Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies is an American movie-oriented pay-TV network operated by Warner Bros. Entertainment, a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Launched in 1994, TCM is headquartered at Turner's Techwood broadcasting campus in the Midtown business district of Atlanta, Georgia; the channel's programming consisted of classic theatrically released feature films from the Turner Entertainment film library – which comprises films from Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, TCM licenses films from other studios, shows more recent films; the channel is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, Malta, Latin America, Italy, Cyprus, the Nordic countries, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific. In 1986, eight years before the launch of Turner Classic Movies, Ted Turner acquired the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio for $1.5 billion. Concerns over Turner Entertainment's corporate debt load resulted in Turner selling the studio that October back to Kirk Kerkorian, from whom Turner had purchased the studio less than a year before.
As part of the deal, Turner Entertainment retained ownership of MGM's library of films released up to May 9, 1986. Turner Broadcasting System was split into two companies; the film library of Turner Entertainment would serve as the base form of programming for TCM upon the network's launch. Before the creation of Turner Classic Movies, films from Turner's library of movies aired on the Turner Broadcasting System's advertiser-supported cable network TNT – along with colorized versions of black-and-white classics such as The Maltese Falcon. Turner Classic Movies debuted on April 14, 1994, at 6 p.m. Eastern Time, with Ted Turner launching the channel at a ceremony in New York City's Times Square district; the date and time were chosen for their historical significance as "the exact centennial anniversary of the first public movie showing in New York City". The first movie broadcast on TCM was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, the same film that served as the debut broadcast of its sister channel TNT six years earlier in October 1988.
At the time of its launch, TCM was available to one million cable television subscribers. The network served as a competitor to AMC—which at the time was known as "American Movie Classics" and maintained a identical format to TCM, as both networks focused on films released prior to 1970 and aired them in an uncut and commercial-free format. AMC had broadened its film content to feature colorized and more recent films by 2002. In 1996, Turner Broadcasting System merged with Time Warner which, besides placing Turner Classic Movies and Warner Bros. Entertainment under the same corporate umbrella gave TCM access to Warner Bros.' Library of films released after 1950. In the early 2000s, AMC abandoned its commercial-free format, which led to TCM being the only movie-oriented basic cable channel to devote its programming to classic films without commercial interruption or content editing. On March 4, 2019, Time Warner's new owner AT&T announced a planned reorganization that would dissolve Turner Broadcasting.
TCM, along with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, over-the-top video company Otter Media, will be moved directly under Warner Bros.. Speaking about the move, then-Warner Bros. CEO Kevin Tsujihara explained that TCM was "a natural fit with Warner Bros." due the company's massive film library. In 2000, TCM started the annual Young Composers Film Competition, inviting aspiring composers to participate in a judged competition that offers the winner of each year's competition the opportunity to score a restored, feature-length silent film as a grand prize, mentored by a well-known composer, with the new work subsequently premiering on the network; as of 2006, films that have been rescored include the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film Camille, two Lon Chaney films: 1921's The Ace of Hearts and 1928's Laugh, Clown and Greta Garbo's 1926 film The Temptress. In April 2010, Turner Classic Movies held the first TCM Classic Film Festival, an event—now held annually—at the Grauman's Chinese Theater and the Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood.
Hosted by Robert Osborne, the four-day long annual festival celebrates Hollywood and its movies, featured celebrity appearances, special events, screenings of around 50 classic movies including several newly restored by The Film Foundation, an organization devoted to preserving Hollywood's classic film legacy. Turner Classic Movies operates as a commercial-free service, with the only advertisements on the network being shown between features – which advertise TCM products, network promotions for upcoming special programs and the original trailers for films that are scheduled to be broadcast on TCM, featurettes about classic film actors and actresses. In addition to this, extended breaks between features are filled with theatrically released movie trailers and classic short subjects – from series such as The Passing Parade, Crime Does Not Pay, Pete Smith Specialties, Robert Benchley – under the banner name TCM Extras (formerly On
Marion Mitchell Morrison, known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed'Duke', was an American actor and Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient. He was among the top box office draws for three decades. Wayne grew up in Southern California, he was president of Glendale High School class of 1925. He found work at local film studios when he lost his football scholarship to the University of Southern California as a result of a bodysurfing accident working for the Fox Film Corporation, he appeared in bit parts, but his first leading role came in Raoul Walsh's Western The Big Trail, an early widescreen film epic, a box-office failure. Only leading roles in numerous B movies followed during the 1930s, most of them Westerns. Wayne's career was rejuvenated, he starred in 142 motion pictures altogether, including the dozens with his name above the title produced before 1939. According to one biographer, "John Wayne personified for millions the nation's frontier heritage. Eighty-three of his movies were Westerns, in them he played cowboys and unconquerable loners extracted from the Republic's central creation myth."Wayne's other roles in Westerns include a cattleman driving his herd on the Chisholm Trail in Red River, a Civil War veteran whose niece is abducted by a tribe of Comanches in The Searchers, a troubled rancher competing with a lawyer for a woman's hand in marriage in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, a cantankerous one-eyed marshal in True Grit.
