Bradford is a city in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines, 8.6 miles west of Leeds, 16 miles north-west of Wakefield. Bradford became a municipal borough in 1847, received its charter as a city in 1897. Following local government reform in 1974, city status was bestowed upon the City of Bradford metropolitan borough. Bradford forms part of the West Yorkshire Urban Area, which in 2001 had a population of 1.5 million and is the fourth largest in the United Kingdom, with Bradford itself having a population of 529,870. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Bradford rose to prominence in the 19th century as an international centre of textile manufacture wool, it was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, amongst the earliest industrialised settlements becoming the "wool capital of the world". The area's access to a supply of coal, iron ore and soft water facilitated the growth of Bradford's manufacturing base, which, as textile manufacture grew, led to an explosion in population and was a stimulus to civic investment.
The textile sector in Bradford fell into decline from the mid-20th century. Bradford has since emerged as a tourist destination, becoming the first UNESCO City of Film with attractions such as the National Science and Media Museum, Bradford City Park, the Alhambra theatre and Cartwright Hall. Bradford has faced similar challenges to the rest of post-industrial Northern England, including deindustrialisation, social unrest and economic deprivation; the name Bradford is derived from the Old English brad and ford the broad ford which referred to a crossing of the Bradford Beck at Church Bank below the site of Bradford Cathedral, around which a settlement grew in Saxon times. It was recorded as "Bradeford" in 1086. After an uprising in 1070, during William the Conqueror's Harrying of the North, the manor of Bradford was laid waste and is described as such in the Domesday Book of 1086, it became part of the Honour of Pontefract given to Ilbert de Lacy for service to the Conqueror, in whose family the manor remained until 1311.
There is evidence of a castle in the time of the Lacys. The manor passed to the Earl of Lincoln, John of Gaunt, The Crown and private ownership in 1620. By the middle ages Bradford, had become a small town centred on Kirkgate and Ivegate. In 1316 there is mention of a fulling mill, a soke mill where all the manor corn was milled and a market. During the Wars of the Roses the inhabitants sided with House of Lancaster. Edward IV granted the right to hold two annual fairs and from this time the town began to prosper. In the reign of Henry VIII Bradford exceeded Leeds as a manufacturing centre. Bradford grew over the next two-hundred years as the woollen trade gained in prominence. During the Civil War the town was garrisoned for the Parliamentarians and in 1642 was unsuccessfully attacked by Royalist forces from Leeds. Sir Thomas Fairfax took the command of the garrison and marched to meet the Duke of Newcastle but was defeated; the Parliamentarians retreated to Bradford and the Royalists set up headquarters at Bolling Hall from where the town was besieged leading to its surrender.
The Civil War caused a decline in industry but after the accession of William III and Mary II in 1689 prosperity began to return. The launch of manufacturing in the early 18th century marked the start of the town's development while new canal and turnpike road links encouraged trade. In 1801, Bradford was a rural market town of 6,393 people, where wool spinning and cloth weaving was carried out in local cottages and farms. Bradford was thus not much bigger than nearby Keighley and was smaller than Halifax and Huddersfield; this small town acted as a hub for three nearby townships – Manningham and Great and Little Horton, which were separated from the town by countryside. Blast furnaces were established in about 1788 by Hird, Dawson Hardy at Low Moor and iron was worked by the Bowling Iron Company until about 1900. Yorkshire iron was used for shackles and piston rods for locomotives, colliery cages and other mining appliances where toughness was required; the Low Moor Company made pig iron and the company employed 1,500 men in 1929.
When the municipal borough of Bradford was created in 1847 there were 46 coal mines within its boundaries. Coal output continued to expand, reaching a peak in 1868 when Bradford contributed a quarter of all the coal and iron produced in Yorkshire. In 1825 the wool-combers union called a strike that lasted five-months but workers were forced to return to work through hardship leading to the introduction of machine-combing; this Industrial Revolution led to rapid growth, with wool imported in vast quantities for the manufacture of worsted cloth in which Bradford specialised, the town soon became known as the wool capital of the world. A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Bradford Moor Barracks in 1844. Bradford had ample supplies of locally mined coal to provide the power. Local sandstone was an excellent resource for building the mills, with a population of 182,000 by 1850, the town grew as workers were attracted by jobs in the textile mills. A desperate shortage of water in Bradford Dale was a serious limitation on industrial expansion and improvement in urban sanitary conditions.
