong Public housing estates in Kwai Chung Hulu Concept, a not-for-profit cultural organisation based in Kwai Chung Satellite view of the container port in Kwai Chung
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, is characterised by slower speeds, longer trip times, increased vehicular queueing. When traffic demand is great enough that the interaction between vehicles slows the speed of the traffic stream, this results in some congestion. While congestion is a possibility for any mode of transportation, this article will focus on automobile congestion on public roads; as demand approaches the capacity of a road, extreme traffic congestion sets in. When vehicles are stopped for periods of time, this is colloquially known as a traffic jam or traffic snarl-up. Traffic congestion can lead to drivers becoming engaging in road rage. Mathematically, congestion is looked at as the number of vehicles that pass through a point in a window of time, or a flow. Congestion flow lends itself to principles of fluid dynamics. Traffic congestion occurs when a volume of traffic or modal split generates demand for space greater than the available street capacity.
There are a number of specific circumstances which aggravate congestion. About half of U. S. traffic congestion is recurring, is attributed to sheer weight of traffic. Traffic research still cannot predict under which conditions a "traffic jam" may occur, it has been found that individual incidents may cause ripple effects which spread out and create a sustained traffic jam when, normal flow might have continued for some time longer. People work and live in different parts of the city. Places of work are located away from housing areas, resulting in the need for people to commute to work. According to a 2011 report published by the United States Census Bureau, a total of 132.3 million people in the United States commute between their work and residential areas daily. People may need to move about within the city to obtain goods and services, for instance to purchase goods or attend classes in a different part of the city. Brussels, a city with a strong service economy, has one of the worst traffic congestion in the world, wasting 74 hours in traffic in 2014.
This means that the city’s transportation facilities are not capable of handling the amount of traffic it receives, such as the lack of alternative routes on roads, a lack of public transportation where buses and trains are overcrowded and infrequent. In Mumbai, trains are filled to many times their capacity. Buses caught in traffic congestion are filled with passengers. Therefore, many people turn to driving their own cars to have a more pleasant commute. Thus, many people turn to driving their own cars; some traffic engineers have attempted to apply the rules of fluid dynamics to traffic flow, likening it to the flow of a fluid in a pipe. Congestion simulations and real-time observations have shown that in heavy but free flowing traffic, jams can arise spontaneously, triggered by minor events, such as an abrupt steering maneuver by a single motorist. Traffic scientists liken such a situation to the sudden freezing of supercooled fluid. However, unlike a fluid, traffic flow is affected by signals or other events at junctions that periodically affect the smooth flow of traffic.
Alternative mathematical theories exist, such as Boris Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. Because of the poor correlation of theoretical models to actual observed traffic flows, transportation planners and highway engineers attempt to forecast traffic flow using empirical models, their working traffic models use a combination of macro-, micro- and mesoscopic features, may add matrix entropy effects, by "platooning" groups of vehicles and by randomising the flow patterns within individual segments of the network. These models are typically calibrated by measuring actual traffic flows on the links in the network, the baseline flows are adjusted accordingly. A team of MIT mathematicians has developed a model that describes the formation of "phantom jams," in which small disturbances in heavy traffic can become amplified into a full-blown, self-sustaining traffic jam. Key to the study is the realization that the mathematics of such jams, which the researchers call "jamitons," are strikingly similar to the equations that describe detonation waves produced by explosions, says Aslan Kasimov, lecturer in MIT's Department of Mathematics.
That discovery enabled the team to solve traffic-jam equations that were first theorized in the 1950s. Congested roads can be seen as an example of the tragedy of the commons; because roads in most places are free at the point of usage, there is little financial incentive for drivers not to over-use them, up to the point where traffic collapses into a jam, when demand becomes limited by opportunity cost. Privatization of highways and road pricing have both been proposed as measures that may reduce congestion through economic incentives and disincentives. Congestion can happen due to non-recurring highway incidents, such as a crash or roadworks, which may reduce the road's capacity below normal levels. Economist Anthony Downs argues that rush hour traffic congestion is inevitable because of
Mong Kok is an area in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The Prince Edward area occupies the northern part of Mong Kok. Mong Kok is one of the major shopping areas in Hong Kong; the area is characterised by a mixture of old and new multi-story buildings, with shops and restaurants at street level, commercial or residential units above. Major industries in Mong Kok are retail and entertainment, it has been described and portrayed in films as an area in which triads run bars and massage parlors. With its high population density of 130,000/km2 or 340,000 per square mile, Mong Kok was described as the busiest district in the world by the Guinness World Records; until 1930, the area was called Mong Kok Tsui. The current English name is a transliteration of its older Chinese name 望角, or 芒角, named for its plentiful supply of ferns in the past when it was a coastal region, its present Chinese name "旺角", means "prosperous corner" or "crowded corner." For a period, the area was called Argyle, this name was used for the MTR station when it opened in 1979.
