Yacht racing is a form of sport involving sailing yachts and larger sailboats, as distinguished from dinghy racing. It is composed of multiple yachts, in direct competition, racing around a course marked by buoys or other fixed navigational devices or racing longer distances across open water from point-to-point, it can involve a series of races when buoy multiple legs when point-to-point racing. Yachting, that is, recreational boating, is old, as exemplified in the ancient poem Catullus 4: "Yacht" is referred to as deriving from either Norwegian, Middle Low German or from the Dutch word jacht, which means "a swift light vessel of war, commerce or pleasure; the sporting element in the word lies in the derivation of jaght from the root jaghen, which means to hunt, chase or pursue…."The formal racing of boats is believed to have started with sailboats in the Netherlands some time in the 17th century. Soon, in England, custom-built racing "yachts" began to emerge and the Royal Yacht Squadron was established in 1815.
In 1661 John Evelyn recorded a competition between Katherine and Anne, two large royal sailing vessels both of English design, "…the wager 100-1. One of the vessels was owned, sometimes steered, by Charles II, the King of England; the king lost. In 1782 the Cumberland Fleet, a class of sailing vessel known for its ability to sail close to the wind, were painted racing up the Thames River with spectators viewing from a bridge. Much like today, this obsession with sailing close to the wind with speed and efficiency fueled the racing community. In the nineteenth century most yacht races were started by allotting starting positions to the competitors. Buoys were laid in a straight line, to which the competitors attached their yachts by means of spring ropes; the yachts were required to keep all the sails forward of the main mast on deck until the starting signal was given. The Yacht Racing Association was founded in 1875 by Prince Batthyany-Strattman, Captain J. W. Hughes, Mr. Dixon Kemp; the Y. R. A. wrote standardised yacht racing rules.
Bringing yacht racing to the forefront of public life, the America's Cup was first raced in 1851 between the New York Yacht Club and the Royal Yacht Squadron. Not ruled or regulated by measurement criteria as today, it is the second-place finisher was Aurora, "and but for the fact that time allowance had been waived for the race she would have been the winner by a handsome margin." Subsequently, the Cup races were conducted every 3–4 years, based on a challenge issued by one club to the current Cup holder, which till 1983 was the NYYC. As at 2017, the La Ciotat Based Yacht Partridge 1885 is documented as being the world's oldest, still operational classic racing yacht; as yacht racing became more prevalent, yacht design more diverse, it was necessary to establish systems of measurements and time allowances due to the differences in boat design. Longer yachts are inherently faster than shorter ones. Larger yachts were handicapped; as a result, both ratings and “one-design” competition were developed.
Ratings systems rely upon some formulaic analysis of very specific yacht-design parameters such as length, sail area and hull shape. During the 1920s and through the 1970s the Cruising Club of America established a formula by which most racing/cruising boats were designed during that period. After its descendant, the mathematically complex International Offshore Rule of the 1970s, contributed to much decreased seaworthiness, the simpler Performance Handicap Racing Fleet system was adopted; the PHRF uses only proven performance characteristics theoretical sailing speed, as a means to allow dissimilar yachts—typically crewed by friends and families at clubs rather than by professional crews—to race together. Most popular family-oriented cruising sailboats will have a rating filed with a local chapter of the PHRF; the most prevalent handicap rating systems today are the ORC, ORR, IRC, the PHRF. Many countries organise their own handicap systems which do not take into account the size, weight, or sail area of the yacht, but performance is measured on the basis of previous race results.
The Irish E. C. H. O. System is such a handicap system. One-design racing was invented by Thomas Middleton in 1886 in Killiney Bay close to Dublin City, Republic of Ireland. Middleton was concerned that winning a yacht race was more reliant on having an expensive new yacht, than it was on the skill of the yachtsman. One design yacht racing is conducted with classes of similar boats, all built—often via mass-production—to the same design, with the same sail area and rig, the same number of crew, so that crew ability and tactical expertise are more to decide a race than boat type, or age, or weather. Popular racing boats such as The Water Wag, the J/22 and J/24, the Etchells, the Star and New York 30 of Nathanael Herreshoff are examples of one-design boats. In general, modern yacht-racing contests are conducted according to the Racing Rules of Sailing, first established in 1928. Though complex, the RRS are intended simply ensure fairness and safety; the Rules are updated every four years by the body now known as World Sailing.
