Apollo Milton Obote was a Ugandan political leader who led Uganda to independence in 1962 from British colonial administration. Following the nation's independence, he served as Prime Minister of Uganda from 1962 to 1966 and President of Uganda from 1966 to 1971 again from 1980 to 1985, he regained power after Amin's 1979 overthrow. His second period of rule was marred by repression and the deaths of many civilians as a result of a civil war known as the Ugandan Bush War. Milton Obote was born at Akokoro village in Apac district in northern Uganda, he was the son of a tribal chief of the Lango ethnic group. He began his education in 1940 at the Protestant Missionary School in Lira, attended Gulu Junior Secondary School, Busoga College and university at Makerere University. Having intended to study law, a subject not taught at the university, Obote took a general arts course, including English and geography. At Makerere, Obote honed his natural oratorical skills, he worked in Buganda in southern Uganda before moving to Kenya, where he worked as a construction worker at an engineering firm.
While in Kenya, Obote became involved in the national independence movement. Upon returning to Uganda in 1956, he joined the political party Uganda National Congress, was elected to the colonial Legislative Council in 1957. In 1959, the UNC split into two factions, with one faction under the leadership of Obote merging with Uganda People's Union to form the Uganda People's Congress. In the runup to independence elections, Obote formed a coalition with the Buganda royalist party, Kabaka Yekka; the two parties controlled a Parliamentary majority and Obote became Prime Minister in 1962. He assumed the post on 25 April 1962, appointed by Sir Walter Coutts Governor-General of Uganda; the following year the position of Governor-General was replaced by a ceremonial presidency to be elected by the parliament. Mutesa, the Kabaka of Buganda, became the ceremonial President, with Obote as executive prime minister. In January 1964, a mutiny occurred at the military barracks at Jinja, Uganda's second city and home to the 1st Battalion of the Uganda Army.
There were similar mutinies in two other eastern African states. Before they arrived, Obote sent his defence minister Felix Onama to negotiate with the mutineers. Onama was held hostage, agreed to many demands, including significant pay increases for the army, the rapid promotion of many officers, including the future president Idi Amin. In 1965, Kenyans had been barred from leadership positions within the government, this was followed by the removal of Kenyans en masse from Uganda in 1969, under Obote's guidance; as prime minister, Obote was implicated in a gold smuggling plot, together with Idi Amin deputy commander of the Ugandan armed forces. When the Parliament demanded an investigation of Obote and the ousting of Amin, he suspended the constitution and declared himself President in March 1966, allocating to himself unlimited power under state of emergency rulings. Several members of his cabinet, who were leaders of rival factions in the party, were arrested and detained without charge.
Obote responded with an armed attack upon Mutesa's palace. In 1967, Obote's power was cemented when the parliament passed a new constitution that abolished the federal structure of the independence constitution and created an executive presidency. In 1969, there was an attempt on Obote's life. In the aftermath of the attempt, all opposition political parties were banned, leaving Obote as an absolute ruler. A state of emergency was in force for much of the time and many political opponents were jailed without trial for life. Obote's regime terrorised and tortured people, his secret police, the General Service Unit, led by Obote's cousin, was responsible for many cruelties. In 1969–70, Obote published a series of pamphlets that were supposed to outline his political and economic policy; the Common Man's Charter was a summary of his approach to socialism, which became known as the Move to the Left. The government took over a 60% share in major private corporations and banks in the country in 1970.
During Obote's regime and widespread corruption emerged in the name of his version of "socialism". Food shortages sent prices through the ceiling. Obote's persecution of Indian traders contributed to this rise in prices. In January 1971, Obote was overthrown by the army while on a visit to Singapore to attend a Commonwealth conference, Amin became President. In the two years before the coup Obote's relations with the West had become strained; some have suggested that Western Governments were at least aware of, may have aided, the coup. Obote fled to Tanzania; the fall of Obote's regime was celebrated by many Ugandans. In 1979, Idi Amin was ousted by Tanzanian forces aided by Ugandan exiles. By 1980, Uganda was governed by an interim Presidential Commission. At the time of the 1980 elections, the chairman of the commission was a close associate of Obote, Paulo Muwanga. Muwanga had been the de facto President of Uganda from 12–20 May 1980, as one of three presidents who served for short periods of time between Amin's ousting and the setting up of the Presidential Commission.