The office building 旺角中心. Mong Kok is part of Yau Tsim Mong District, it was part of the Mong Kok District before the district was merged in 1994. The area belongs to the Kowloon West geographical constituency of the Legislative Council of Hong Kong. Displays at the Chinese University of Hong Kong include antique potteries indicating that there might have been settlements in the area as early as the Jin Dynasty; the area used to be a Hakka settlement, with about 200 villagers according to Bao'an records in 1819. The heart of the present-day Mong Kok is along Argyle Street near Sai Yeung Choi Street whilst the proper Mong Kok used to be to the north, near the present-day Mong Kok East Station. Mong Kok was an area of cultivated lands, bounded to the south by Argyle Street, to the west by Coronation Road, to the east by hills. To the southeast of Mong Kok is Ho Man Tin and to the west Tai Kok Tsui. On 10 August 2008 the Cornwall Court fire broke out. More than 200 firefighters were involved in the rescue operation.
Four people died, including two firefighters. Mong Kok received a lot of negative media attention for many acid attacks on Sai Yeung Choi Street from December 2008 through January 2010; the area was the site of protracted demonstrations during the 2014 Hong Kong protests, including the gau wu campaign, was the site of the 2016 Mong Kok civil unrest. Mong Kok preserves its traditional characteristics with an array of markets, small shops, food stalls that have disappeared from other areas during the past several decades of economic developments and urban transformation; as such, a few of these streets in Mong Kok have acquired nicknames reflecting their own characteristics. Some interesting sites are: Tung Choi Street – This market specialises in women's clothing and cosmetics, is open daily from noon to midnight. There are food stalls selling noodles and congee. An open-air market of fruits and vegetables is located in the vicinity. Sai Yeung Choi Street South – A street full of shops selling consumer electronic products and discount books.
The latter are located on the lower floors of buildings. Yuen Po Street Bird Garden – Hundreds of songbirds in exquisitely crafted cages can be seen at this market; the garden is open from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. and is located near Mong Kok Stadium, to the north of Mong Kok East Station and east of Prince Edward Station. The garden was completed in 1997 for the relocation of booths selling birds at aka. "Bird Street", closed due to urban renewal in June 1998. Fa Yuen Street – This is a small neighbourhood of small retailers selling sports equipment and clothing; the shops stock a diversity of sports shoes, including many shoes of rare or special editions from different places. Flower Market Road – The street and the nearby side streets are packed with florists and street vendors selling flowers and plants. At the end of the street is Yuen Po Street Bird Garden. Goldfish street or Goldfish Market – Centered on a section of Tung Choi Street, north of Bute Street. There are dozens of shops and hawkers selling tropical freshwater and marine fish and accessories.
This market opens early in the morning. Tile Street – This is a section of Portland Street near Argyle Street and Bute Street with more than 50 retailers selling materials for construction or renovation, such as tiles, wall paper, window frames and bath tubs. Photocopy Street – A neighbourhood near Yim Po Fong Street and Soy Street is noted for its remarkable number of photocopying shops due to the number of schools in the vicinity. Portland Street – A red-light district featuring numerous shops and restaurants. Kwong Wa Street, between Dundas Street and Yim Po Fong Street, is famous for shops selling airsoft, RC racing and other hobbying equipment. Dundas Street marks the southern end of the shopping area in eastern Mong Kok, where Sai Yeung Choi Street South, Tung Choi Street and Fa Yuen Street terminate, it is named for Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, former British Home Secretary and Secretary of State for War. Ho King Shopping Centre, Ka Lok Shopping Arcade and Trendy Zone are major shopping centres on the street.
Various kinds of food shops concentrate on this
Tai Kok Tsui
Tai Kok Tsui is an area west of Mong Kok in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The mixed land use of industrial and residential is present in the old area; the Cosmopolitan Dock and oil depots were located there. Blocks of high-rise residential buildings have been erected on the reclaimed area to the west, which marked the revitalization of the area with many restaurants and bars setting up shop. Many of the older residential buildings have been vacated and are set to be replaced by luxury high-rise buildings; until many of the residents in Tai Kok Tsui were senior citizens but there has been a more recent influx of younger people those returning to Hong Kong after time spent overseas. Traditionally the area has been known as one characterised by the presence of immigrants - described as'illegal immigrants' though this term is used rather intolerantly in Hong Kong and at times may describe people who are no such thing. Before any reclamation, Tai Kok Tsui was geographically a long island of Hong Kong of granite linked by an isthmus at its north to Kowloon Peninsula.