He is remembered for his roles in The Quiet Man, Rio Bravo with Dean Martin, The Longest Day. In his final screen performance, he starred as an aging gunfighter battling cancer in The Shootist, he appeared with many important Hollywood stars of his era, made his last public appearance at the Academy Awards ceremony on April 9, 1979. Wayne was born Marion Robert Morrison on May 1907 at 224 South Second Street in Winterset, Iowa; the local paper, Winterset Madisonian, reported on page 4 of the edition of May 30, 1907 that Wayne weighed 13 lbs. at birth. His middle name was soon changed from Robert to Mitchell when his parents decided to name their next son Robert. Wayne's father, Clyde Leonard Morrison, was the son of American Civil War veteran Marion Mitchell Morrison. Wayne's mother, the former Mary "Molly" Alberta Brown, was from Nebraska. Wayne's ancestry included English and Irish, he was raised Presbyterian. Wayne's family moved to Palmdale, in 1916 to Glendale at 404 Isabel Street, where his father worked as a pharmacist.
He attended Glendale Union High School where he performed well in academics. Wayne was part of its debating team, he was the president of the Latin Society and contributed to the school's newspaper sports column. A local fireman at the station on his route to school in Glendale started calling him "Little Duke" because he never went anywhere without his huge Airedale Terrier, Duke, he preferred "Duke" to "Marion", the nickname stuck. Wayne attended Wilson Middle School in Glendale; as a teen, he worked in an ice cream shop for a man. He was active as a member of the Order of DeMolay, he played football for the 1924 league champion Glendale High School team. Wayne applied to the U. S. Naval was not accepted. Instead, he attended the University of Southern California, he was a member of the Trojan Knights and Sigma Chi fraternities. Wayne played on the USC football team under coach Howard Jones. A broken collarbone injury curtailed his athletic career, he lost his athletic scholarship, without funds, had to leave the university.
As a favor to USC football coach Howard Jones, who had given silent western film star Tom Mix tickets to USC games, director John Ford and Mix hired Wayne as a prop boy and extra. Wayne credited his walk and persona to his acquaintance with Wyatt Earp, good friends with Tom Mix. Wayne soon moved to bit parts, establishing a longtime friendship with the director who provided most of those roles, John Ford. Early in this period he had a minor, uncredited role as a guard in the 1926 film Bardelys the Magnificent. Wayne appeared with his USC teammates playing football in Brown of Harvard, The Dropkick, Salute and Columbia's Maker of Men. While working for Fox Film Corporation in bit roles, Wayne was given on-screen credit as "Duke Morrison" only once, in Words and Music. Director Raoul Walsh saw him moving studio furniture while working as a prop boy and cast him in his first starring role in The Big Trail. For his screen name, Walsh suggested "Anthony Wayne", after Revolutionary War general "Mad" Anthony Wayne.