The other two presidents were Godfrey Binaisa. The elections in 1980 were won by Obote's Uganda People's Congress party. However, the UPC's opposition believed that the elections were rigged a
Arua is a town and commercial centre within the Arua District in the Northern Region of Uganda. Arua is 440 kilometres, by road, north-west of Kampala, the capital and largest city of Uganda, 195 kilometres, by road, west of Gulu, the largest town in the Northern Region. Arua is an important base for non-governmental organizations working in the West Nile sub-region or serving Western Equatoria in South Sudan and the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, it became an important commercial supply centre and transport route when the Yei–Juba road opened, enabling supplies to come into Juba from the south on the Kaya Highway instead of through Khartoum from the north. A branch of the Uganda Railways was extended to Arua sometime after 1964, but there has been no passenger rail service in Uganda for many years; the Vurra–Arua–Koboko–Oraba Road passes through town, in a south/north direction. The city is served by Arua Airport; the 2002 national census estimated the population of Arua Town at 43,930.
In 2010, the Uganda Bureau of Statistics estimated the population to be 57,500. In 2011, UBOS estimated the population at 59,400. In August 2014, the national population census put the population at 62,657. Arua has a tropical savanna climate; the following administrations are seated in Arua: headquarters of Arua District headquarters of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Arua and the Church of Uganda's Madi West Nile Diocese offices of the Arua Town Council a branch of PostBank Uganda Arua Campus of Muni University in Muni, Oluko Sub-County a campus of the Islamic University in Uganda an office of the National Social Security Fund Arua Campus of the Makerere University Business School Arua Campus of Uganda Christian University in Ringili at St. Paul's Theological College Arua Campus of Bugema University Arua central market Arua Currency Center, a currency storage and processing facility and operated by the Bank of Uganda, Uganda's central bank. Arua Hospital, a 128-bed public, regional referral hospital administered by the Uganda Ministry of Health main campus of Muni University, the sixth public university established by the government of Uganda Ragem Beach Analog broadcasts, which originate from Kampala, include WBS TV, UBC TV, NTV.
In early 2014, MBC 2 was aired in Arua as a test broadcast to pave way for Vision Group's Urban TV. Voice of Life, a Church of Uganda-founded radio station, has pioneered FM broadcasting in Arua since 1997. Uganda portal List of radio stations in Uganda Lado Enclave Railway stations in Uganda West Nile sub-region Website of Arua District
Kampala is the capital and largest city of Uganda. The city is divided into five boroughs that oversee local planning: Kampala Central Division, Kawempe Division, Makindye Division, Nakawa Division, Rubaga Division. Surrounding Kampala is the growing Wakiso District, whose population more than doubled between 2002 and 2014 and as of 2014 Wakiso was reported to stand at over 2 million. Kampala was named the 13th fastest growing city on the planet, with an annual population growth rate of 4.03 percent, by City Mayors. Kampala has been ranked the best city to live in East Africa ahead of Nairobi and Kigali by Mercer, a global development consulting agency based in New York City. Before the arrival of the British colonists, the Kabaka of Buganda had chosen the zone that would become Kampala as a hunting reserve; the area, composed of rolling hills with grassy wetlands in the valleys, was home to several species of antelope impala. When the British arrived, they called it "Hills of the Impala"; the language of the Baganda, adopted many English words because of their interactions with the British.