The long granite hill divided the reclamation in its east and dock area in the west in 1924. The tip of the cape hosted the Asia oil tanks; the area was for dock facilities at this period as reflected in present-day Anchor Street. The Cosmopolitan Dock survived till the 1960s, now Cosmopolitan Estate; the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link will be built underneath Tai Kok Tsui. In January 2010, the local residents protested and said the railway would cause unbearable noise pollution to residents in some districts and could cause a number of old buildings with poor foundations to collapse; the Chinese character Tsui in Tai Kok Tsui implies that the area was an elongated cape on the west side of Kowloon Peninsula. The cove between the cape and Kowloon Peninsula was reclaimed during the period of 1867–1904. More reclamation along its shore took place during the period of 1904–1924 and more covered its tip during the period of 1924–1945. Minor reclamation was needed during the period 1964 -- 1982.
The launch of the Airport Core Programme in the 1990s gave rise to substantial reclamation as well as revitalisation of the district. Part of Tai Kok Tsui - the area newly reclaimed in the 1990s - is referred to as Olympic due to the nearby MTR Station opened in 1998, the Olympian City shopping centre. Island Harbourview, completed 1998-99, was the first private housing estate to be built in the newly reclaimed area, it was built by Sun Hung Kai Properties. There are 9 blocks in total. Blocks 1,2,3,5 and 6 faces East/West while Blocks 7,8,9 and 10 face North/South; the estate has a clubhouse with many facilities such as 2 badminton courts. It is located at 11 Hoi Fai Road Tai Kok Tsui. Central Park is a private housing estate located in the area, it is one of the projects of MTR Olympic Station Phase II and is built on the reclaimed land of the old Yau Ma Tei Typhoon Shelter. Developed in 2001 by a consortium composed of MTR Corporation, Sino Land, Kerry Properties, Bank of China and China Overseas Land and Investment, it comprises 4 high-rise buildings with a total of 1,344 units.
Florient Rise Cherry Street Project is a private estate in Cherry Street. It was jointly developed by Nan Fung Group and Urban Renewal Authority in 2008, construction was completed in May 2009, it comprises three blocks with a total of 522 units. There is a residential block called "Hoi Ming Court" in the middle of the site, excluded from the redevelopment project due to its young age and high acquisition cost. Florient Rise was built around Hoi Ming Court. Harbour Green is a private part of the Olympic Station Phase III project, it comprises five 56 floors towers with a total of 1,514 units. It was jointly developed by Sun Hung Kai Properties and MTR Corporation and completed in 2007. One Silversea is a private estate located at the waterfront site of the former Tai Kok Tsui Temporary Bus Terminus, it was developed by Sino Land and completed in 2006. Shining Heights, at 83 Sycamore Street, was developed by Hong Kong Ferry Company Limited and its parent company, Henderson Land Development, it was Hong Kong Ferry Staff Quarters It comprises one tower with a total of 348 units, completed in 2009.
This is a private estate located above the newly developed Olympian City 3. PLK Vicwood KT Chong Sixth Form College St. Francis Xavier's College Lau Wong Fat Secondary School CCC Ming Kei College
Public housing estates in Sham Shui Po
The following is an overview of public housing estates in Sham Shui Po, Hong Kong, including Home Ownership Scheme, Private Sector Participation Scheme, Tenants Purchase Scheme estates. The site where Sham Shui Po Park, Lai Kok Estate, Lai On Estate and Dragon Centre are located were the Sham Shui Po Barracks of the British Army between the 1910s to 1977. During World War II, the barrack was attacked by the Japanese Army and was used as a concentration camp during the Japanese occupation from 1941-45. After the war, the barracks were once again used by British Army until 1977, when they were closed Part of the site became Lai Kok Estate in 1981, Sham Shui Po Park in 1983, while another part was a refugee camp for Vietnamese boat people. In 1989, the refugee camp was closed and replaced by Lai On Estate and Dragon Centre in 1993 and 1994 respectively. In 1992, the Sham Shui Po Ferry Pier terminated ferry service due to West Kowloon Reclamation Project. Fu Cheong Estate was built in 1978 on the site of the bus terminus of the former pier, located between Yen Chow Street and Tung Chau Street.
