A more technical term is grade-separated junction. A burrowing junction or dive-under occurs where the line passes below the main line. The alternative to separation is a level junction or flat junction, where tracks cross at grade. Where two lines each of two tracks merge with a junction, they can become a four-track railway together. This happens regularly in the Netherlands, nearly all junctions with high-speed railways are grade-separated. The LGV network has four grade-separated high-speed triangles, Coubert, Massy, a fifth, Vémars, is grade separated except for a single-track link on the least-used side, linking Paris Gare du Nord and Paris CDG airport. Triangle des Angles, with two parallel 1.5 km viaducts, triangle de Massy, partial four-way junction. Before conversion to a junction, this was the site of the Harmelen train disaster. In addition, lead tracks to Cabot Yard maintenance facilities branch off from the junction, all were built by the former Pennsylvania Railroad and are now maintained by Amtrak. 39. 97086°N75.
19848°W /39.97086, -75.19848 on the New York City Subway at Hammels Wye on the IND Rockaway Line, the grade separations of the junction are woven into the grade separations of the interchange between the two highways. This would have part of the Oklahoma Avenue station, had it been built. South of the King Street station in Alexandria is a series of tunnels where the Blue, there are flying junctions near three underground rail stations, Rosslyn, LEnfant Plaza, and the Pentagon
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The network has expanded to 11 lines, and in 2015–16 carried 1.34 billion passengers, the 11 lines collectively handle approximately 4.8 million passengers a day. The system has 270 stations and 250 miles of track, despite its name, only 45% of the system is actually underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, the current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares, the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style.
Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, to prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, and was later, in 1861, the worlds first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground inner circle connecting Londons main-line termini. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and this opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells. The Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, the Metropolitan Railway protested about the change of plan, but after arbitration by the Board of Trade, the DC system was adopted.
When the Bakerloo was so named in July 1906, The Railway Magazine called it an undignified gutter title, by 1907 the District and Metropolitan Railways had electrified the underground sections of their lines. In January 1913, the UERL acquired the Central London Railway, the Bakerloo line was extended north to Queens Park to join a new electric line from Euston to Watford, but World War I delayed construction and trains reached Watford Junction in 1917. During air raids in 1915 people used the stations as shelters. An extension of the Central line west to Ealing was delayed by the war, the Metropolitan promoted housing estates near the railway with the Metro-land brand and nine housing estates were built near stations on the line. Electrification was extended north from Harrow to Rickmansworth, and branches opened from Rickmansworth to Watford in 1925, the Piccadilly line was extended north to Cockfosters and took over District line branches to Harrow and Hounslow. In 1933, most of Londons underground railways and bus services were merged to form the London Passenger Transport Board, the Waterloo & City Railway, which was by in the ownership of the main line Southern Railway, remained with its existing owners.
In the same year that the London Passenger Transport Board was formed, in the following years, the outlying lines of the former Metropolitan Railway closed, the Brill Tramway in 1935, and the line from Quainton Road to Verney Junction in 1936
I Wanna Wake Up with You
I Wanna Wake Up with You is a 1986 song made popular by Boris Gardiner. Written by legendary Nashville songwriter, Ben Peters and produced by Willie Lindo and it was released by Revue Records and Creole Records. The song has subsequently covered by Christy Lane Johnny Rodriguez, John Holt. It was the third best-selling single of 1986 in the UK and it reached number 3 in South Africa, spending 18 weeks on the charts. The music video for the song was filmed at locations in London
London Buses route 18
London Buses route 18 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between Sudbury and Euston bus station, it is operated by Metroline, in 1992 the route became the first in London to have real-time information systems fitted to stops along its route. The system, called Countdown, proved popular with passengers and has extended to much of the citys bus network. In 2008 the route was named as the most problematic for crime in London, on 13 November 2010, route 18 was converted back to double deck operation as part of the Mayor of Londons policy to replace the O530Gs. New Wright Eclipse Gemini 2 bodied Volvo B9TLs were introduced, on 22 June 2013, route 18 was included in the sale of First Londons Willesden Junction garage to Metroline. In 2015/16, it was the second busiest TfL bus route, carrying 17.2 million passengers
Suffragettes were members of womens organizations in the late-19th and early-20th centuries which advocated the extension of the franchise, or the right to vote in public elections, to women. It particularly refers to militants in the United Kingdom such as members of the Womens Social and Political Union, suffragist is a more general term for members of the suffrage movement. The term suffragette is particularly associated with activists in the British WSPU, led by Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst, Women in South Australia achieved the same right and became the first to obtain the right to stand for parliament in 1895. Women in Britain over the age of 30, meeting certain property qualifications, were given the right to vote in 1918, opinion amongst historians today is divided as to whether the militant tactics of the suffragettes helped or hindered their cause. British suffragettes were mostly women from upper and middle-class backgrounds, frustrated by their social, mill introduced the idea of womens suffrage on the platform he presented to the British electorate in 1865.