The Baganda translated "Hill of the Impala" as Akasozi ke'Empala – "Kasozi" meaning "hill", "ke" meaning "of", "empala" the plural of "impala". In Luganda, the words "ka'mpala" mean "that it is of the impala", in reference to a hill, the single word "Kampala" was adopted as the name for the city that grew out of the Kabaka's hills"; the city grew as the capital of the Buganda kingdom, from which several buildings survive, including the Kasubi Tombs, the Lubiri Palace, the Buganda Parliament and the Buganda Court of Justice. In 1890, British colonial administrator Capt. Frederick Lugard constructed a forum along Mengo Hill within the city, which allowed for the British to occupy much of the territory controlled by the Baganda, including Kampala. In 1894, the British government established a protectorate within this territory, in 1896, the protectorate expanded to cover the Ankole, Toro Kingdom, Bunyoro kingdoms as well. In 1905, the British government formally declared the entire territory to be a British colony.
From that time until the independence of the country in 1962, the capital was relocated to Entebbe, although the city continued to be the primary economic and manufacturing location for Uganda. In 1922, the Makerere Technical Institute, now known as Makerere University, started as the first collegiate institution both within Kampala, within the British colonies on the east coast of Africa. Following the 1962 independence, Kabaka Edward Mutesa a Buganda king, became the became the first executive President of Uganda but over thrown by Milton Obote, the prime minister and became president of Uganda, held the position until 1971, when former sergeant Idi Amin deposed his government in a military coup. Idi Amin proceeded to expel all Indian residents living within Kampala, attacked the Jewish population living within the city. In 1978, he invaded the neighboring country of Tanzania, in turn, the government there started the Uganda–Tanzania War, which caused severe damage to the buildings of Kampala.
The city has since been rebuilt with new construction of hotels, shopping malls, educational institutions, hospitals and the improvement of war torn buildings and infrastructure. Traditionally, Kampala was known to be a city of seven hills, but over time it has been proven to have a lot more. Kampala has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system. A facet of Kampala's weather is. While the city does not have a true dry season month, it experiences heavier precipitation from August to December and from February to June. However, it's between February and June that Kampala sees heavier rainfall per month, with April seeing the heaviest amount of precipitation at an average of around 169 millimetres of rain. Kampala has been mentioned as a lightning-strike capital of the world; the main campus of Makerere University is in the Makerere Hill area of the city. Kampala hosts the headquarters of the East African Development Bank on Nakasero Hill and the Uganda Local Governments Association on Entebbe Road.
Kampala was built on seven hills, but as its size has increased, it has expanded to more hills than seven. The original seven hills are: The first hill in historical importance is Old Kampala Hill on which Fort Lugard the first seat of the British colonialists in Uganda; the second is Mengo Hill, the Kibuga(capital of Buganda kindgom at the start of British colonial rule The third is Kibuli Hill, home to Muslim faction of the Buganda religious wars of the 1888-1892 and current site of the Kibuli Mosque. The fourth is Namirembe Hill, home to the Anglican faction of the above mentioned Buganda religious wars and site of Namirembe Anglican Cathedral; the fifth is Lubaga Hill, home to the White Fathers Catholic faction of the above mentioned Buganda religious wars.and site of the Rubaga Catholic Cathedral. The sixth is Nsambya Hill site of the former Cathedral of St Peter's Nsambya and allocated to the British Catholic Mill Hill Mission during the signing of the Uganda Agreement; the seventh is Nakasero Hill on whose summit is Fort Nakasero a British military installation built after relocating from Fort Lugard in Old Kampala the hill was the site of European Hospital.
Other features of the city include the Uganda Museum, the Ugandan National Theatre, Nakasero Market, St. Balikuddembe Market. Kampala is known for its nightlife, which includes several casinos, notably Casino Simba in the Garden City shopping centre, Kampala Casino, and
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Democratic Republic of the Congo known as DR Congo, the DRC, DROC, Congo-Kinshasa, or the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa. It is sometimes anachronistically referred to by its former name of Zaire, its official name between 1971 and 1997, it is, by area, the largest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, the second-largest in all of Africa, the 11th-largest in the world. With a population of over 78 million, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most populated Francophone country, the fourth-most-populated country in Africa, the 16th-most-populated country in the world. Eastern DR Congo is the scene of ongoing military conflict in Kivu, since 2015. Centred on the Congo Basin, the territory of the DRC was first inhabited by Central African foragers around 90,000 years ago and was reached by the Bantu expansion about 3,000 years ago. In the west, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. In the centre and east, the kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century.