In 1854 Bradford Corporation bought the Bradford Water Company and embarked on a huge engineering programme to bring supplies of soft water from Airedale and Nidderdale. By 1882 water supply had radically improved. Meanwhile, urban expansion took place along the routes out of the city towards th
Halifax, West Yorkshire
Halifax is a minster town in the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire, England. In the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town has been a centre of woollen manufacture from the 15th century onward dealing through the Piece Hall. Halifax is known for Mackintosh's toffee products including Rolo and Quality Street; the Halifax Bank was founded and is still headquartered in Halifax. Dean Clough, one of the largest textile factories in the world at more than 1⁄2 mile long, was in the north of the town; the premises have since been converted for office and retail use including a gym, theatre and radio station. The town's name was recorded in about 1091 as Halyfax, from the Old English halh-gefeaxe, meaning "area of coarse grass in the nook of land"; this explanation is preferred to derivations from the Old English halig, in hālig feax or "holy hair", proposed by 16th-century antiquarians. The incorrect interpretation gave rise to two legends. One concerned. Another held; the legend is certainly medieval rather than ancient, although the town's coat of arms carries an image of the saint.
Another explanation ley a clearing or meadow. This etymology is based on Haley Hill, the nearby hamlet of Healey, the common occurrence of the surnames Hayley/Haley around Halifax; the erroneous derivation from halig has given rise to the demonym Haligonian, of recent origin and not in universal use. The Earldom of Halifax took the name of the town, its first creation, in the Peerage of England in 1677, was for William Savile, created Baron Savile of Eland and Viscount Halifax in 1668 and became the Marquess of Halifax. George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, became the President of the Board of Trade in 1748. In 1749 the city of Halifax, the capital of Nova Scotia, was named in his honour; the Halifax River in Central Florida, United States, was named after him. Halifax is not mentioned in the Domesday Book, evidence of the early settlement is indefinite. By the 12th century the township had become the religious centre of the vast parish of Halifax, which extended from Brighouse in the east to Heptonstall in the west.
Halifax Minster, parts of which date from the 12th century is dedicated to St John the Baptist. The minster's first organist, in 1766, was William Herschel; the coat of arms of Halifax include the chequers from the original coat of arms of the Earls Warenne, who held the town during Norman times. Halifax was notorious for its gibbet, an early form of guillotine used to execute criminals by decapitation, last used in 1650. A replica has been erected on the original site in Gibbet Street, its original blade is on display at Bankfield Museum. Punishment in Halifax was notoriously harsh, as remembered in the Beggar's Litany by John Taylor, a prayer whose text included "From Hull, from Halifax, from Hell, ‘tis thus, From all these three, Good Lord deliver us.". The town's 19th century wealth came from the cotton and carpet industries and like most other Yorkshire towns, it had a large number of weaving mills many of which have been lost or converted to alternate use. In November 1938, in an incident of mass hysteria, many residents believed a serial killer, the Halifax Slasher, was on the loose.
Scotland Yard concluded there were no attacks after several locals admitted they had inflicted wounds on themselves. Halifax plc started as a building society, the Halifax Permanent Benefit Building and Investment Society, in the town in 1853. Today the bank operates as a trading name of part of the Lloyds Banking Group. Yorkshire Bank, based in Leeds and known as the West Riding Penny Savings Bank, was established on 1 May 1859 by Colonel Edward Akroyd of Halifax. Halifax is twinned with Aachen in Germany; the A58 has a stretch called Aachen Way. Halifax has benefited from Single Regeneration Budget, European URBAN II and the Home Office’s Community Cohesion Fund money through Action Halifax who have a vision for "a prosperous and safe centre where all sections of the community can access opportunities to enhance their quality of life." The ancient parish of Halifax was divided into a large number of civil parishes in the 19th century. In Halifax, a body of improvement commissioners or town trustees was created between 1762 and 1823, the town became a borough constituency under the Great Reform Act of 1832.