In 1977, the sea outside Tung Chau Street was reclaimed, the ferry pier was relocated near the newly reclaimed land near Yen Chow Street in 1978, Nam Cheong Estate was built in 1989 on land beyond the old ferry pier located at the junction of Pei Ho Street and Tung Chau Street. Cronin Garden is a Flat-for-Sale Scheme estates at the junction of Shun Ning Road, Po On Road and Pratas Street in Sham Shui Po, it has seven 13-storey blocks, built in 1995 and developed by the Hong Kong Housing Society. It was built on the site of Sheung Li Uk Estate, the first estate built by the Hong Kong Housing Society, designed by Stanley Feltham, completed in 1952. Fu Cheong Estate was built on reclaimed land of the southwest of Sham Shui Po near Nam Cheong Station. Fu Cheong Estate was built in 2001, Fu Cheong Estate was constructed on the former site of the Shamshuipo bus terminus, its name, "Fu Cheong", comes from nearby Nam Cheong Estate and means "Wealthy and Prosperity" in Chinese language. It consists of 10 residential buildings and a shopping centre completed in 2001 and 2002.
Lai Kok Estate was built on reclaimed land of the west of Yen Chow Street, Sham Shui Po, located near Lai On Estate, Dragon Centre, Cheung Sha Wan Station. It consists of 8 residential blocks completed in 1981. Lai On Estate is located near Lai Kok Estate, Dragon Centre, Sham Shui Po Station, it consists of 5 residential blocks completed in 1993. Nam Cheong Estate is named from a main street in Sham Shui Po District, it consists of seven residential blocks completed in 1989. In 2005, the estate was sold to tenants through Tenants Purchase Scheme Phase 6B; the estate is surrounded by Tung Chau Street Park. Wing Cheong Estate is composed of two Y-shaped blocks completed 2013, between Fu Cheong Estate and the West Kowloon Corridor, on Sai Chuen Road, it provides about 1500 public rental flats. The main contractor for the estate's construction was Paul Y Engineering. To mitigate the noise nuisance of the adjacent West Kowloon Corridor, the flats facing this motorway are equipped with "acoustic balconies".
The balcony parapet incorporates an inclined glass panel to deflect noise, the walls and ceiling of the balconies are faced with sound-absorbing panels. Yee Ching Court is a HOS court in Sham Shui Po, next to Lai Kok Estate, Lai On Estate and Dragon Centre, it has 3 blocks built in 1993. Yee Kok Court is a HOS court in Sham Shui Po, next to Lai Kok Estate, Lai On Estate and Dragon Centre, it has 7 blocks built in 1981. Public housing in Hong Kong List of public housing estates in Hong Kong
Kai Tak Tunnel
Kai Tak Tunnel known as the Airport Tunnel is a tunnel in New Kowloon, Hong Kong, which connects the Kowloon Bay and Ma Tau Kok areas by going beneath the former Hong Kong International Airport. It is part of Route 5; the tunnel provides a quick link between the two ends of the tunnel, as before the construction of the tunnel vehicles had to detour through Kowloon City to reach the other end. Kai Tak Tunnel is managed by Greater Lucky Company Limited. Construction of the tunnel had started by 1975, but because of the difficulties in digging under the airport runway, it was not complete until 1982; the southern tube opened to two-way traffic at 3:00 pm on 29 June 1982. The second tube opened on 8 October 1982; the Airport Tunnel was the first tunnel in Hong Kong to be toll-free, excluding short underpasses. With Kai Tak Airport's shutdown in 1998, the Airport Tunnel was no longer fulfilled to its name; the Hong Kong Government announced to rename to Kai Tak Tunnel on 2 March 2006 that the tunnel, effective from 4 May 2006, after several years of consultation with groups including the Kowloon City District Council.
The name was changed to commemorate the former Kai Tak International Airport. The tunnel consists of a pair of tubes of about 7 metres diameter each, 1.26 km long. The southern tube carries west-bound traffic from Kowloon Bay to Ma Tau Kok. A point of interest is, it is the only major vehicular tunnel in Hong Kong built by the cut-and-cover technique. Many major express bus routes of Kowloon Motor Bus between Kowloon and the eastern end of New Kowloon travel through the Kai Tak Tunnel. Most of them run between Tsim Sha Tsui, they include 13X, 98D, 98P, 215X, 219P, 219X, 296D. Westbound departures of routes 11X and 28 run through Kai Tak Tunnel. In total, an estimated 60000 vehicles use the tunnel each day