Fox Studios chief Winfield Sheehan rejected it as sounding "too Italian". Walsh suggested "John Wayne". Sheehan agreed, the name was set. Wayne was not present for the discussion, his pay was raised to $105 a week. The Big Trail was to be the first big-budget outdoor spectacle of the sound era, made at a then-staggering cost of over $2 million, using hundreds of extras and wide vistas of the American southwest, still unpopulated at the time. To take advantage of the breathtaking scenery, it was filmed in two versions, a standard 35 mm version and another in the new 70 mm Grandeur film p
George "Gabby" Hayes
George Francis "Gabby" Hayes, was an American actor. He began as something of a leading man and a character player, but he was best known for his numerous appearances in B-Western film series as the bewhiskered, woman-hating, but ever-loyal and brave comic sidekick of the cowboy star. Hayes was born the third of seven children in his father's hotel, the Hayes Hotel, in Stannards, New York, a hamlet just outside Wellsville, New York.. He was the son of Clark Hayes, his uncle, on his mother's side of the family, was George F. Morrison, vice president of General Electric. Despite his association with westerns, Hayes did not come from a cowboy background, his father, Clark Hayes, operated the Hayes Hotel in Stannards and was involved in oil production. George Hayes attended Stannards School, he played semiprofessional baseball while in high school. He ran away from home in 1902, at 17, joined a stock company traveled for a time with a circus, became a successful vaudevillian. Hayes married Olive E. Ireland, the daughter of a New Jersey glass finisher, on March 4, 1914.
She joined him in vaudeville. Hayes had become so successful that by 1928, at age 43, he was able to retire to a home on Long Island in Baldwin, New York, he lost all his savings the next year in the 1929 stock-market crash. Olive persuaded her husband to try his luck in films, the couple moved to Los Angeles, they remained together until her death on July 5, 1957. The couple had no children, his siblings included his brothers, William W. Hayes, Morrison Hayes, Clark B. Hayes, his sisters, Nellie Elizabeth Hayes Ebeling and Harriet "Hattie" Elizabeth Hayes Allen, his brother, Morrison Hayes, a Corporal in the United States Army, was killed in action on July 19, 1918, during World War I in France and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his actions during the war. After his move to Los Angeles, according to interviews, Hayes had a chance meeting with the producer Trem Carr, who liked his look and gave him 30 roles over the next six years. In his early career, Hayes was cast in a variety of roles, including villains, played two roles in a single film.
He found a niche in the growing genre of Western films, many of which were series with recurring characters. Hayes would admit he had never been a big fan of Westerns. Hayes, in real life an intelligent, well-groomed and articulate man, was cast as a grizzled codger who uttered phrases such as "consarn it", "yer durn tootin'", "dadgummit", "durn persnickety female", "young whippersnapper." From 1935 to 1939, Hayes played the part of Windy Halliday, the humorous "codger" sidekick of Hopalong Cassidy. In 1939, Hayes left that role in a dispute over his salary, and moved to Republic Pictures. Since Paramount held the rights to the name Windy Halliday, they renamed him Gabby Whitaker, in the same role; as Gabby, he appeared in more than 40 films between 1939 and 1946 with Roy Rogers, but with Gene Autry and Wild Bill Elliott working under the directorship of Joseph Kane. Hayes was repeatedly cast as a sidekick of the Western stars Randolph Scott and John Wayne. Hayes played Wayne's sidekick in Raoul Walsh's Dark Command, which featured Roy Rogers in a supporting role.
Hayes became a popular performer and appeared among the 10 favorite actors in polls taken of moviegoers of the period. He appeared in either one or both the Motion Picture Herald and Boxoffice Magazine lists of Top Ten Money-Making Western Stars for 12 straight years and a 13th time in 1954, four years after his last film; the Western film genre declined in the late 1940s, Hayes made his last film appearance in The Cariboo Trail. He moved to television and hosted The Gabby Hayes Show, a Western series, from 1950 to 1954 on NBC and, in a new version in 1956, on ABC, he introduced the show while whittling on a piece of wood, would sometimes throw in a tall tale. Halfway through the show, he would say something else, at the end of the show but he did not appear as an active character in the stories; when the series ended, Hayes retired from show business. He lent his name to a comic book series, "Gabby Hayes Western" comics, published by Fawcett Publications from November 1948 until January 1957, to a children's summer camp in New York.