Halifax was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1848 under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888, became a county borough in 1889. Since 1974, Halifax has been the administrative centre of the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale in West Yorkshire. Topographically, Halifax is located in the south-eastern corner of the moorland region called the South Pennines. Halifax is situated about 4 miles from the M62 motorway, close to Huddersfield; the Tees-Exe line passes through the A641 road, which links Brighouse with Bradford and Huddersfield, The town lies 65 miles from Hull and Liverpool, about 170 miles from the cities of London, Belfast and Cardiff as the crow flies. The Hebble Brook joins the River Calder at Salterhebble. In 2004 Calderdale had a population of 192,405; the main ethnic group in Halifax is White, followed by Pakistani. Over 90% of people aged 16–74 were employed full-time. 64% of residents had qualification
Wakefield is a cathedral city in West Yorkshire, England, on the River Calder and the eastern edge of the Pennines, which had a population of 99,251 at the 2011 census. The Battle of Wakefield took place in the Wars of the Roses and it was a Royalist stronghold in the Civil War. Wakefield became an important market town and centre for wool, exploiting its position on the navigable River Calder to become an inland port. In the 18th century, Wakefield traded in corn, coal mining and textiles and in 1888 its parish church acquired cathedral status, it became the county town of the West Riding of Yorkshire and was the seat of the West Riding County Council from 1889 until 1974, when the county and council were abolished, of the West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council from 1974 until its dissolution in 1986. The name "Wakefield" may derive from "Waca's field" – the open land belonging to someone named "Waca" or could have evolved from the Old English word wacu, meaning "a watch or wake", feld, an open field in which a wake or festival was held.
In the Domesday Book of 1086, it was written Wachefeld and as Wachefelt. Flint and stone tools and bronze and iron implements have been found at Lee Moor and Lupset in the Wakefield area showing evidence of human activity since prehistoric times; this part of Yorkshire was home to the Brigantes until the Roman occupation in AD 43. A Roman road from Pontefract passing Streethouse, Heath Common, Ossett Street Side, through Kirklees and on to Manchester crossed the River Calder by a ford at Wakefield near the site of Wakefield Bridge. Wakefield was settled by the Angles in the 5th or 6th century and after AD 876 the area was controlled by the Vikings who founded twelve hamlets or thorpes around Wakefield, they divided the area into wapentakes and Wakefield was part of the Wapentake of Agbrigg. The settlement grew near a crossing place on the River Calder around three roads, Westgate and Kirkgate; the "gate" suffix derives from Old Norse gata meaning road and kirk, from kirkja indicates there was a church.
Before 1066 the manor of Wakefield belonged to Edward the Confessor and it passed to William the Conqueror after the Battle of Hastings. After the Conquest Wakefield was a victim of the Harrying of the North in 1069 when William the Conqueror took revenge on the local population for resistance to Norman rule; the settlement was recorded as Wachfeld in the Domesday Book of 1086, covered a much greater area than present day Wakefield, much of, described as "waste". The manor was granted by the crown to William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey whose descendants, the Earls Warenne, inherited it after his death in 1088; the construction of Sandal Castle began early in the 12th century. A second castle was abandoned. Wakefield and its environs formed the caput of an extensive baronial holding by the Warennes that extended to Cheshire and Lancashire; the Warennes, their feudal sublords, held the area until the 14th century, when it passed to their heirs. Norman tenants holding land in the region included the Lyvet family at Lupset.
