Brevard County, Florida
Brevard County is a county in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the population was the 10th most populated county in Florida; the official county seat has been located in Titusville since 1894. Brevard County comprises the FL Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean. With an economy influenced by the John F. Kennedy Space Center, Brevard County is known as the Space Coast; as such, it was designated with the telephone area code 321, as in 3-2-1 liftoff. The county is named after Theodore Washington Brevard, an early Florida settler and state comptroller. A secondary center of county administrative offices was built beginning in 1989 in Viera, Florida, a master planned community in an unincorporated area; the county offices were developed to serve the more populous southern part of the long county. The history of Brevard County begins with the prehistory of native cultures living in the area for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century.
The Windover Archeological Site, discovered in 1982, was found during excavation to have the largest collection of human remains and artifacts of the early Archaic Period, or more than 8,000 years before present. It has been designated as a National Historic Landmark; the geographic boundaries of the county have changed since its founding by European Americans in the 19th century. The county is named for an early settler and state comptroller. In federal maps printed before 2012, nearly half of Brevard was classified as prone to flooding. Most of this was in the undeveloped low-lying areas, west of Interstate 95, on the banks of the St. Johns River. About 18,900 homes out of 164,000 single-family homes were in that area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,557 square miles, of which 1,016 square miles is land and 541 square miles is water. Most of the water is the St. Johns River and the Indian River Lagoon; the county is larger in area than the nation of Samoa and nearly the same size, population, as Cape Verde.
It is one-third the size of the state of Rhode Island. Located halfway between Jacksonville and Miami, Brevard County extends 72 miles from north to south, averages 26.5 miles wide. Marshes in the western part of this county are the source of the St. Johns River. Emphasizing its position as halfway down Florida are two roads that have been numbered halfway down Florida's numbering system, State Road 50 and State Road 500; the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway along the eastern edge of Brevard County is the major waterway route in Brevard County. It includes the Indian River. Additional waterways include Lake Washington, Lake Poinsett, Lake Winder, Sawgrass Lake, the St. Johns River, the Banana River. Dredging for the Intracoastal created 41 spoil islands in the Brevard portion of the Indian River. Brevard County is the sole county in the Palm Bay – Melbourne – Titusville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. There is no major urban center; the county is unofficially divided into three sections: North County, comprising Titusville and Port St. John.
The South Beaches is a term that measures direction south from the dividing line of Patrick Air Force Base, includes South Patrick Shores, Satellite Beach, Indian Harbour Beach and Melbourne Beach. The county government has labeled the beach areas differently; the North Reach includes 9.4 miles in Cocoa Beach. The Patrick Air Force Base beach is 4.1 miles. The Mid Reach includes the 7.6 miles in Satellite Beach. The South Reach includes the 3.8 miles in Melbourne Beach. The South Beaches include 14.5 miles south of Melbourne Beach to Sebastian. The United States Board on Geographic Names is considering two proposals to name the barrier island extending from Port Canaveral to Sebastian Inlet; the 45-mile-long island includes the cities of Cape Canaveral, Cocoa Beach, Melbourne Beach, Patrick Air Force Base, Indian Harbour Beach, Satellite Beach. The American Indian Association of Florida submitted in October 2011 a proposal to name the island after the Ais people. In January 2012 the United Third Bridge and the Florida Puerto Rican/Hispanic Chamber of Commerce in Melbourne submitted a proposal to name the island after Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León.
The Board of Geographic Names takes at least eight months to decide on a new name for a geographical feature. There are 16 municipalities; the largest by population is the smallest Melbourne Village. The county has nine major canals; some of these, such as the C-1 and C-54, are 100 feet wide, giving them the capacity to handle excessive rainfall that may accompany tropical storms or hurricanes. The following are used for transportation and drainage: Canaveral Barge Canal, Courtenay – transportation Faulk Canal, Rockledge Grand Canal, Tropic Haulover Canal, Mims – transportation Melbourne Tillman Canal, Melbourne West – drainage Old Canal, Wilson C-1, maintained by the Melbourne-Tillman Water Control District C-54 Canal – on the south Brevard County Line – drainage L-15 Canal – Crane Creek Drainage District which has a watershed of about 12,000 acres (4,900
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture. Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin. An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of theatrical and participatory dance, although these two categories are not always separate. Other forms of human movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, cheerleading, figure skating, synchronized swimming, marching bands, many other forms of athletics. Theatrical dance called performance or concert dance, is intended as a spectacle a performance upon a stage by virtuoso dancers, it tells a story using mime and scenery, or else it may interpret the musical accompaniment, specially composed. Examples are western ballet and modern dance, Classical Indian dance and Chinese and Japanese song and dance dramas.