He was subsequently joined by men and women fighting for the same cause. The term suffragette was first used as a term of derision by the journalist Charles E, hands in the London Daily Mail to describe activists in the movement for womens suffrage, in particular members of the Womens Social and Political Union. But the women he intended to ridicule embraced the term saying suffraGETtes implied not only that they wanted the vote, the National Union of Womens Suffrage Societies, founded in 1897, was formed from local suffrage societies. The union was led by Millicent Fawcett, who believed in constitutional campaigning, issuing leaflets, organising meetings and presenting petitions, in 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst founded a new organisation, the Womens Social and Political Union. She thought the movement would have to become radical and militant if it was going to be effective, the Daily Mail gave them the name Suffragettes. Some radical techniques used by the suffragettes, especially hunger strikes, were learned from Russian exiles from tsarism who had escaped to England, many suffragists at the time, and most historians since, have argued that the actions of the militant suffragettes damaged their cause.
Opponents at the time saw evidence that women were too emotional, from 1909, the Pank-A-Squith board game was sold by the WSPU to raise awareness of their campaign and raise money. The name is derived from Pankhurst the surname of the leaders of the WSPU, and Asquith, the surname of the Prime Minister at the time and a largely hated figure by the movement. The Peoples History Museum in Manchester has a Pank-A-Squith board game on display in the main galleries, one suffragette, Emily Davison, died under the Kings horse Anmer at the Epsom Derby of 4 June 1913. It is debated whether she was trying to pin a Votes for Women banner on the Kings horse or not, many of her fellow suffragettes were imprisoned and refused food as a scare tactic against the government. The Liberal government of the day led by Asquith responded with the Cat, another prominent British Suffragette, Sophia Duleep Singh was almost forgotten for 70 years. In the early-20th century until the First World War, approximately one thousand suffragettes were imprisoned in Britain, most early incarcerations were for public order offences and failure to pay outstanding fines.
The first suffragettes to be imprisoned were Christabel Pankhurst and Annie Kenney in October 1905 and this cause was taken up by the Womens Social and Political Union, a large organisation in Britain, that lobbied for womens suffrage led by militant suffragette Emmeline Pankhurst
London Buses route 23
London Buses route 23 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between Westbourne Park station and Liverpool Street bus station, it is operated by Tower Transit, the off-peak service already operated at this frequency. On 5 January 2009, a bus operating on the route crashed into a shop in Westbourne Grove after swerving to avoid a van, injuring ten people. Later in 2009, Transport for London decided not to proceed with a change of the eastbound route in the Elgin Crescent area, following a consultation with residents. The proposal would have routed the eastbound 23 along Ladbroke Gardens instead of Elgin Crescent, First London had successfully retained route 23 with a new contract starting on 13 November 2010 and was included in the sale of First Londons Westbourne Park garage to Tower Transit on 22 June 2013. Tower Transit has successfully retained route 23 with a new contract starting on 14 November 2015, radio presenter Geoff Lloyd featured the route in the show Boring.
At the Boring Conference in December 2010
Notting Hill is an affluent district in West London, located north of Kensington within the Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea as well as Westminster. Notting Hill is known for being a neighbourhood, hosting the annual Notting Hill Carnival. For much of the 20th century, the houses were subdivided into multi-occupancy rentals. Since it was first developed in the 1820s, Notting Hill has had an association with artists, the area in the west around Pottery Lane was used in the early 19th century for making bricks and tiles out of the heavy clay dug in the area. The clay was shaped and fired in a series of brick, the only remaining 19th-century tile kiln in London is on Walmer Road. In the same area, pig farmers moved in after being forced out of the Marble Arch area, avondale Park was created in 1892 out of a former area of pig slurry called the Ocean. This was part of a general clean-up of the area which had known as the Potteries and Piggeries. The area remained rural until the expansion of London reached Bayswater in the early 19th century.