Following his wife's death on July 5, 1957, Hayes lived in and managed a 10-unit apartment building he owned in North Hollywood, California. At the beginning of 1969, he entered Saint Joseph Hospital in Burbank, for treatment of cardiovascular disease, he died there on February 9, 1969, at the age of 83. He was interred in the Forest Lawn–Hollywood Hills Cemetery in Los Angeles. Two stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame commemorate Hayes's work in the entertainment industry: one for his contribution to radio, at 6427 Hollywood Boulevard, one for his contribution to television, at 1724 Vine Street. In 2000, he was posthumously inducted into the Western Performers Hall of Fame at the National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Homage was paid to Hayes in a different way in the 1974 satirical Western Blazing Saddles; the actor and director Jack Starrett, credited as Claude Ennis Starrett, Jr. played a Hayes-like character. In keepin
Lafayette S. "Lafe" McKee was an American actor who appeared in more than 400 films from 1912 to 1948. Part of his career was spent with Art Mix Productions. McKee worked as a stage actor from 1910 until at least 1932, began working in show business in 1893. Lafe McKee on IMDb Lafe McKee at Find a Grave
John Wayne filmography
A complete filmography of John Wayne from 1926 to 1977, which includes those films that Wayne only produced, results pertaining to his long-running box office popularity between 1949 and 1973, during the height of his career after a decade of starring in a succession of low-budget B-movies. Wayne began working on films as an extra, prop man and stuntman for the Fox Film Corporation, he worked in minor roles with director John Ford and when Raoul Walsh suggested him for the lead in The Big Trail, an epic Western shot in an early widescreen process called Fox Grandeur, Ford vouched for him. Wayne's early period as a star would be brief, he moved over to Columbia Pictures. As a result, Wayne was dropped from leading man to supporting player to bit player and down to being an extra again. After the Columbia debacle, Wayne solidified his stardom – albeit as a minor star – in a string of low-budget action films at Warner Bros. and Universal and the "Poverty Row" studios Mascot and Republic. Wayne kept on friendly terms with John Ford who, as a result, gave Wayne a career boost with Stagecoach.
John Wayne had achieved stardom in motion pictures by 1941 and, by the end of the decade, was one of the cinema's top ten box office attractions. During the latter half of the 1940s Wayne starred in what many film fans and critics regard as being among his finest work, notably the "cavalry trilogy" for director John Ford, 3 Godfathers for Ford, Red River for Howard Hawks. Wayne began producing some of his own films during this period; the most discussed of Wayne's films during the following decade remains Ford's dark Western meditation on racism, The Searchers. Other popular Wayne films include the seafaring adventures Reap the Wild Wind and Wake of the Red Witch and influential war movies such as They Were Expendable, Flying Tigers, The Fighting Seabees, Sands of Iwo Jima, for which he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor; the 1950s would see Wayne continue as a major star although the artistic quality of his work varied greatly. His successes during this decade included the Ireland-set romantic comedy The Quiet Man and two classic westerns, The Searchers and Rio Bravo.
Wayne continued his producing activities during this period as well, notably with the formation of his own production company, Batjac. In 1960, Wayne appeared in his most personal production, portraying Davy Crockett in The Alamo, which he produced and directed. During the 1960s and 1970s, John Wayne ranked as an American icon and one of the top box office attractions in the cinema. Wayne's output of films consisted of Westerns but he ventured into other genres as well, including several films dealing with the Second World War. Wayne made some of his most prominent films during this period, including John Ford's The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance with James Stewart. Wayne's political views came under harsh attack from film critics with the release of The Green Berets, which Wayne produced and co-directed as well as starred in; the following year, however, he would be praised by critics for his performance in True Grit, which would earn him an Academy Award for Best Actor. Wayne starred in his final film, The Shootist, ending his acting career for fifty years, 169 feature length films, various other television appearances or voice-overs.
Key to studio abbreviations In 1993, Wayne appeared posthumously as George Abitbol, the central character in the French TV film La Classe américaine. The film, the story of which revolves around an investigation of Abitbol's death, consists of cut-and-pasted extracts from other films, dubbed with new lines in French and transformed into a new story. Raymond Loyer, who had dubbed Wayne into French in his previous films, returned to do so one last time. John Wayne did not star in several feature films. Results from Quigley's Motion Picture Herald annual poll of film exhibitors would determine the year's "Top Ten Stars". John Wayne appeared on the list every time between 1949 and 1973 with one exception – 1958 – indicating that he was one of cinema's most durable stars. List of film director and actor collaborations John Wayne on John; the John Wayne Album. New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0345280886. Eyles, Allan. John Wayne. New York: A. S. Barnes & Co. ISBN 978-0498025907. Fagen, Herb; the Encyclopedia of Westerns.