The major races of today can be classified as offshore, around the world, inshore racing all adhering to one set of rule
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
Kāneʻohe is a census-designated place included in the City and County of Honolulu and located in Hawaiʻi state District of Koʻolaupoko on the island of Oʻahu. In the Hawaiian language, kāne ʻohe means "bamboo man". According to an ancient Hawaiian story a local woman compared her husband's cruelty to the sharp edge of cutting bamboo; the population was 34,597 at the 2010 census. Kāneʻohe is the largest of several communities along Kāneʻohe Bay and one of the two largest residential communities on the windward side of Oʻahu; the commercial center of the town is spread along Kamehameha Highway. From ancient times, Kāneʻohe was important as an agricultural area, owing to an abundance of rainfall. Today, Kāneʻohe is a residential community, with little agriculture in evidence; the only commercial crop of any consequence in the area is banana. Features of note are the new Hawaiʻi National Veterans Cemetery. Access to Kāneʻohe Bay is from the public pier and boat ramp located at nearby Heʻeia Kea. Access to Coconut Island is from the state pier off Lilipuna Road.
Marine Corps Base Hawaii lies across the south end of Kāneʻohe Bay from the central part of Kāneʻohe, although the town stretches along Kāneʻohe Bay Drive to the base perimeter. The ZIP code for Kaneohe is 96744. There are three golf courses in Kāneʻohe: Pali Golf Course, Koʻolau Golf Club, Bayview Golf Park. Kaneohe is located at 21°24′33″N 157°47′57″W. Nearby towns include Kailua to the east, reached either by Kāneʻohe Bay Drive or Kamehameha Highway, the former providing a connection to Marine Corps Base Hawaii, the latter connecting to Interstate H-3 and Pali Highway to Honolulu. Likelike Highway runs southwest through the Koʻolau to Honolulu. Likelike provides connections to Kahekili Highway and Heʻeia, H-3 southbound to Hālawa; the first three exits on the windward side of Interstate H-3 east bound access Kāneʻohe. Following Kamehameha Highway northward from Kāneʻohe leads through Heʻeia to Heʻeia Kea. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.5 square miles, of which 6.6 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water.
The total area is 22.80% water, consisting of a portion of Kāneʻohe Bay included in the census tract. Kaneohe has a tropical savanna climate; as of the 2000 Census, there were 34,970 people, 10,976 households, 8,682 families residing in Kāneʻohe. The population density was 5,320.7 people per square mile. There were 11,472 housing units at an average density of 1,745.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 20.49% White, 0.81% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 38.48% Asian, 11.44% Pacific Islander, 0.68% from other races, 27.90% from two or more races. 7.21% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,976 households out of which 32.7% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.4% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.9% were non-families. 15.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.14 and the average family size is 3.48.
The population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 23.4% from 45 to 64, 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.2 males. The median income for a household in Kāneʻohe in 2000 was $66,006, the median income for a family was $71,316. Males had a median income of $40,389 versus $31,504 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $23,476. 6.1% of the population and 4.4% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 7.3% of those under the age of 18 and 4.2% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. The Honolulu Police Department operates the Kaneohe Substation in Kaneohe; the Hawaii Department of Education operates the public schools. Elementary schools in Kaneohe CDP include Heʻeia, Benjamin Parker, Kāneʻohe, Waiāhole, Pūʻōhala, Kahalu'u, ʻĀhuimanu. Intermediate schools in Kaneohe include S. W. King Intermediate school.
High schools in Kaneohe are James B. Castle High School CDP. Within the boundaries of Kaneohe CDP are the Hakipuʻu Learning Center, a public charter school for grades 7 through 12, four private schools: Koʻolau Baptist Academy, St Ann’s, St Mark Lutheran School, Windward Nazarene Academy. Windward Community College, part of the state college system, is located on the south side of central Kāneʻohe. Hawaiʻi Pacific University operates its Windward Hawaiʻi Loa campus on Kamehameha Highway near Castle Junction. Kimee Balmilero, Actor Hawaii Five-0, Magnum P. I. Bryan Clay, Olympic Gold Medalist Aloha Dalire, kumu hula and hula dancer, first Miss Aloha Hula winner Alika DeRego, Volleyball player, U. S. Open national champion Carlos Diaz, former Major League Baseball relief pitcher who played for the Atlanta Braves, New York Mets and Los Angeles Dodgers Blane Gaison, former National Football League player Ann Harada, actress Don Ho, singer and entertainer Mike Love, Genre Conscious Roots Rock Reggae musician Colleen Meyer, Hawaii state legislator and businesswoman Janel Parrish and singer Kāneʻohe watershed description City-Data.com
Rum is a distilled alcoholic drink made from sugarcane byproducts, such as molasses, or directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation. The distillate, a clear liquid, is usually aged in oak barrels; the majority of the world's rum production occurs in the Latin America. Rum is produced in Australia, Austria, Fiji, Japan, Nepal, New Zealand, the Philippines, Reunion Island, South Africa, Sweden, Thailand, the United Kingdom and the United States. Rums are produced in various grades. Light rums are used in cocktails, whereas "golden" and "dark" rums were consumed straight or neat, on the rocks, or used for cooking, but are now consumed with mixers. Premium rums are available, made to be consumed either straight or iced. Rum plays a part in the culture of most islands of the West Indies as well as in The Maritimes and Newfoundland; this drink has famous associations with piracy. Rum has served as a popular medium of economic exchange, used to help fund enterprises such as slavery, organized crime, military insurgencies.