In the 1870s, just before the onset of the Scramble for Africa, European exploration of the Congo Basin was carried out, first led by Henry Morton Stanley under the sponsorship of Leopold II of Belgium. Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Berlin Conference in 1885 and made the land his private property, naming it the Congo Free State. During the Free State, the colonial military unit, the Force Publique, forced the local population to produce rubber, from 1885 to 1908, millions of Congolese died as a consequence of disease and exploitation. In 1908, despite initial reluctance, formally annexed the Free State, which became the Belgian Congo; the Belgian Congo achieved independence on 30 June 1960 under the name Republic of the Congo. Congolese nationalist Patrice Lumumba was elected the first Prime Minister, while Joseph Kasa-Vubu became the first President. Conflict arose over the administration of the territory; the provinces of Katanga, under Moïse Tshombe, South Kasai attempted to secede.
After Lumumba turned to the Soviet Union for assistance in the crisis, the U. S. and Belgium became wary and oversaw his removal from office by Kasa-Vubu on 5 September and ultimate execution by Belgian-led Katangese troops on 17 January 1961. On 25 November 1965, Army Chief of Staff Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, who renamed himself Mobutu Sese Seko came into power through a coup d'état. In 1971, he renamed the country Zaire; the country was run as a dictatorial one-party state, with his Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal party. Mobutu's government received considerable support from the United States, due to its anti-communist stance during the Cold War. By the early 1990s, Mobutu's government began to weaken. Destabilisation in the east resulting from the 1994 Rwandan genocide and disenfranchisement among the eastern Banyamulenge population led to a 1996 invasion led by Tutsi FPR-ruled Rwanda, which began the First Congo War. On 17 May 1997, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, a leader of Tutsi forces from the province of South Kivu, became President after Mobutu fled to Morocco, reverting the country's name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Tensions between President Kabila and the Rwandan and Tutsi presence in the country led to the Second Congo War from 1998 to 2003. Nine African countries and around twenty armed groups became involved in the war, which resulted in the deaths of 5.4 million people. The two wars devastated the country. President Laurent-Désiré Kabila was assassinated by one of his bodyguards on 16 January 2001 and was succeeded eight days as President by his son Joseph; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is rich in natural resources but has had political instability, a lack of infrastructure, issues with corruption and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little holistic development. Besides the capital Kinshasa, the two next largest cities Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi are both mining communities. DR Congo's largest export is raw minerals, with China accepting over 50% of DRC's exports in 2012. In 2016, DR Congo's level of human development was ranked 176th out of 187 countries by the Human Development Index.
As of 2018, around 600,000 Congolese have fled to neighbouring countries from conflicts in the centre and east of the DRC. Two million children risk starvation, the fighting has displaced 4.5 million people. The sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, African Union, COMESA; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is named after the Congo River, which flows throughout the country. The Congo River is the world's second largest river by discharge; the Comité d'études du haut Congo, established by King Leopold II of Belgium in 1876, the International Association of the Congo, established by him in 1879, were named after the river. The Congo River itself was named by early European sailors after the Kingdom of Kongo and its Bantu inhabitants, the Kongo people, when they encountered them in the 16th century; the word Kongo comes from the Kongo language. According to American writer Samuel Henry Nelson "It is probable that the word'Kongo' itself implies a public gathering and that it is based on the root konga,'to gather'."
The modern name of the Kongo people, Bakongo was introduced in the early 20th century. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been known in the past as, in chronological order, the Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, the Repub
Idi Amin Dada Oumee (. He served as the President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. Amin was born either in Kampala to a Kakwa father and Lugbara mother. In 1946, he joined the King's African Rifles of the British Colonial Army as a cook, he rose to the rank of lieutenant, taking part in British actions against Somali rebels in the Shifta War and the Mau Mau rebels in Kenya. Uganda gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1962, Amin remained in the armed forces, rising to the position of major and being appointed Commander of the Army in 1965, he became aware that Ugandan President Milton Obote was planning to arrest him for misappropriating army funds, so he launched a military coup in 1971 and declared himself President. During his years in power, Amin shifted from being a pro-western ruler enjoying considerable support from Israel to being backed by Libya's Muammar Gaddafi, Zaire's Mobutu Sese Seko, the Soviet Union, East Germany. In 1975, Amin became the chairman of the Organisation of African Unity, a Pan-Africanist group designed to promote solidarity among African states.