Most classical forms are centred upon dance alone, but performance dance may appear in opera and other forms of musical theatre. Participatory dance, on the other hand, whether it be a folk dance, a social dance, a group dance such as a line, chain or square dance, or a partner dance such as is common in western Western ballroom dancing, is undertaken for a common purpose, such as social interaction or exercise, of participants rather than onlookers; such dance has any narrative. A group dance and a corps de ballet, a social partner dance and a pas de deux, differ profoundly. A solo dance may be undertaken for the satisfaction of the dancer. Participatory dancers all employ the same movements and steps but, for example, in the rave culture of electronic dance music, vast crowds may engage in free dance, uncoordinated with those around them. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the particular dances in which, for example, men and children may or must participate. Archeological evidence for early dance includes 9,000-year-old paintings in India at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures, dated c. 3300 BC.
It has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from one generation to the next. The use of dance in ecstatic trance states and healing rituals is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance. References to dance can be found in early recorded history; the Bible and Talmud refer to many events related to dance, contain over 30 different dance terms. In Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands, the earliest Chinese word for "dance" is found written in the oracle bones. Dance is further described in the Lüshi Chunqiu. Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with shamanic rituals. During the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life. Bharata Muni's Natyashastra is one of the earlier texts, it deals with drama, in which dance plays an important part in Indian culture.
It categorizes dance into four types – secular, abstract, interpretive – and into four regional varieties. The text elaborates various hand-gestures and classifies movements of the various limbs, steps and so on. A strong continuous tradition of dance has since continued in India, through to modern times, where it continues to play a role in culture, and, the Bollywood entertainment industry. Many other contemporary dance forms can be traced back to historical, traditional and ethnic dance. Dance is though not performed with the accompaniment of music and may or may not be performed in time to such music; some dance may provide its own audible accompaniment in place of music. Many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and are performed together. Notable examples of traditional dance/music couplings include the jig, tango and salsa; some musical genres have a parallel dance form such as baroque dance. Rhythm and dance are linked in history and practice; the American dancer Ted Shawn wrote.
A musical rhythm requires two main elements. The basic pulse is equal in duration to a simple step or gesture. Dances have a characteristic tempo and rhythmic pattern; the tango, for example, is danced in 24 time at 66 beats per minute. The basic slow step, called a "slow", lasts for one beat, so that a full "right–left" step is equal to one 24 measure; the basic forward and backward walk of the dance is so coun
Lacrosse is a team sport played with a lacrosse stick and a lacrosse ball. Players use the head of the lacrosse stick to carry, pass and shoot the ball into the goal; the sport has four versions that have different sticks, fields and equipment: field lacrosse, women's lacrosse, box lacrosse and intercrosse. The men's games, field lacrosse and box lacrosse, are contact sports and all players wear protective gear: helmet, shoulder pads, elbow pads; the women's game is played outdoors and does not allow body contact but does allow stick to stick contact. The only protective gear required for women players is eyegear, while goalies wear helmets and protective pads. Intercrosse is a mixed-gender non-contact sport played indoors that uses an all-plastic stick and a softer ball; the sport is governed by the Federation of International Lacrosse. Lacrosse is part of the cultural tradition of the Iroquois people, inhabiting what is now New York and Pennsylvania. Lacrosse may have been developed as early as 1100 AD among indigenous peoples in North America.
