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West Low German

West Low German known as Low Saxon is a group of Low German dialects spoken in parts of the Netherlands, northwestern Germany and southern Denmark. It is one of two groups of the other being East Low German dialects. A 2005 study found that there were 1.8 million "daily speakers" of Low Saxon in the Netherlands. The language area comprises the North German states of Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Saxony-Anhalt as well as the northeast of The Netherlands and the Schleswigsch dialect spoken by the North Schleswig Germans in the southernmost part of Denmark. In the south the Benrath line and Uerdingen line isoglosses form the border with the area, where West Central German variants of High German are spoken. West Low German Westphalian, including the region around Münster and the Osnabrück region of Lower Saxony Eastphalian, spoken in southeastern Lower Saxony and in the Magdeburg Börde region Northern Low Saxon Schleswigsch HolsteinischHamburgisch Ollnborger Platt in the Oldenburg region East Frisian Low Saxon in East Frisia North Hanoveranian Dithmarsch Emsländisch While Dutch is a Low Franconian language, the Dutch Low Saxon varieties, which the Dutch government considers to be Dutch dialects, form a dialect continuum with the Westphalian language.

They consist of: West Low German Westphalian Stellingwarfs in southeastern Friesland Midden-Drents Zuud-Drèents Tweants and Tweants-Groafschops in the Twente region of Overijssel and the adjacent Achterhoek region of Gelderland Veluws in the Veluwe region of Gelderland Gelders-Overijssels Achterhooks Sallaans in the Salland region of western Overijssel Urkers on the former island of Urk in Flevoland Northern Low Saxon Westerkwartiers, in western Groningen Gronings, in Groningen and northern Drenthe, by its Frisian substratum related to Friso-Saxon dialects West Low German Northern Low Saxon Schleswigsch dialect spoken in former South Jutland County around Aabenraa

Zirconium nitrate

Zirconium nitrate is a volatile anhydrous transition metal nitrate of zirconium with formula Zr4. It has alternate names of zirconium zirconium nitrate, it is class 5.1, meaning oxidising substance. Anhydrous Zirconium nitrate can be made from zirconium tetrachloride reacting with dinitrogen pentoxide. ZrCl4 + 4 N2O5 → Zr4 +. A contaminating substance in this is nitronium pentanitratozirconate. Zr5. Zirconium nitrate pentahydrate Zr4.5H2O can be formed by dissolving zirconium dioxide in nitric acid and evaporating the solution until it is dry. However it is easier to crystallise zirconyl nitrate trihydrate ZrO2.3H2O from such a solution. Zirconium is resistant to nitric acid in the presence of other impurities and high temperatures. So zirconium nitrate is not made by dissolving zirconium metal in nitric acid. Zirconium nitrate pentahydrate dissolves in water and alcohol. In water it is acidic; the pentahydrate crystals have a refractive index of 1.6. In water solution a base such as ammonium hydroxide will cause zirconium hydroxide to precipitate.

Zirconium nitrate can be used as a Lewis acid catalyst in the formation of N-substituted pyrroles. A mixed aqueous solution of hafnium nitrate and zirconium nitrate can be separated by partitioning the zirconium into tributylphosphate dissolved in kerosene. Zirconium free from hafnium is required for nuclear reactor construction. Anhydrous zirconium nitrate can nitrate some organic aromatic compounds in an unusual way. Quinoline is nitrated to 7-nitroquinoline. Pyridine is nitrated to 4-nitropyridine. Related substances are zirconium nitrate complexes. Zr3.3H2O+ has a tricapped trigonal pyramid, with the nitrates connected by two oxygen atoms each. The pentanitrato complex Zr5− has all the nitrate groups bidentate, has a bicapped square antiprism shape. NO223 crystallizes in the hexagonal system, space group P3C1 with unit cell dimensions a=10.292Å b=10.292Å c=14.84Å volume 1632.2Å3 with 2 formulae per cell, density=2.181. CsZr5 crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P21/n with unit cell dimensions a=7.497 Å b=11.567 Å c=14.411 Å β=96.01° volume 1242.8Å3 with 4 formulae per cell, density=2.855.