Uganda was a member of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights from 1977 to 1979. The UK broke diplomatic relations with Uganda in 1977, Amin declared that he had defeated the British and added "CBE" to his title for "Conqueror of the British Empire". Radio Uganda announced his entire title: "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Alhaji Dr. Idi Amin Dada, VC, DSO, MC, CBE"; as Amin's rule progressed into the late 1970s, there was increased unrest against his persecution of certain ethnic groups and political dissidents, along with Uganda's poor international standing due to Amin's support for the terrorist hijackers in Operation Entebbe. He attempted to annex Tanzania's Kagera Region in 1978, so Tanzanian president Julius Nyerere had his troops invade Uganda. Amin went into exile, first in Libya and in Saudi Arabia, where he lived until his death on 16 August 2003. Amin's rule was characterized by rampant human rights abuses, political repression, ethnic persecution, extrajudicial killings, nepotism and gross economic mismanagement.
International observers and human rights groups estimate that between 100,000 and 500,000 people were killed under his regime. Amin did not write an autobiography, he did not authorize an official written account of his life. There are discrepancies regarding where he was born. Most biographical sources claim that he was born in either Koboko or Kampala around 1925. Other unconfirmed sources state Amin's year of birth from as early as 1923 to as late as 1928. Amin's son Hussein has stated that his father was born in Kampala in 1928. According to Fred Guweddeko, a researcher at Makerere University, Amin was the son of Andreas Nyabire. Nyabire, a member of the Kakwa ethnic group, converted from Roman Catholicism to Islam in 1910 and changed his name to Amin Dada, he named his first-born son after himself. Abandoned by his father at a young age, Idi Amin grew up with his mother's family in a rural farming town in north-western Uganda. Guweddeko states that Amin's mother was Assa Aatte, an ethnic Lugbara and a traditional herbalist who treated members of Buganda royalty, among others.
Amin joined an Islamic school in Bombo in 1941. After a few years, he left school with only a fourth-grade English-language education, did odd jobs before being recruited to the army by a British colonial army officer. Amin joined the King's African Rifles of the British Colonial Army in 1946 as an assistant cook. In life, he falsely claimed he was forced to join the armies during World War II and that he served in the Burma Campaign, he was transferred to Kenya for infantry service as a private in 1947, served in the 21st KAR infantry battalion in Gilgil, Kenya until 1949. That year, his unit was deployed to northern Kenya to fight against Somali rebels in the Shifta War. In 1952, his brigade was deployed against the Mau Mau rebels in Kenya, he was promoted to corporal the same year to sergeant in 1953. In 1959, Amin was made Afande, the highest rank possible for a black African in the colonial British Army of that time. Amin returned to Uganda the same year and, in 1961, he was promoted to lieutenant, becoming one of the first two Ugandans to become commissioned officers.
He was assigned to quell the cattle rustling between Kenya's Turkana nomads. In 1962, following Uganda's independence from the United Kingdom, Amin was promoted to captain and in 1963, to major, he was appointed Deputy Commander of the Army in 1964 and, the following year, to Commander of the Army. In 1970, he was promoted to commander of all the armed forces. Amin was an athlete during his time in both the Ugandan army. At 193 cm tall and powerfully built, he was the Ugandan light heavyweight boxing champion from 1951 to 1960, as well as a swimmer. Amin was a formidable rugby forward, although one officer said of him: "Idi Amin is a splendid type and a good player, but bone from the neck up, needs things explained in words of one letter". In the 1950s, he played for Nile RFC. There is a repeated urban myth that he was selected as a replacement by the East Africa rugby union team for their 1955 match against the British Lions. Amin, does not appear in the team photograph or on the official team list.