The main landowner in Notting Hill was the Ladbroke family, working with the architect and surveyor Thomas Allason, Ladbroke began to lay out streets and houses, with a view to turning the area into a fashionable suburb of the capital. Many of these bear the Ladbroke name, including Ladbroke Grove, the main north-south axis of the area, and Ladbroke Square. The original idea was to call the district Kensington Park, the local telephone prefix 7727 is based on the old telephone exchange name of PARk. Ladbroke left the business of developing his land to the firm of City solicitors, Bayley. In 1823 Allason completed a plan for the layout of the portion of the estate. This marks the genesis of his most enduring idea – the creation of large communal gardens, originally known as pleasure grounds, or paddocks. To this day these communal garden squares continue to provide the area much of its attraction for the wealthiest householders. In 1837 the Hippodrome racecourse was laid out, the racecourse ran around the hill, and bystanders were expected to watch from the summit of the hill.
However, the venture was not a success, in due to a public right of way which traversed the course. The Hippodrome closed in 1841, after which development resumed and houses were built on the site, at the summit of hill stands the elegant St Johns church, built in 1845 in the early English style, and which formed the centrepiece of the Ladbroke Estate development
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Brunel built dockyards, the Great Western Railway, a series of steamships including the first propeller-driven transatlantic steamship, and numerous important bridges and tunnels. His designs revolutionised public transport and modern engineering, though Brunels projects were not always successful, they often contained innovative solutions to long-standing engineering problems. Brunel set the standard for a railway, using careful surveys to minimise grades and curves. This necessitated expensive construction techniques, new bridges, new viaducts, one controversial feature was the wide gauge, a broad gauge of 7 ft 1⁄4 in, instead of what was to be known as standard gauge of 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in. Brunel astonished Britain by proposing to extend the Great Western Railway westward to North America by building steam-powered iron-hulled ships and he designed and built three ships that revolutionised naval engineering, the Great Western, the Great Britain, and the Great Eastern. In 2002, Brunel was placed second in a BBC public poll to determine the 100 Greatest Britons, in 2006, the bicentenary of his birth, a major programme of events celebrated his life and work under the name Brunel 200.
Brunels name is an amalgamation of his parents names and he inherited the family name of his father, and his middle name is his mothers surname. Brunels first name, comes from his fathers middle name, Isambard is a Norman name of Germanic origin, meaning iron-bright. A cognate name is the German surname Eisenbarth, which can still be found today among Bavarians and German-Americans and he had two older sisters and Emma, and the whole family moved to London in 1808 for his fathers work. Brunel had a childhood, despite the familys constant money worries. His father taught him drawing and observational techniques from the age of four, during this time he learned fluent French and the basic principles of engineering. He was encouraged to draw interesting buildings and identify any faults in their structure, when Brunel was eight he was sent to Dr Morrells boarding school in Hove, where he learned the classics. When Brunel was 15, his father Marc, who had accumulated debts of over £5,000, was sent to a debtors prison.
After three months went by with no prospect of release, Marc let it be known that he was considering an offer from the Tsar of Russia. In August 1821, facing the prospect of losing a prominent engineer, Brunel subsequently studied under the prominent master clockmaker and horologist Abraham-Louis Breguet, who praised Brunels potential in letters to his father. In late 1822, having completed his apprenticeship, Brunel returned to England, Brunels father, was the chief engineer, and the project was funded by the Thames Tunnel Company. The composition of the riverbed at Rotherhithe was often more than waterlogged sediment. The latter incident, in 1828, killed the two most senior miners, and Brunel himself narrowly escaped death and he was seriously injured, and spent six months recuperating
Heathrow Express is an airport rail link between London Heathrow Airport and Paddington. It opened in 1998 and is operated by the Heathrow Express Operating Company and it is an open access operator and not subject to franchising. Heathrow Express was planned as a joint venture between BAA and British Rail, but was taken over fully by the following the railways being privatised. The principal works were two 5-mile single-bore tunnels and underground stations at Heathrow Central and Terminal 4, electrification of the Great Western Main Line between Paddington and Airport Junction, where the new line diverged from the GWML, was required. A flying junction known as Stockley Flyover was constructed to connect the tunnel to the GWML fast lines, beginning in January 1998, an interim service called Heathrow FastTrain ran to a temporary station called Heathrow Junction, where a coach took passengers the rest of the way. The full service began on 23 June 1998, with four trains per hour running in each direction, in 2005, a service called Heathrow Connect was started, operating a twice-hourly stopping service along the route using Class 360 Desiro EMUs.