By the seventeenth century, it was well-established and was documented by Jesuit missionary priests in the territory of present-day Canada. In the traditional aboriginal Canadian version, each team consisted of about 100 to 1,000 men on a field that stretched from about 500 m to 3 km long; these games lasted from sunup to sundown for two to three days straight and were played as part of ceremonial ritual, a kind of symbolic warfare, or to give thanks to the Creator or Master. Lacrosse played a significant role in the community and religious life of tribes across the continent for many years. Early lacrosse was characterized by deep spiritual involvement, befitting the spirit of combat in which it was undertaken; those who took part did so in the role of warriors, with the goal of bringing glory and honor to themselves and their tribes. The game was said to be played "for the Creator" or was referred to as "The Creator's Game." The French Jesuit missionary Jean de Brébeuf saw Huron tribesmen play the game during 1637 in present-day Ontario.
He called it la "the stick" in French. The name seems to be originated from the French term for field hockey, le jeu de la crosse. James Smith described in some detail a game being played in 1757 by Mohawk people "wherein now they used a wooden ball, about 7.6 cm in diameter, the instrument they moved it with was a strong staff about 1.5 m long, with a hoop net on the end of it, large enough to contain the ball."Anglophones from Montreal noticed the game being played by Mohawk people and started playing themselves in the 1830s. In 1856, William George Beers, a Canadian dentist, founded the Montreal Lacrosse Club. In 1860, Beers codified the game, shortening the length of each game and reducing the number of players to 12 per team; the first game played under Beers' rules was at Upper Canada College in 1867. The new sport proved to be popular and spread across the English-speaking world; the women's game was introduced by Louisa Lumsden in Scotland in 1890. The first women's club in the United States was started by Rosabelle Sinclair at Bryn Mawr School in 1926.
In the United States, lacrosse during the late 1800s and first half of the 1900s was a regional sport centered around the Mid-Atlantic states New York and Maryland. However, in the last half of the 20th century, the sport spread outside this region, can be found in most of the United States. According to a survey conducted by US Lacrosse in 2016, there are over 825,000 lacrosse participants nationwide and lacrosse is the fastest-growing team sport among NFHS member schools. Field lacrosse is the men's outdoor version of the sport. There are ten players on each team: three attackmen, three midfielders, three defensemen, one goalie; each player carries a lacrosse stick. A short stick is used by attackmen and midfielders. A maximum of four players on the field per team may carry a long stick, between 52 and 72 inches long and is used by the three defensemen and sometimes one defensive midfielder; the goalie uses a stick with a head as wide as 12 inches that can be between 72 inches long. The field of play is 110 by 60 yards.
The goals are 80 yd apart. Each goal sits inside a circular "crease", measuring 18 ft in diameter; the goalie has special privileges within the crease to avoid opponents' stick checks. Offensive players or their sticks may not enter into the crease at any time; the mid-field line separates the field into an defensive zone for each team. Each team must keep four players in its defensive zone and three players in its offensive zone at all times, it does not matter which positional players satisfy the requirement, although the three attackmen stay in the offensive zone, the three defensemen and the goalie stay in the defensive zone, the three middies play in both zones. A team that violates this rule is offsides and either loses possession of the ball if they have it or incurs a technical foul if they do not; the regulation playing time of a game is 60 minutes, divided into four periods of 15 minutes each. Play is started after each goal with a face-off. During a face-off, two players lay their sticks on the ground parallel to the mid-line, the two heads of their sticks on opposite sides of the ball.
At the whistle, the face-off-men scrap for the ball by "clamping" it under their stick and fl
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933. Between 2008 and 2012, Newsweek experienced financial difficulties, leading to the cessation of print publication and a transition to all-digital format at the end of 2012; the print edition was relaunched in March 2014. Revenue declines prompted an August 2010 sale by owner The Washington Post Company to audio pioneer Sidney Harman—for a purchase price of one dollar and an assumption of the magazine's liabilities; that year, Newsweek merged with the news and opinion website The Daily Beast, forming The Newsweek Daily Beast Company. Newsweek was jointly owned by the estate of Harman and the diversified American media and Internet company IAC. In 2013, IBT Media announced it had acquired Newsweek from IAC. IBT Media rebranded itself as Newsweek Media Group in 2017, but returned to IBT Media in 2018 after making Newsweek independent. News-Week was launched in 1933 by Thomas J. C. Martyn, a former foreign-news editor for Time, he obtained financial backing from a group of U.