New York: Facts On File. ISBN 978-0816044566. Landesman, Fred; the John Wayne Filmography. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 978-0786432523
Monogram Pictures Corporation is a dormant American film studio that produces and releases films on low budgets, between 1931 and 1953, when the firm completed a transition to the name Allied Artists Pictures Corporation. Monogram was among the smaller studios in the golden age of Hollywood referred to collectively as Poverty Row; the idea behind the studio was that when the Monogram logo appeared on the screen, everyone knew they were in for action and adventure. Today the company's trademark is owned by Allied Artists International; the original sprawling brick complex, home to both Monogram and Allied Artists remains in place today at 4376 Sunset Drive, utilized as part of the Church of Scientology Media Center. Monogram was created in the early 1930s from two earlier companies, W. Ray Johnston's Rayart Productions and Trem Carr's Sono Art-World Wide Pictures. Both specialized in low-budget features and, as Monogram Pictures, continued that policy until 1935, with Carr in charge of production.
Another independent producer, Paul Malvern, released his sixteen Lone Star western productions through Monogram. The backbone of the studio in those early days was a father-and-son combination: writer/director Robert N. Bradbury and cowboy actor Bob Steele were on their roster. Bradbury wrote all, directed many, of the early Monogram and Lone Star westerns. While budgets and production values were lean, Monogram offered a balanced program, including action melodramas and mysteries. In 1935, Johnston and Carr were wooed by Herbert Yates of Consolidated Film Industries. However, after a short time in this new venture, they discovered that they couldn't get along with Herbert Yates, they left. Carr moved to Universal Pictures, while Johnston reactivated Monogram in 1937. Producer Walter Mirisch began at Monogram after World War II as assistant to studio head Steve Broidy, he convinced Broidy that the days of low-budget films were ending, in 1946 Monogram created a new unit, Allied Artists Productions, to make costlier films.
The new name was meant to mirror the name of United Artists by invoking images of "creative personnel uniting to produce and distribute quality films". At a time when the average Hollywood picture cost about $800,000, Allied Artists' first release, It Happened on Fifth Avenue, cost more than $1,200,000. Subsequent Allied Artists releases did have enhanced production values; the studio's new policy permitted what Mirisch called "B-plus" pictures, which were released along with Monogram's established line of B fare. Mirisch's prediction about the end of the low-budget film had come true thanks to television, in September 1952 Monogram announced that henceforth it would only produce films bearing the Allied Artists name; the Monogram brand name was retired in 1953. The company was now known as Allied Artists Pictures Corporation. Allied Artists did retain a few vestiges of its Monogram identity, continuing its popular Stanley Clements action series, its B-Westerns, its Bomba, the Jungle Boy adventures using Johnny Sheffield, "Boy" of the Tarzan films, its breadwinning comedy series with The Bowery Boys.
For the most part, Allied Artists was heading in new, ambitious directions under Mirisch. It released the first Cinecolor science fiction film Flight to Mars its greatest artistic success a low-budget film in the Monogram tradition, Don Siegel's Invasion of the Body Snatchers, released by Allied in 1956. For a time in the mid-1950s the Mirisch family held great influence at Allied Artists, with Walter as executive producer, his brother Harold as head for sales Allied Artists, brother Marvin as assistant treasurer, they pushed the studio into big-budget filmmaking, signing contracts with William Wyler, John Huston, Billy Wilder and Gary Cooper. However, when their first big-name productions, Wyler's Friendly Persuasion, nominated for 6 Academy Awards including Best Picture and Wilder's Love in the Afternoon were box-office flops in 1956–57, studio head Broidy retreated into the kind of pictures Monogram had always favored: low-budget action and thrillers. Mirisch Productions had success releasing their films through United Artists.
Broidy retired in 1965 and Allied Artists ceased production in 1966 and became a distributor of foreign films, but restarted production with the 1972 release of Cabaret and followed it the next year with Papillon. Both were critical and commercial successes, but high production and financing costs meant they were not big moneymakers for Allied Artists. Allied Artists raised financing for their adaptation of The Man Who Would Be King by selling the European distribution rights to Columbia Pictures and the rest of the backing came from Canadian tax shelters. King received disappointing returns; that same year it distributed the French import Story of O, but spent much of its earnings defending itself from obscenity charges. In 1976, Allied Artists attempted diversification when it merged with consumer producers Kalvex and PSP, Inc; the new Allied Artists Industries, Inc. manufactured pharmaceuticals, mobile homes, activewear in addition to films. Monogram/Allied Artists lasted until 1979, when runaway inflation and high production costs pushed it into bankruptcy.