The Domesday Book recorded one in Wakefield and one in Sandal Magna. The Saxon church in Wakefield was rebuilt in about 1100 in stone in the Norman style and was continually enlarged until 1315 when the central tower collapsed. By 1420 the church was again rebuilt and was extended between 1458 and 1475. In 1203 William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey received a grant for a market in the town. In 1204 King John granted the rights for a fair at the feast of All Saints, 1 November, in 1258 Henry III granted the right for fair on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June; the market was close to the church. The townsfolk of Wakefield amused themselves in games and sports earning the title "Merrie Wakefield", the chief sport in the 14th century was archery and the butts in Wakefield were at the Ings, near the river. During the Wars of the Roses, Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York was killed on 30 December 1460 in the Battle of Wakefield near Sandal Castle; as preparation for the impending invasion by the Spanish Armada in April 1558, 400 men from the wapentake of Morley and Agbrigg were summoned to Bruntcliffe near Morley with their weapons.
Men from Kirkgate, Westgate and Sandal were amongst them and all returned by August. At the time of the Civil War, Wakefield was a Royalist stronghold. An attack led by Sir Thomas Fairfax on 20 May 1643 captured the town for the Parliamentarians. Over 1500 troops were taken prisoner along with Lieutenant-General Goring. In medieval times Wakefield became an inland port on the Calder and centre for the woollen and tanning trades. In 1699 an Act of Parliament was passed creating the Aire and Calder Navigation which provided the town with access to the North Sea; the first Registry of Deeds in the country opened in 1704 and in 1765 Wakefield's cattle market was established and became the one of largest in the north of England. The town was a centre for cloth dealing, with its own piece hall, the Tammy Hall, built in 1766. In the late 1700s Georgian town houses and St John's Church were built to the north of the town centre. Wakefield was dubbed the "Merrie City" in the Middle Ages and in 1538 John Leland described it as, "a quick market town and meately large.
A right honest man shall fare well for 2d. A meal.... There be plenti of se coal in the quarters about Wakefield". At the start of 19th century Wakefield was a wealthy market town and inland port trading in wool and grain; the Aire and Calder and Calder and Hebble Navigations and the Barnsley Canal were instrumental in the development of Wakefield as an
County borough is a term introduced in 1889 in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to refer to a borough or a city independent of county council control. They were abolished by the Local Government Act 1972 in England and Wales, but continue in use for lieutenancy and shrievalty in Northern Ireland. In the Republic of Ireland they remain in existence but have been renamed cities under the provisions of the Local Government Act 2001; the Local Government Act 1994 re-introduced the term for certain "principal areas" in Wales. Scotland did not have county boroughs but instead counties of cities; these were abolished on 16 May 1975. All four Scottish cities of the time — Aberdeen, Dundee and Glasgow — were included in this category. There was an additional category of large burgh in the Scottish system, which were responsible for all services apart from police and fire; when county councils were first created in 1889, it was decided that to let them have authority over large towns or cities would be impractical, so any large incorporated place would have the right to be a county borough, thus independent from the administrative county it would otherwise come under.
Some cities and towns were independent counties corporate, most were to become county boroughs. Ten county boroughs were proposed; the Local Government Act 1888 as passed required a population of over 50,000 except in the case of existing counties corporate. This resulted in 61 county boroughs in two in Wales. Several exceptions were allowed for historic towns: Bath and Oxford were all under the 50,000 limit in the 1901 census; some of the smaller counties corporate—Berwick upon Tweed, Lincoln, Poole and Haverfordwest—did not become county boroughs, although Canterbury, with a population under 25,000, did. Various new county boroughs were constituted in the following decades as more boroughs reached the 50,000 minimum and promoted Acts to constitute them county boroughs; the granting of county borough status was the subject of much disagreement between the large municipal boroughs and the county councils. The population limit provided county councils with a disincentive to allow mergers or boundary amendments to districts that would create authorities with large populations, as this would allow them to seek county borough status and remove the tax base from the administrative county.