S. stockholders "which included Ward Cheney, of the Cheney silk family, John Hay Whitney, Paul Mellon, son of Andrew W. Mellon". Paul Mellon's ownership in Newsweek represented "the first attempt of the Mellon family to function journalistically on a national scale." The group of original owners invested around $2.5 million. Other large stockholders prior to 1946 were public utilities investment banker Stanley Childs and Wall Street corporate lawyer Wilton Lloyd-Smith. Journalist Samuel T. Williamson served as the first editor-in-chief of Newsweek; the first issue of the magazine was dated February 17, 1933. Seven photographs from the week's news were printed on the first issue's cover. In 1937 News-Week merged with the weekly journal Today, founded in 1932 by future New York Governor and diplomat W. Averell Harriman, Vincent Astor of the prominent Astor family; as a result of the deal and Astor provided $600,000 in venture capital funds and Vincent Astor became both the chairman of the board and its principal stockholder between 1937 and his death in 1959.
In 1937 Malcolm Muir took over as editor-in-chief. He changed the name to Newsweek, emphasized interpretive stories, introduced signed columns, launched international editions. Over time the magazine developed a broad spectrum of material, from breaking stories and analysis to reviews and commentary; the magazine was purchased by The Washington Post Company in 1961. Osborn Elliott was named editor of Newsweek in 1961 and became the editor in chief in 1969. In 1970, Eleanor Holmes Norton represented sixty female employees of Newsweek who had filed a claim with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that Newsweek had a policy of only allowing men to be reporters; the women won, Newsweek agreed to allow women to be reporters. The day the claim was filed, Newsweek's cover article was "Women in Revolt", covering the feminist movement. Edward Kosner became editor from 1975 to 1979 after directing the magazine's extensive coverage of the Watergate scandal that led to the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974.
Richard M. Smith became chairman in 1998, the year that the magazine inaugurated its "Best High Schools in America" list, a ranking of public secondary schools based on the Challenge Index, which measures the ratio of Advanced Placement or International Baccalaureate exams taken by students to the number of graduating students that year, regardless of the scores earned by students or the difficulty in graduating. Schools with average SAT scores above 1300 or average ACT scores above 27 are excluded from the list. In 2008, there were 17 Public Elites. Smith resigned as board chairman in December 2007. During 2008–2009, Newsweek undertook a dramatic business restructuring. Citing difficulties in competing with online news sources to provide unique news in a weekly publication, the magazine refocused its content on opinion and commentary beginning with its May 24, 2009, issue, it shrank its subscriber rate base, from 3.1 million to 2.6 million in early 2008, to 1.9 million in July 2009 and to 1.5 million in January 2010—a decline of 50% in one year.
Meacham described his strategy as "counterintuitive" as it involved discouraging renewals and nearly doubling subscription prices as it sought a more affluent subscriber base for its advertisers. During this period, the magazine laid off staff. While advertising revenues were down 50% compared to the prior year, expenses were diminished, whereby the publishers hoped Newsweek would return to profitability; the financial results for 2009 as reported by The Washington Post Company showed that advertising revenue for Newsweek was down 37% in 2009 and the magazine division reported an operating loss for 2009 of $29.3 million compared to a loss of $16 million in 2008. During the first quarter of 2010, the magazine lost nearly $11 million. By May 2010, Newsweek was put up for sale; the sale attracted international bidders. One bidder was Syrian entrepreneur Abdulsalam Haykal, CEO of Syrian publishing company Haykal Media, who brought together a coalition of Middle Eastern investors with his company.
Haykal claimed his bid was ignored by Newsweek's bankers, Allen & Co. The magazine was sold to audio pioneer Sidney Harman on August 2, 2010, for $1 in exchange for assuming the magazine's financial liabilities. Harman's bid was accepted over three competitors. Meacham left the magazine upon completion of the sale. Sidney Harman was the
Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test
The Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test, or the FCAT/FCAT 2.0, was the standardized test used in the primary and secondary public schools of Florida. First administered statewide in 1998, it replaced the State Student Assessment Test and the High School Competency Test; as of the 2014-2015 school year FCAT was replaced in the state of Florida. The Florida Department of Education implemented the Florida Standards Assessments for English Language Arts, Mathematics and a Writing or typing test. A Comprehensive science test is still used for grades 5 and 8; the FCAT was administered annually, in late February and early to mid-March as well as April, to all public school students in grades three through eleven. Students in grades three through ten are required to take the math portion every year. Private and parochial school students are not required to take the FCAT. FCAT Science is administered annually to public school students in the fifth and eleventh grades. In the fourth and tenth grades, public school students take the FCAT Writes exam.