The post-1947 Monogram/Allied Artists library was bought by television production company Lorimar
Western is a genre of various arts which tell stories set in the latter half of the 19th century in the American Old West centering on the life of a nomadic cowboy or gunfighter armed with a revolver and a rifle who rides a horse. Cowboys and gunslingers wear Stetson hats, neckerchief bandannas, spurs, cowboy boots and buckskins. Recurring characters include the aforementioned cowboys, Native Americans, lawmen, bounty hunters, gamblers and settlers; the ambience is punctuated with a Western music score, including American and Mexican folk music such as country, Native American music, New Mexico music, rancheras. Westerns stress the harshness of the wilderness and set the action in an arid, desolate landscape of deserts and mountains; the vast landscape plays an important role, presenting a "...mythic vision of the plains and deserts of the American West". Specific settings include ranches, small frontier towns, saloons and isolated military forts of the Wild West. Common plots include: The construction of a telegraph line on the wild frontier.
Ranchers protecting their family ranch from rustlers or large landowners or who build a ranch empire. Revenge stories, which hinge on the chase and pursuit by someone, wronged. Stories about cavalry fighting Native Americans. Outlaw gang plots. Stories about a lawman or bounty hunter tracking down his quarry. Many Westerns use a stock plot of depicting a crime showing the pursuit of the wrongdoer, ending in revenge and retribution, dispensed through a shootout or quick-draw duel; the Western was the most popular Hollywood genre from the early 20th century to the 1960s. Western films first became well-attended in the 1930s. John Ford's landmark Western adventure Stagecoach became one of the biggest hits in 1939 and it made John Wayne a mainstream screen star; the popularity of Westerns continued with the release of classics such as Red River. Westerns were popular throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Many of the most acclaimed Westerns were released during this time, including High Noon, The Searchers, Cat Ballou, The Wild Bunch and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid.
Classic Westerns such as these have been the inspiration for various films about Western-type characters in contemporary settings, such as Junior Bonner, set in the 1970s, The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada, set in the 21st century. The Western genre sometimes portrays the conquest of the wilderness and the subordination of nature in the name of civilization or the confiscation of the territorial rights of the original, Native American, inhabitants of the frontier; the Western depicts a society organized around codes of honor and personal, direct or private justice–"frontier justice"–dispensed by gunfights. These honor codes are played out through depictions of feuds or individuals seeking personal revenge or retribution against someone who has wronged them; this Western depiction of personal justice contrasts with justice systems organized around rationalistic, abstract law that exist in cities, in which social order is maintained predominately through impersonal institutions such as courtrooms.
The popular perception of the Western is a story that centers on the life of a semi-nomadic wanderer a cowboy or a gunfighter. A showdown or duel at high noon featuring two or more gunfighters is a stereotypical scene in the popular conception of Westerns. In some ways, such protagonists may be considered the literary descendants of the knight errant which stood at the center of earlier extensive genres such as the Arthurian Romances. Like the cowboy or gunfighter of the Western, the knight errant of the earlier European tales and poetry was wandering from place to place on his horse, fighting villains of various kinds and bound to no fixed social structures but only to their own innate code of honor, and like knights errant, the heroes of Westerns rescue damsels in distress. The wandering protagonists of Westerns share many characteristics with the ronin in modern Japanese culture; the Western takes these elements and uses them to tell simple morality tales, although some notable examples are more morally ambiguous.
Westerns stress the harshness and isolation of the wilderness and set the action in an arid, desolate landscape. Western films have specific settings such as isolated ranches, Native American villages, or small frontier towns with a saloon. Oftentimes, these settings appear deserted and without much structure. Apart from the wilderness, it is the saloon that emphasizes that this is the Wild West: it is the place to go for music, gambling, drinking and shooting. In some Westerns, where civilization has arrived, the town has a church, a general store, a bank and a school; the American Film Institute defines Western films as those "set in the American West that the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier." The term Western, used to describe a narrative film genre, appears to have originated with a July 1912 article in Motion Picture World magazine. Most of the characteristics of Western films were part of 19th-century popular Western