County boroughs to be constituted in this era were a mixed bag, including some towns that would continue to expand such as Bournemouth and Southend-on-Sea. Other towns such as Burton upon Trent and Dewsbury were not to increase in population much past 50,000. 1913 saw the attempts of Luton and Cambridge to gain county borough status defeated in the House of Commons, despite the approval of the Local Government Board — the removal of Cambridge from Cambridgeshire would have reduced the income of Cambridgeshire County Council by over half. Upon recommendation of a commission chaired by the Earl of Onslow, the population threshold was raised to 75,000 in 1926, by the Local Government Act 1926, which made it much harder to expand boundaries; the threshold was raised to 100,000 by the Local Government Act 1958. The viability of the county borough of Merthyr Tydfil came into question in the 1930s. Due to a decline in the heavy industries of the town, by 1932 more than half the male population was unemployed, resulting in high municipal rates in order to make public assistance payments.
At the same time the population of the borough was lower than when it had been created in 1908. A royal commission was appointed in May 1935 to "investigate whether the existing status of Merthyr Tydfil as a county borough should be continued, if not, what other arrangements should be made"; the commission reported the following November, recommended that Merthyr should revert to the status of a non-county borough, that public assistance should be taken over by central government. In the event county borough status was retained by the town, with the chairman of the Welsh Board of Health appointed as administrative adviser in 1936. After the Second World War the creation of new county boroughs in England and Wales was suspended, pending a local government review. A government white paper published in 1945 stated that "it is expected that there will be a number of Bills for extending or creating county boroughs" and proposed the creation of a boundary commission to bring coordination to local government reform.
The policy in the paper ruled out the creation of new county boroughs in Middlesex "owing to its special problems". The Local Government Boundary Commission was appointed on 26 October 1945, under the chairmanship of Sir Malcolm Trustram Eve, delivering its report in 1947; the Commission recommended that towns with a population of 200,000 or more should become one-tier "new counties", with "new county boroughs" having a population of 60,000 - 200,000 being "most-purpose authorities", with the county council of the administrative county providing certain limited services. The report envisaged the creation of 47 two-tiered "new counties", 21 one-tiered "new counties" and 63 "new county boroughs"; the recommendations of the Commission extended to a review of the division of functions between different tiers of local government, thus fell outside its terms of reference, its report was not acted upon. The next attempt at reform was by the Local Government Act 1958, which established the Local Government Commission for England and the Local Government
Humberside Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing an area covering the East Riding of Yorkshire, the city of Kingston upon Hull, North East Lincolnshire and North Lincolnshire. The current Chief Constable is Lee Freeman, the Assistant Chief Constable Lincolnshire from 2013 - 2015 before transferring to Humberside in May 2015. Following the sudden departure of Justine Curran, he took over as the Deputy Chief Constable in February 2017 before being appointed into the role as a Chief Constable In June 2017. Humberside Police was created in 1974 following a merger of previous forces under the Local Government Act 1972, along with the non-metropolitan county of Humberside, it was a successor to the Hull City Police, part of the areas of the York and North East Yorkshire Police, the old Lincolnshire Constabulary and the West Yorkshire Constabulary. Proposals made by the Home Secretary on 21 March 2006 would have seen the force merge with North Yorkshire Police, South Yorkshire Police and West Yorkshire Police to form a strategic police force for the entire region.
These proposals have since been'put on hold' by the government. Following the abolition of Humberside in 1996, the local council members of the Police Authority were appointed by a joint committee of the councils of the East Riding of Yorkshire, Kingston upon Hull, North Lincolnshire, North East Lincolnshire. On 21 November 2012 the Police Authority was made redundant by the introduction of the Police and Crime Commissioner; the Humberside Police Authority, at the time it ceased to exist, had 17 members in total. 1974–1976: Robert Walton 1976–1991: David Hall 1991–1999: D. Anthony Leonard 1999–2005: David Westwood 2005–2013: Timothy Stancliffe Hollis 2013–2017: Justine Curran 2017–: Lee Freeman From March 2013 to February 2017 the Chief Constable of Humberside Police was Justine Curran Chief Constable of Tayside Police in Scotland before the introduction of the national Police Scotland service on 1 April 2013, her appointment was unanimously approved by the Humberside Police and Crime panel after Humberside Police and Crime Commissioner, Matthew Grove, proposed her for the post.