Zr5. HNO3 crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Pna21 with unit cell dimensions a=14.852 Å b=7.222 Å c=13.177 Å β=90° volume 1413.6 Å3 with 4 formulae per cell, density=2.267. A mixed nitronium, nitrosonium pentanitratozirconate crystallizing in the tetragonal system exists. Zirconium nitrate is manufactured by a number of chemical suppliers, it is used as a source of zirconium for other salts, as an analytical standard, or as a preservative. Zirconium nitrate and nitronium pentanitratozirconate can be used as chemical vapour deposition precursors as they are volatile, decompose above 100 °C to form zirconia. At 95°C zirconium nitrate sublimes with a pressure of 0.2 mm of Hg and can be deposited as zirconium dioxide on silicon at 285°C. It has the advantage in that it is a single source, meaning it does not have to be mixed with other materials like oxygen, decomposes at a low temperature, does not contaminate the surface with other elements such as hydrogen or fluorine

Berlin Tempelhof Airport

Berlin Tempelhof Airport was one of the first airports in Berlin, Germany. Situated in the south-central Berlin borough of Tempelhof-Schöneberg, the airport ceased operating in 2008 amid controversy, leaving Tegel and Schönefeld as the two main airports serving the city, with the new Berlin Brandenburg Airport still under construction as of 2020. Tempelhof was designated as an airport by the Reich Ministry of Transport on 8 October 1923; the old terminal was constructed in 1927. In anticipation of increasing air traffic, the Nazi government began a massive reconstruction in the mid-1930s. While it was cited as the world's oldest operating commercial airport, the title was disputed by several other airports, is no longer an issue since its closure. Tempelhof was one of Europe's three iconic pre-World War II airports, the others being London's now defunct Croydon Airport and the old Paris–Le Bourget Airport, it acquired a further iconic status as the centre of the Berlin Airlift of 1948–49. One of the airport's most distinctive features is its massive, canopy-style roof extending over the apron, able to accommodate most contemporary airliners in the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s, protecting passengers from the elements.

Tempelhof Airport's main building was once among the top 20 largest buildings on earth. Tempelhof Airport closed all operations on 30 October 2008, despite the efforts of some protesters to prevent the closure. A non-binding referendum was held on 27 April 2008 against the impending closure but failed due to low voter turnout; the former airfield has subsequently been used as a recreational space known as Tempelhofer Feld. In September 2015 it was announced that Tempelhof would become an emergency refugee camp. Tempelhof was called the "City Airport". In its years, it had commuter flights to other parts of Germany and neighbouring countries; the first of these three first appeared at Tempelhof on 18 September 1976, when Pan American World Airways flew in Boeing 747SP Clipper Great Republic to participate in the static exhibition of contemporary military, non-combat and civil aircraft at the annual "Day of Open House" of the United States Air Force at the airport. The Galaxy had its first appearance at Tempelhof on 17 September 1971, when an aircraft of the USAF's 436th Military Airlift Wing flew in from Dover Air Force Base in Delaware, United States, to participate in that year's "Day of Open House" static exhibition.

These events marked the debut at Tempelhof of the largest aircraft in commercial airline service at the time and the then-largest aircraft overall. It had two parallel runways. Runway 09L/27R was 2,094 metres long and runway 09R/27L was 1,840 m. Both were paved with asphalt; the taxiway was in the shape of an oval around these two runways, with a single terminal on the northwest side of the airport. Other possible uses for Tempelhof have been discussed, many people are trying to keep the airport buildings preserved. In September 2015, in the midst of the 2015 European migrant crisis, it was announced by the Berlin state government that Tempelhof would become an'emergency refugee shelter', holding at least 1,200 people in two former hangars; the site of the airport was Knights Templar land in medieval Berlin, from this beginning came the name Tempelhof. The site was used as a parade field by Prussian forces, by unified German forces from 1720 to the start of World War I. In 1909, Frenchman Armand Zipfel made the first flight demonstration in Tempelhof, followed by Orville Wright that same year.

Tempelhof was first designated as an airport on 8 October 1923. Deutsche Luft Hansa was founded in Tempelhof on 6 January 1926; the old terminal constructed in 1927, became the world's first with an underground railway. The station has since been renamed Paradestraße, because the rebuilding of the airport in the 1930s required the airport access to be moved to a major intersection with a station now called Platz der Luftbrücke after the Berlin Airlift; as part of Albert Speer's plan for the reconstruction of Berlin during the Nazi era, Prof. Ernst Sagebiel was ordered to replace the old terminal with a new terminal building in 1934; the airport halls and the adjoining buildings, intended to become the gateway to Europe and a symbol of Hitler's "world capital" Germania, are still known as one of the largest built entities worldwide, have been described by British architect Sir Norman Foster as "the mother of all airports". With its façades of shell limestone, the terminal building, built between 1936 and 1941, forms a 1.2 kilometre long quadrant.

