West Midlands (county)

The West Midlands County is a metropolitan county and combined authority area in western-central England with a 2018 estimated population of 2,916,458, making it the second most populous county in England after Greater London. It came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972, formed from parts of Staffordshire and Warwickshire; the county itself is a NUTS 2 region within the wider NUTS 1 region of the same name. The county consists of seven metropolitan boroughs: the City of Birmingham, the City of Coventry and the City of Wolverhampton, as well as the boroughs of Dudley, Sandwell and Walsall; the metropolitan county exists in law and as a geographic frame of reference, as a ceremonial county it has a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Between 1974 and 1986, the West Midlands County Council was the administrative body covering the county. A new administrative body for the county, the West Midlands Combined Authority, was created in June 2016.

Since May 2017, the authority has been headed by a directly elected Mayor of the West Midlands, a position held by Andy Street of the Conservative Party. Other county-wide bodies include the West Midlands Police, the West Midlands Fire Service and Transport for West Midlands; the county is sometimes described as the "West Midlands metropolitan area" or the "West Midlands conurbation" or "Greater Birmingham", although these have different, less defined, boundaries. The main conurbation, or urban area, does not include Coventry for example; the name "West Midlands" is used for the much larger West Midlands region, which sometimes causes confusion, not surprising when geographically it is on the eastern side of the region, the western side comprising Shropshire and Herefordshire the southern side comprising Worcestershire and most of Warwickshire. Although the modern county has only existed since 1974, the settlements of the West Midlands have long been important centres of commerce and industry as well as developing a good local infrastructure.

Coventry was one of England's most important cities during the Middle Ages, with its prosperity built upon wool and cloth manufacture. Birmingham and Wolverhampton have a tradition of industry dating back to the 16th century, when small metal-working industries developed. Birmingham was known for its manufacture of small arms, whereas Wolverhampton became a centre of lock manufacture and brass working; the coal and iron ore deposits of the Black Country area provided a ready source of raw materials. The area grew during the Industrial Revolution, by the 20th century had grown into one large conurbation. Coventry was slower to develop, but by the early 20th century, it had become an important centre of bicycle and car manufacture. 1966 saw a substantial reform in the local government of the area as the patchwork of county boroughs with municipal boroughs and urban district councils in between was replaced by a core of county boroughs covering a contiguous area as follows: Birmingham, which remained unaltered.

Near this area, three other towns remained separate, while Aldridge and Brownhills joined to form a single unit, called Aldridge-Brownhills. In the same year, a single West Midlands Constabulary was formed for the Black Country county boroughs, whilst Birmingham retained its Birmingham City Police and Solihull continued being policed by the Warwickshire Constabulary; the West Midlands Passenger Transport Authority was established in 1968. In 1974, the Local Government Act 1972 came into effect, creating the metropolitan county of West Midlands; this area was based on the seven county boroughs and the other non-county boroughs and urban districts around the fringe of the conurbation. The new area consisted of seven new metropolitan boroughs, with Aldridge-Brownhills added to Walsall. A new borough of Sandwell was formed by the merger of West Warley; the actual designation of Warley itself was abolished and the three towns of Smethwick and Rowley Regis reinstated as component parts of Sandwell, although these areas formed the Warley postal district.

Solihull took in much of the suburban fringe to the east of Birmingham, including the former villages of Chelmsley Wood and Castle Bromwich Birmingham Airport, the area of countryside between Solihull and Coventry, whilst Coventry itself received only small changes and Wolverhampton was unaltered. This led to quite a defined metropolitan border, excluding such places as Burntwood, Cannock, Kidderminster and Wombourne, considered for inclusion in the West Midlands metropolitan area by the Redcliffe-Maud Report; the 1974 reform created the West Midlands County Council

North Twin Mountain (New Hampshire)

North Twin Mountain is a mountain located in Grafton County, New Hampshire. The mountain forms the north end of the Twin Range of the White Mountains. North Twin overlooks the village of Twin Mountain, lying to the north of the mountain at the intersection of US Routes 3 and 302; the summit of South Twin Mountain is one mile to the south of North Twin. The north and east faces of North Twin drain into the Little River, thence into the Ammonoosuc and Connecticut Rivers, into Long Island Sound in Connecticut; the west side of North Twin drains to the North Branch of the Gale River, another tributary of the Ammonoosuc River. The summit of North Twin is reached by the North Twin Trail, which ascends from the village of Twin Mountain via the Little River valley; the North Twin Trail continues south along the crest of the Twin Range to South Twin. List of mountains in New Hampshire White Mountain National Forest U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: North Twin Mountain North Twin AMC: North Twin North Twin

Vinerian Professor of English Law

The Vinerian Professorship of English Law Vinerian Professorship of Common Law, was established by Charles Viner who by his will, dated 29 December 1755, left about £12,000 to the Chancellor and Scholars of the University of Oxford, to establish a Professorship of the Common Law in that University, as well as a number of Vinerian scholarships and readerships. Until the establishment of the Vinerian Chair, only Canon Law and Roman Law had been taught at Oxford and Cambridge. Therefore, only the Inns of Court provided any instruction in the Common Law, of most practical use to practitioners. Upon Sir William Blackstone's appointment to the Vinerian Professorship, his lectures were the first to be given on the English Common Law in any university in the world; the holders of the Chair since its foundation are the following: 1758–1766 Sir William Blackstone 1766–1777 Sir Robert Chambers 1777–1793 Richard Wooddeson 1793–1824 James Blackstone 1824–1843 Philip Williams 1844–1880 John Robert Kenyon 1882–1909 Albert Venn Dicey 1909–1922 William Martin Geldart 1922–1944 William Searle Holdsworth 1944–1949 Geoffrey Chevalier Cheshire 1949–1964 Harold Greville Hanbury 1964–1979 Rupert Cross 1979–1996 Guenter Treitel 1997-2012 Andrew Ashworth 2013- Hugh Collins List of professorships at the University of Oxford Hanbury, Harold Grenville, 1958: The Vinerian Chair and Legal Education.

Oxford: OUP Windeyer, W. V. J. 1957: Lectures on Legal History. Sydney: Law Book Company. Oxford University calendars passim