Curran took over the position from Tim Hollis CBE QPM who retired from the service in March 2013. On 11 November 2015, it was revealed that Curran had claimed for more than £39,000 in expenses for her relocation from Tayside to Humberside in March 2013. After Keith Hunter was elected as Police and Crime Commissioner in May 2016, Curran was given six months to improve the force after it was rated inadequate by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary. Nine months after a further HMIC inspection which identified further "significant failings", Hunter asked Curran to consider her position, she announced her retirement, she left on 20 February 2017. In August 2017, it was revealed that Hunter had "lost confidence" in Curran and was "completely undermined" by her when it was decided to withhold the findings of an HMIC investigation which revealed further inadequacies within the force. Hunter sought legal advice, Curran was allowed to retire before the statutory procedure to remove a Chief Constable was started.
Lee Freeman, a former Assistant Chief Constable in Lincolnshire from August 2013 who had joined Humberside in May 2015, took over as Deputy Chief Constable on Curran's departure. He was appointed temporary Chief Constable in May 2017 and the position was made permanent on 26 June 2017. Humberside uses a wide variety of vehicles and unmarked. ProViDa is the standard in-car video unit used. All of the vehicles within the force have now changed to the recognisable Battenberg livery as opposed to the traditional livery. All vehicles within the force now use LED lightbar technology, as opposed to the older halogen rotating light bars; the LED lightbars are much clearer to see, provide a lot more illumination, along with front spots and rear reds. The main vehicles used are: • Peugeot Cars – A recent addition to the fleet in late 2016, multiple Peugeot 308 vehicles have been introduced across the force for general patrol and purposes replacing the aging Proton Impian, not being converted to run on LPG to save money.
• Vauxhall Cars – There are several Vauxhall Astra vehicles within the force which are used for general patrol and by IRT. All Vauxhall vehicles are marked with the Battenberg livery and have LED lights. There are several Vauxhall Vivaro vans which are used for patrol and prisoner transport; these are fully marked with the Battenberg livery and LED lights. Vauxhall vehicles are used for the dog section, however these are Vauxhall Zafira models; some community teams have a Vauxhall Corsa as a marked up patrol vehicle. • Proton Cars – These are used for general patrol and by IRT, these are nearly all phased out as of January 2018. The majority are Impians, with the Proton Persona phased out some years ago. Proton vehicles are being replaced across the force by Vauxhall and now Peugeot vehicles and much of the Proton fleet are now vehicles bought in 2010. All Proton vehicles have the Battenberg livery and LED lights. Humberside Police won the top award in the National Energy Efficiency Awards by running the vast majority of its fleet on Liquified Petroleum Gas.
Most Protons are dual fuel, running unleaded petrol. • Mercedes Benz Sprinter – These vans are used for Public Order and crowd situations as well as for transporting prisoners. The latest shape vans are now coming onto divisions to re
Lancashire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for policing the ceremonial county of Lancashire in North West England. The force's headquarters are near the city of Preston; as of October 2018 the force had just under 3,000 officers as well as 2,000 Police Staff - of which 272 are police community support officers. After many complaints over a number of years over the crime ridden state of Lancashire it was decided in 1839 that a combined county police force was required to police the county. In the same year the force was founded and Captain John Woodford was made chief constable with two assistant chief constables, 14 superintendents and 660 constables. Over the next 50 years the police force saw many changes including the introduction of the police helmet and, during the 1860s, the force lost its first officer, PC Jump, who died after being shot by a group of men that he and a colleague were searching. By the end of the century the force had developed a detective department who were allowed to wear plain clothes.
The first detective appointed was John Wallbank. In 1917 the force first allowed female officers although it was only in the 1950s that they were allowed uniforms, not until the 1970s were they paid at the same rate as their male counterparts. In 1948 the force's dog section was established with many differing breeds being used, but by the 1950s it was established that the German shepherd was the most suitable. In 1965, the force had an establishment of 3,784 officers and an actual strength of 3,454, making it the second largest police force and the largest county force in Great Britain; the force went through major changes in the 1970s when the force was reduced to cover the new re-bordered Lancashire with the other areas coming under the jurisdiction of Greater Manchester Police and Merseyside Police. On 10 October 2007 the Home Office announced that Lancashire Constabulary had ranked joint first, with Surrey, out of 43 forces by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabularies. All 43 police forces were assessed on seven areas - tackling crime, serious crime, protecting vulnerable people, neighbourhood policing, local priorities and resources and efficiency.