Arriving passengers walked through customs controls to the reception hall. Tempelhof was served up Friedrichstraße. Zentralflughafen Tempelhof-Berlin had the advantage of a central location just minutes from the Berlin city centre and became one of the world's busiest airports. Tempelhof saw its greatest pre-war days during 1938–1939, when up to 52 foreign and 40 domestic flights arrived and departed daily from the old terminal while the new one was still under construction; the new air terminal was designed as headquarters for Deutsche Luft Hansa, the German national airline at that time. As a forerunner of today's modern airports, the building was designed with many unique features, including giant arc-shaped aircraft hangars. Although under construction for more than ten years, it was never finish

Pavilhão Rosa Mota

Super Bock Arena - Pavilhão Rosa Mota is an arena in Porto, Portugal. The pavilion opened in 1954, it was known as Pavilhão dos Desportos but in 1991 it was renamed after Rosa Mota, a Portuguese, European and Olympic champion in marathon running. In 2014, after a public call for tenders, a consortium between Lucios and PEV Entertainment was responsible for the rehabilitation of the arena; the initial cost of the rehabilitation was 8 million euros. In November 2018, Porto's Municipal Chamber announced that following a naming agreement with Super Bock, the company's name was to be added to the arena, in the course of the 20-year private concession of the space; the rehabilitation process was concluded in 2019. The arena now has the capacity to undertake events up to 8,000 people and is branded Super Bock Arena. Besides cultural and sports events, the arena can now function as a congress centre. List of indoor arenas in Portugal Official website

Rosine Stoltz

Rosine Stoltz was a French mezzo-soprano. A prominent member of the Paris Opéra, she created many leading roles there including Ascanio in Berlioz's Benvenuto Cellini, Marguerite in Auber's Le lac des fées, the title role in Marie Stuart, two Donizetti heroines, Léonor in La favorite and Zayda in Dom Sébastien. Stoltz was born Victoire Noël on the boulevard du Montparnasse in Paris, the daughter of the concierges Florentin Noël and Clara Stoll, she received her first vocal training as a pensionnaire at the École Royale de Chant et Déclamation directed by Alexandre-Étienne Choron. Just short of her sixteenth birthday she left Choron's school to travel in the Low Countries under the name of Mlle Ternaux, her principal biographer Gustave Bord speculates that she had run away from the school with the son of the famous merchant of shawls on the Place des Victoires, Monsieur Ternaux. In Brussels, after having performed in the chorus of the Théâtre de la Monnaie, she made a tentative and unsuccessful attempt at performing in vaudeville.

In 1831 she was engaged as second female vocalist with the opera in Spa, before appearing in Antwerp and Amsterdam under the name Mlle Héloïse. For the 1832–1833 season, she appeared in secondary roles at the Monnaie under the name of Mlle Ternaux, in 1833–1834 was heard in Lille in Rossini's operas Il barbiere di Siviglia and Otello, performing in Italian, it was during this period that she began her rivalry with the soprano Julie Dorus-Gras, who had come to Lille to sing Alice in Meyerbeer's Robert le diable. After Dorus-Gras' departure, Stoltz wanted to sing Alice, but the management offered it instead to the house soprano, Mme Léon. However, by the end of 1834 Stoltz appeared as Alice at the theatre in Antwerp, sang there as Gertrude in Paer's Le maître de chapelle. In 1835 Stoltz was again engaged at the Monnaie to sing secondary roles, leading roles when needed, opened the 1835–1836 season on 5 May 1835, under the name Mme Stoltz, in the role of Alice in Robert le diable. On 23 December she sang Rachel in the Brussels's premiere of Halévy's La Juive, the success of which equaled that of Robert le diable in the same house on 10 October 1833.