The origin of the word "rum" is unclear. In an 1824 essay about the word's origin, Samuel Morewood, a British etymologist, suggested the word might derive from the British slang term for "the best", as in "having a rum time." He wrote: As spirits, extracted from molasses, could not well be ranked under the name whiskey, brandy, or arrack, it would be called rum, to denote its excellence or superior quality. Given the harsh taste of early rum, this interpretation is unlikely. Morewood suggested another possibility: that the word was taken from the last syllable of the Latin word for sugar, saccharum; this view is held today. Competing hypotheses abound. One proposes that the word comes from the Turkish name for Greeks, Rum, as some of the earliest rum spirits were distilled by Greek Christians in the eastern Mediterranean. Other etymologists have mentioned the Romani word rum, meaning "strong" or "potent"; these words have been linked to the ramboozle and rumfustian, both popular British drinks in the mid-17th century.
However, neither was made with rum, but rather eggs, wine and various spices. The most probable origin is as a truncated version of rumbustion. Both words surfaced in English about the same time as rum did, were slang terms for "tumult" or "uproar"; this is a far more convincing explanation, brings the image of fractious men fighting in entanglements at island tippling houses, which are early versions of the bar. Another claim is the name is from the large drinking glasses used by Dutch seamen known as rummers, from the Dutch word roemer, a drinking glass. Other options include contractions of the words iterum, Latin for "again, a second time", or arôme, French for aroma. Regardless of the original source, the name was in common use by 1654, when the General Court of Connecticut ordered the confiscations of "whatsoever Barbados liquors called rum, kill devil and the like". A short time in May 1657, the General Court of Massachusetts decided to make illegal the sale of strong liquor "whether knowne by the name of rumme, strong water, brandy, etc."In current usage, the name used for a rum is based on its place of origin.
For rums from Spanish-speaking locales, the word ron is used. A ron añejo indicates a rum, aged and is used for premium products. Rhum is the term that distinguishes rum made from fresh sugar cane juice from rum made from molasses in French-speaking locales like Martinique. A rhum vieux is an aged French rum; some of the many other names for rum are Nelson's blood, kill-devil, demon water, pirate's drink, navy neaters, Barbados water. A version of rum from Newfoundland is referred to by the name screech, while some low-grade West Indies rums are called tafia. Vagbhata, an Indian ayurvedic physician " a man to drink unvitiated liquor like rum and wine, mead mixed with mango juice'together with friends'". Shidhu, a drink produced by fermentation and distillation of sugarcane juice, is mentioned in other Sanskrit texts. According to Maria Dembinska, the King of Cyprus, Peter I of Cyprus or Pierre I de Lusignan, brought rum with him as a gift for the other royal dignitaries at the Congress of Kraków, held in 1364.