The Radio Branch or Wireless Workshops pioneered many techniques in the use of radio by the police. In 1925 they had radio communications between constabulary headquarters in Preston and six divisional headquarters. A year a van was equipped with a transmitter. Tests were done with radio communication to cars in the 1930s. In 1939 four fixed stations provided coverage over much of the county. At the start of World War II divisional headquarters were equipped with transmitter-receivers as a back-up to the telephone system; this was used in 1941 when the telephone system in Liverpool was put out of action by bombing, Lancashire Constabulary's radio system was sole means of communications with the city for a time. After the war they were involved in the move to VHF FM by the UK police. In 1961 a personal radio scheme was installed in Chorley with Motorola VHF personal radios imported from the USA after a demonstration in Stretford in 1959; this led in 1963 to the design of the Lancon VHF personal radio manufactured by GEC.
Under proposals made by the home secretary on 6 February 2006, it was to be merged with Cumbria Constabulary. These were accepted by both forces on 26 February, the merger would have taken place on 1 April 2007. However, in July 2006, both Cumbria and Lancashire constabularies decided not to proceed with the merger because the government failed to remedy issues with the council tax precept which left both forces unable to proceed. Over recent years, Lancashire Constabulary has developed a reputation for leading the way in intelligence analysis and holds an annual intelligence analysis conference in Blackpool attended by a large number of analysts from other UK police forces and law enforcement agencies. Other forces are now looking to Lancashire as a pioneering force in IT support. In particular in 2007 Cumbria police secured their own version of Lancashire's intelligence, police investigation and work management system SLEUTH. At the end of 2017 Lancashire Constabulary formed the Tactical Operations Team, composed of the Roads Policing Unit, Dog Unit, Mounted Branch, Armed Response Unit and Operational Support Unit.
The force is split into three geographical and two based at the force HQ at Hutton. The split is approximate, divisions are deliberately vague, giving a seamless approach to policing in the Lancashire area; the geographical divisions and their headquarters are as follows: Western The headquarters are in Blackpool from where this division is responsible for the Fylde area stretching from Bispham down to Kirkham. Lancaster is assigned with the policing of Morecambe and the Wyre area. A new divisional HQ was opened in 2018. Southern The headquarters are in Lancaster Road, with a secondary base at Chorley Magistrates' Court: it polices the Preston, South Ribble and West Lancashire areas. Eastern Based in Ainsworth Street, this division is assigned to police the Blackburn with Darwen, Ribble Valley and Accrington, Burnley and Rossendale areas. G Division Headquarters. H Division Operations Support and Operations Planning, which encompasses Motorway, Armed Response, Air Support and various other functions.
Lancashire Constabulary partners with the North West Police Underwater Search & Marine Unit and the North West Motorway Police Group. Th
Barnsley is a town in South Yorkshire, located halfway between Leeds and Sheffield. In the West Riding of Yorkshire, the town centre lies on the west bank of the Dearne Valley. Barnsley is surrounded by several smaller settlements which together form the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley, of which Barnsley is the largest and its administrative centre. At the 2011 Census, Barnsley had a population of 91,297. Barnsley is a former industrial town centred on linen in its former years and coal mining and textiles; the industries declined in the 20th century. Barnsley's culture is rooted in its industrial heritage and it has a tradition of brass bands created as social clubs by its mining communities, it is home of the Barnsley chop. The town is accessed from junctions 36, 37 and 38 of the M1 motorway and has a railway station on the Hallam and Penistone Lines. Barnsley F. C. is the local football club, which has competed in the second tier of British football for most of its history. Barnsley F. C. won the FA Cup in 1912.