She appeared as Petit-Jacques in Rossini's La pie voleuse on 14 May 1835 and as Marguerite in Hérold's Le pré aux clercs on 15 May. In the 1836–1837 season she came to the attention of the leading tenor from the Paris Opera, Adolphe Nourrit, who returned to the Monnaie in June to appear in Robert le diable, followed by Auber's Gustave III and La muette, Rossini's Guillaume Tell, Boieldieu's La dame blanche, Halévy's La Juive, Gaveaux's Le bouffe et le tailleur. Impressed by her talent, Nourrit encouraged her and promised to arrange for her debut at the Paris Opera; this was delayed, since Stoltz disappeared so abruptly and that many believed she might have died. It was learned that on 2 March 1837 she had married Alphonse Lescuyer, director of the Monnaie, having given birth to his son named Alphonse, on 21 September 1836 in Brussels. Stoltz made her debut at the Paris Opera on 25 August 1837 in La Juive, partnered not by Nourrit, with whom she would never again appear, but with his rival Gilbert Duprez.

Despite her stage fright, which she was unable to control, she was well received. After a subsequent performance, it was recognized that she possessed a pure voice with a fine timbre and a remarkable range, she was praised for the beauty of her tones in the contralto range and compared to one of the Opera's leading sopranos, Cornélie Falcon. On 6 September Stoltz appeared as Valentine in Meyerbeer's Les Huguenots, the other role for which Falcon was most renowned. Falcon was suffering recurrent vocal difficulties after losing her voice during a performance of Niedermeyer's Stradella in March 1837, she withdrew from further performances at the Opera for an extended period after an appearance as Valentine on 15 January 1838. Stoltz's first creation at the Opera was Ricciarda in Halévy's Guido et Ginevra on 5 March 1838. Stoltz's place of prominence at the Paris Opera was influenced by her relationship with the director, Léon Pillet. Pillet refused to mount an opera without a role for his mistress.

In view of the circumstances, Donizetti decided to abandon his original project for the Opéra, Le duc d'Albe, instead composed La favorite with the role of Léonor suited for Stoltz. Stoltz resigned from the Opera in 1847 in a scandal over her relationship with Pillet, she may have had a child with Pillet, as they traveled Le Havre for a time due to her "indisposition". She married Manuel de Godoy di Bassano, 3rd Prince de Godoy di Bassano, was the longtime mistress of Ernest II, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who offered her the Castle of Ketschendorf. Stoltz died in Paris, the city of her birth, aged 88; this list is based on Pitou. Ricciarda in Halévy's Guido et Ginevra on 5 March 1838 Ascanio in Berlioz's Benvenuto Cellini on 3 September 1838 Marguerite in Auber's Le lac des fées on 1 April 1839 Lazarillo in Marlian's La xacarilla on 28 October 1839 Loyse in Bazin's cantata Loyse de Montfort on 7 October 1840 Léonor in Donizetti's La favorite on 2 December 1840 Agathe in Weber's Le freischütz on 7 June 1841 Catarina in Halévy's La reine de Chypre on 22 December 1841 Odette in Halévy's Charles VI on 15 March 1843 Zayda in Donizetti's Dom Sébastien, roi de Portugal on 13 November

The Pipes and Drums of The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa

The Pipes and Drums of The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa is an authorized pipe band in the Canadian Forces, attached to of Headquarters and Service Company of The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa. It provides musical support for regimental and extra-Regimental activities as directed by the commanding officer. Outside of musical duties, the 25-members of the Pipes and Drums participate in Individual Battle Task Standards, which requires it to augment "A" Company during field training exercises; the Pipes and Drums were founded in 1921. During the Second World War, it accompanied the regiment during its tour of duty while based in Iceland and the United Kingdom. Being a Highland regiment, the dress uniform of the pipes and drums is based on traditional Scottish military dress, it marches in Scottish kilts ans wear a tartan unique to the Cameron Highlanders of the Canadian and British forces. In addition, they wear a leather sporran, oxford shoes and white spats; the regiment wears feather bonnets that are worn for ceremonial purposes the annual Remembrance Day parade near the National War Memorial.

Less formal orders of dress have been a mix of standard military service dress and Highland dress as appropriate. It has participated in many of the military and state functions that take place in Ottawa, including leading the marchpast on Wellington Street during the National Remembrance Day Parade; the Pipes and Drums were part of the marching contingents in the Dutch victory parade of 1945 in Utrecht. The Pipes and Drums has taken part in the Edinburgh Tattoo in 1974 and 1983. In 1976, it travelled to California to take part in the Rose Bowl Parade; the band has performed on a regular basis in smaller festivals, such as tattoos in Lethbridge and Estes Park. The band has taken part in the funerals of former members of the regiment including former members of the band