This is feasible given the position of Cyprus as a significant producer of sugar in the Middle Ages, although the alcoholic sugar drink named rum by Dembinska might not have resembled modern distilled rums closely. Dembinska suggests Cyprus rum was drunk mixed with an almond milk drink produced in Cyprus, called soumada. Another early rum-like drink is brum. Produced by the Malay people, brum dates back thousands of years. Marco Polo recorded a 14th-century account of a "very good wine of sugar", offered to him in the area that became modern-day Iran; the first distillation of rum in the Caribbean took place on the sugarcane plantations there in the 17th century. Plantation slaves discovered that molasses, a byproduct of the sugar refining process, could be fermented into alcohol. Distillation of these alcoholic byproducts concentrated the alcohol and removed impurities, producing the first modern rums. Tradition suggests this type of rum first originated on the island
Oʻahu, known as "The Gathering Place", is the third-largest of the Hawaiian Islands. It is home to one million people—about two-thirds of the population of the U. S. state of Hawaiʻi. The state capital, Honolulu, is on Oʻahu's southeast coast. Including small associated islands such as Ford Island and the islands in Kāneʻohe Bay and off the eastern coast, its area is 596.7 square miles, making it the 20th-largest island in the United States. Oʻahu is 44 miles long and 30 miles across, its shoreline is 227 miles long. The island is composed of two separate shield volcanoes: the Waiʻanae and Koʻolau Ranges, with a broad "valley" or saddle between them; the highest point is Kaʻala in the Waiʻanae Range, rising to 4,003 feet above sea level. The island was home to 953,207 people in 2010. Oʻahu has for a long time been known as the "Gathering Place"; the term Oʻahu has no confirmed meaning in Hawaiian, other than that of the place itself. Ancient Hawaiian tradition attributes the name's origin in the legend of Hawaiʻiloa, the Polynesian navigator credited with discovery of the Hawaiian Islands.
The story relates. Residents of Oʻahu refer to themselves as no matter their ancestry; the city of Honolulu—largest city, state capital, main deepwater marine port for the State of Hawaiʻi—is located here. As a jurisdictional unit, the entire island of Oʻahu is in the Honolulu County, although as a place name, Honolulu occupies only a portion of the southeast end of the island. Well-known features found on Oʻahu include Waikīkī, Pearl Harbor, Diamond Head, Hanauma Bay, Kāneʻohe Bay, Kailua Bay, North Shore. While the entire island is the City and County of Honolulu, locals identify settlements using town names (generally those of the Census Designated Places, consider the island to be divided into various areas, which may overlap; the most accepted areas are the "City", "Town" or "Town side", the urbanized area from Halawa to the area below Diamond Head, "West Oʻahu," which goes from Pearl Harbor to Kapolei, ʻEwa and may include the Mākaha and Waiʻanae areas. These terms are somewhat flexible, depending on the area in which the user lives, are used in a general way, but residents of each area identify with their part of the island those outside of widely-known towns.
For instance, if locals are asked where they live, they would reply "Windward Oʻahu" rather than "Lāʻie". Being diamond-shaped, surrounded by ocean and divided by mountain ranges, directions on Oʻahu are not described with the compass directions found throughout the world. Locals instead use directions using Honolulu as the central point. To go ʻewa means traveling toward the western tip of the island, "Diamond Head" is toward the eastern tip, mauka is inland and makai toward the sea; when these directions became common, Diamond Head was the eastern edge of the primary populated area. Today, with a much larger populace and extensive development, the mountain itself is not to the east when directions are given, is not to be used as a literal point of reference—to go "Diamond Head" is to go to the east from anywhere on the island. Oʻahu is known for having the longest rain shower in history, which lasted for 200 consecutive days. Kāneʻohe Ranch, Oʻahu, Hawaiʻi reported 247 straight days with rain from August 27, 1993 to April 30, 1994.
The island has many nicknames one of them being "rainbow state." This is. The average temperature in Oʻahu is around 70–85 °F and the island is the warmest in June through October; the weather during the winter is cooler, but still warm with an average temperature of 68–78 °F. The windward side is known for some of the most beautiful beaches in the world. Lanikai Beach on the windward coast of Oʻahu has been ranked among the best beaches in the world; the island has been inhabited since at least 3rd century A. D; the 304-year-old Kingdom of Oʻahu was once ruled by the most ancient aliʻi in all of the Hawaiian Islands. The first great king of Oʻahu was Maʻilikūkahi, the lawmaker, followed by many generation of monarchs. Kualiʻi was the first of the warlike kings. In 1773, the throne fell upon the son of Elani of Ewa. In 1783, Kahekili II, King of Maui, conquered Oʻahu and deposed the reigning family and made his son, Kalanikūpule, king of Oʻahu. Kamehameha the Great would conquer in the mountain Kalanikūpule's force in the Battle of Nuʻuanu.
Kamehameha founded the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi with the conquest of Oʻahu in 1795. Hawaiʻi would not be unified until the islands of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau surrendered under King Kaumualiʻi in 1810. Kamehameha III moved his capital from Lāhainā, Maui to Honolulu, Oʻahu in 1845. ʻIolani Palace, built by other members of the royal family, is still standing, is the only royal palace on American soil. Oʻahu was apparent