The first reference to Barnsley occurs in 1086 in the Domesday Book, in which it is called Berneslai and has a population of around 200. The origin of the name Barnsley is subject to debate, but Barnsley Council claims that its origins lie in the Saxon word "Berne", for barn or storehouse, "Lay", for field; the town was in the parish of Silkstone and developed little until in the 1150s when it was given to the Pontefract Priory. The monks built a town where three roads met: the Sheffield to Wakefield, Rotherham to Huddersfield and Cheshire to Doncaster routes; the Domesday village became known as Old Barnsley, a town grew up on the new site. The monks erected a chapel of ease dedicated to Saint Mary, which survived until 1820, established a market. In 1249, a Royal charter was granted to Barnsley permitting it to hold a weekly market on Wednesdays and annual four-day fair at Michaelmas. By the 1290s, three annual fairs were held; the town was the centre of the Staincross wapentake, but in the mid-16th century had only 600 inhabitants.
From the 17th century, Barnsley developed into a stop-off point on the route between Leeds, Wakefield and London. The traffic generated as a result of its location fuelled trade, with hostelries and related services prospering. A principal centre for linen weaving during the 18th and 19th century, Barnsley grew into an important manufacturing town; the first passenger station to serve Barnsley was opened by the North Midland Railway in 1840. Barnsley station was located some 2½ miles away at Cudworth. On 1 January 1850 the Manchester and Leeds Railway opened Barnsley Exchange station, close to the town centre. On 1 May 1870 the Midland Railway opened a temporary structure. A new station was opened by the MR on the Regent Street site on 23 August 1873; as it incorporated the old court house in its construction Regent Street station was renamed Barnsley Court House station. Barnsley became a municipal borough in 1869, a county borough in 1913; the town's boundaries were extended to absorb Ardsley and Monk Bretton in 1921 and Carlton in 1938.
Barnsley was the site of a stampede that resulted in the deaths of 16 children in 1908, at a public hall now known as The Civic, when children were rushing to watch a film in the building. Barnsley has a long tradition of glass-making, however Barnsley is most famous for its coal mines. In 1960, there were 70 collieries within a 15-mile radius of Barnsley town centre, but the last of these closed in 1994; the National Union of Mineworkers still has its HQ in Barnsley. George Orwell mentioned the town in The Road to Wigan Pier, he arrived in the town on 11 March 1936 and spent a number of days in the town living in the houses of the working class miners while researching for the book. He wrote critically of the council's expenditure on the construction of Barnsley Town Hall and claimed that the money should have been spent on improving the housing and living conditions of the local miners. Barnsley was created a county borough in 1913, administered independently of the West Riding of Yorkshire.
In 1974, following the Local Government Act 1972, the county borough was abolished and Barnsley became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley in the new county of South Yorkshire, along with nine urban districts and parts of two rural districts of the surrounding area, including many towns and villages including Penistone and Cudworth. Elections to Barnsley Metropolitan Borough Council have seen the Labour Party retain control of the council at every election. Following the latest election in 2012 the council has 53 Labour, 5 Barnsley Independent Group and 5 Conservative councillors; the borough council elects the mayor every year. On the day of the election, a parade takes place in front of the town hall in honour of the new mayor. Barnsley is split into four constituencies, Barnsley Central, whose MP is Dan Jarvis of the Labour party, Barnsley East, whose MP is Stephanie Peacock of the Labour party and Stocksbridge, whose MP is Angela Smith of The Independent Group, Wentworth and Dearne, whose MP is John Healey of the Labour Party.
Ardsley, Barugh Green, Carlton, Cundy Cross, Dodworth, Gawber, Honeywell, Kendray, Kingstone, Mapplewell, Monk Bretton, New Lodge, Old Town, Royston, Smithies, Stairfoot, Woolley Colliery, Wombwell. In 2011, Barnsley was: 94.7% White British 1.1% Asian 0.8% Black The town had a population of 91,297 in 2011. Barnsley is within a green belt region that extends into the borough