Students' results from the FCAT are compiled to generate a grade for each public school. Under this plan, public schools receive a grade from A to F, based on what percentage of students pass the exams and what percentage of both the entire student body and the bottom 25% of the school demonstrate adequate growth on the exam over their previous year's performance. If a school improves a letter grade, or maintains an A, the state direct-deposits "reward money" to the school in the amount of $75 per student enrolled; this money is not collectively funneled through the recipient school's district. Schools can use the money for staff bonuses, educational equipment, materials related to boosting student performance, or to hire temporary personnel to assist in improving student performance. Most of the money goes toward teacher bonuses, however; as of the 2010-2011 school year it has been called the "FCAT 2.0" On actual test material it is labeled "FCAT 2.0 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards."
As of the 2014-2015 school year, many grades do not take the FCAT, it has now been formally replaced with the Florida Standards Assessments. When introduced, students in fourth grade were required to pass the reading portion of the test in order to be promoted to the fifth grade. After passage of the No Child Left Behind Act by the United States Congress in 2001, the mandatory passage was moved from fourth grade down to third grade, so as to align Florida with federal statutory requirements. In addition to the third grade requirement, public school students in Florida must pass the tenth grade FCAT, not only in reading, but in mathematics, in order to be eligible to receive a high school diploma. Grade 3 and graduation are the only two instances in which federal or state statute require passage of the FCAT. However, many counties in the state have adopted other promotional requirements tied to the FCAT, but these are at the discretion of each individual county school board. Exceptional education students were able to waive the FCAT requirement to get a Standard High School Diploma.
Those ESE students wishing to obtain a regular high school diploma must score a passing grade on the FCAT or receive a waiver for the FCAT. In order to get the waiver, ESE students must prove that they have taken several steps to try to pass the FCAT and must show that they have improved every time they have taken the test. A student failing the tenth grade test—that is, the test required for graduation—is allowed five additional opportunities to pass it prior to graduation. Students were given four more chances to pass the test after failing it in 10th grade—in October and March of both their junior and senior years in high school. However, starting in 2006, students were provided an additional test administration during the summer between school years. Students, may not retake the Grade 10 FCAT during the summer between their sophomore and junior year because additional time is needed for remediation. If students do not pass the FCAT prior to their scheduled graduation, they may continue to retake it until they pass it to earn a standard high school diploma.
If a student completes the minimum number of credits for high school graduation, but does not pass the FCAT, he or she may still be allowed to graduate with a certificate of completion. Students may substitute the appropriate subject-area score from either the ACT or SAT. A score of 19 on either the Reading or Mathematics sections of the ACT or a 280 on the Reading and a 370 on the Mathematics sections of the SAT can be used to waive the FCAT requirement after the student has failed the 10th grade test at least three times. Students may earn the concordant passing score prior to taking the FCAT Retake Reading or Mathematics examination three times, but they cannot substitute it in lieu of the passing FCAT score until they have taken the FCAT Retake Reading or Mathematics examination three times. In any case, students will receive a Certificate of Completion that allows for admittance in any state comm
Heritage High School (Palm Bay, Florida)
Heritage High School is a high school in Palm Bay, Florida run by Brevard Public Schools. It is the 16th school in the district; the school is located on 65 acres of land with a student capacity of 2,384. The budget to construct the school was $80 million. Heritage High opened August 2009, with 9th and 10th grade students. In 2010, 11th grade was added. In August 2011, the school became a high school with 9-12 grade with its first Senior class graduating in 2012, it drew students from Bayside High School, Palm Bay High School, Melbourne High School. Heritage teams compete in the Cape Coast Conference as the Panthers; the school colors are blue and white. Student activities include: JROTC Academy of Environmental Studies Automotive Service Technology Cambridge AICE Sports Medicine Academy