Following conversations with a colleague in the British Army, Amin became a keen fan of Hayes Football Club – an affection that remained for the rest of his life. In 1965, Prime Minister Milton Obote and Amin were implicated in a deal to smuggle ivor
South Sudan known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. The country gained its independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011, making it the newest country with widespread recognition, its capital and largest city is Juba. South Sudan is bordered by Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest and the Central African Republic to the west, it includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal, meaning "Mountain Sea". Sudan was occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon broke out; that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed.
South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following 98.83% support for independence in a January 2011 referendum. South Sudan has a population of 12 million of the Nilotic peoples. Christianity is the majority religion. In September 2017 the UN Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict said that half of South Sudan's inhabitants are under 18 years old, it is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the East African Community and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development. In July 2012, South Sudan signed the Geneva Conventions. South Sudan has suffered ethnic violence and has been in a civil war since 2013; as of 2018, South Sudan ranks third lowest in the latest UN World Happiness Report, has the highest score on the American Fund for Peace's Fragile States Index. The Nilotic people of South Sudan—the Acholi, Bari, Nuer, Shilluk and others—first entered South Sudan sometime before the 10th century coinciding with the fall of medieval nubia. During the period from the 15th to the 19th centuries, tribal migrations from the area of Bahr el Ghazal, brought the Anyuak, Dinka and Shilluk to their modern locations of both Bahr El Ghazal and Upper Nile Regions, while the Acholi and Bari settled in Equatoria.
The Azande, Mundu and Baka, who entered South Sudan in the 16th century, established the region's largest state of Equatoria Region. The Dinka are the largest, Nuer the second largest, the Azande the third-largest and the Bari are the fourth-largest ethnic group in the country, they are found in the Maridi and Tombura districts in the tropical rainforest belt of Western Equatoria, the Adio of Azande client in Yei, Central Equatoria and Western Bahr el Ghazal. In the 18th century, the Avungara sib rose to power over the rest of Azande society and this domination continued into the 20th century. Geographical barriers, including the swamplands along the White Nile and the British preference for sending Christian missionaries to the southern regions, including its Closed District Ordinance of 1922, helped to prevent the spread of Islam to the southerners, thus enabling them to retain their social and cultural heritage, as well as their political and religious institutions; the major reasons include the long history of British policy preference toward developing the Arab north and its ignoring the Black south.
After Sudan's first independent elections in 1958, the continued ignoring of the south by Khartoum led to uprisings and the longest civil war on the continent. As of 2012, peoples include Acholi, Azande, Balanda Bviri, Boya, Dinka, Kaligi, Lotuka, Murie, Nuer, Shilluk and Zande. Slavery had been an institution of Sudanese life throughout history; the slave trade in the south intensified in the 19th century, continued after the British had suppressed slavery in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Sudanese slave raids into non-Muslim territories resulted in the capture of countless thousands of southern Sudanese, the destruction of the region's stability and economy; the Azande have had good relations with the neighbors, namely the Moru, Mundu, Pöjulu, Avukaya and the small groups in Bahr el Ghazal, due to the expansionist policy of their king Gbudwe, in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the Azande fought the French, the Belgians and the Mahdists to maintain their independence. Egypt, under the rule of Khedive Ismail Pasha, first attempted to control the region in the 1870s, establishing the province of Equatoria in the southern portion.
Egypt's first governor was Samuel Baker, commissioned in 1869, followed by Charles George Gordon in 1874 and by Emin Pasha in 1878. The Mahdist Revolt of the 1880s destabilized the nascent province, Equatoria ceased to exist as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro and Wadelai. European colonial maneuverings in the region came to a head in 1898, when the Fashoda Incident occurred at present-day Kodok. In 1947, British hopes to join South Sudan with Uganda, as well as leaving Western Equatoria as part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were dashed by the Rajaf Conference to unify North and South Sudan. South Sudan has an estimated population of 8 million, given the lack of a census in several decades, this estimate may be distorted; the economy relies chiefly on subsistence farming. Around 2005, the economy began a transition from this rural dominance, urban areas within South Suda