In 2008, Heathrow Express was diverted to serve the new Terminal 5 in lieu of Terminal 4, the company employs 435 staff, 90% of whom work on trains or stations, and 72 of whom are train drivers. Heathrow Airport Holdings have an agreement with Network Rail until 2023 for access paths on the GWML, trains depart Paddington every 15 minutes from 05.10 until 23.25, and there is a similar quarter-hourly service in the return direction. At Paddington they use dedicated platforms 6 and 7, although on other platforms are used. There are two stops at Heathrow, Heathrow Central, serving Terminals 1,2 and 3, until the opening of Terminal 5 on 27 March 2008, Heathrow Express terminated at Heathrow Terminal 4, this is now served by the Heathrow Express shuttle from Heathrow Central. The service uses Class 332 electric multiple units built by CAF/Siemens and these incorporate video monitors and the ability to use mobile phones throughout the journey, even in tunnels. The monitors are used for advertising and for news and weather updates produced by BBC World News.
Heathrow Express has been well received, not least because steps were taken to reduce the environmental impact. As of Summer 2013, all units have undergone a complete refurbishment inside and out including new seating configurations, luggage storage, Express Saver and Business First tickets are valid within 3 months of date of travel and return journey valid within 1 month of outbound journey. Standard class travel between Heathrow stations is free, there is a stopping service, Heathrow Connect, which takes the same route but using the slower relief lines, on which significantly lower fares are charged. This takes approximately 15 minutes longer than Heathrow Express, but offers connections to the London Underground Central, Airport workers can get a discount through the Airport Commuter scheme operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings. Performance for the first quarter of the 2013 financial year was 94. 0% PPM, the service runs along Network Rails Great Western Main Line from Paddington to Airport Junction.
The line from Airport Junction to the terminals is owned by Heathrow Airport Holdings
Crossrail is a 118-kilometre railway line under development in London and the home counties of Berkshire and Essex. The project was approved in 2007 and construction began in 2009 on the central section and it has been described as one of Europes largest infrastructure construction projects. Its main feature is 21 km of new twin tunnels through central London and these tunnels will run from Paddington to Stratford and Canary Wharf in the east. Crossrail will be operated by MTR Corporation Ltd as a London Rail concession of Transport for London, in a similar manner to London Overground. The need for extra capacity along this corridor is such that the head of TfL, Sir Peter Hendy. New nine-carriage Class 345 trains will run at frequencies in the section of up to 24 trains per hour in each direction. The project that became Crossrail has origins in the 1943 County of London Plan and 1944 Greater London Plan by Patrick Abercrombie and these led to a specialist investigation by the Railway Committee, appointed in 1944 and reporting in 1946 and 1948.
The term Crossrail emerged in the 1974 London Rail Study Report, although the idea was seen as imaginative, only a brief estimate of cost was given, £300 million. A feasibility study was recommended as a priority so that the practicability. It was suggested that the alignment of the tunnels should be safeguarded while a decision was taken. The Central London Rail Study of 1989 proposed tunnels linking the rail network as the East–West Crossrail, City Crossrail. The City route was shown as a new connection across the City of London linking the Great Northern Route with London Bridge, the report recommended a number of other schemes including a Thameslink Metro route enhancement, and the Chelsea–Hackney line. The cost of the east–west scheme including rolling stock was estimated at £885 million, in 1991 a private bill was submitted to Parliament for a scheme including a new underground line from Paddington to Liverpool Street. In 2001 Cross London Rail Links, a joint-venture between TfL and the DfT, was formed to develop and promote the Crossrail scheme, the proposal was rejected by Crossrail, and failed to receive the backing of the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, or the DfT.
In February 2008 the Bill moved to the House of Lords, the Act gave CLRL the powers necessary to build the line. Construction began on 15 May 2009 when construction started, in September 2009 the project received £1 billion in funding. The money was lent to TfL by the European Investment Bank, the original planned schedule was that the first trains would run in 2017, but in 2010 the government delayed this to 2018 in order to save £1 billion. Crossrails central core section will utilise new east–west twin tunnels under central London, the tunnelled sections will be approximately 22 kilometres in length
Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea
The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea is an inner London borough of Royal borough status, to the west of the centre. As the smallest borough in London and the second smallest district in England, the borough is immediately to the west of the City of Westminster and to the east of London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. It contains major museums and universities in Albertopolis, department stores such as Harrods, Peter Jones and Harvey Nichols and it is home to the Notting Hill Carnival, Europes largest. It contains many of the most expensive places in the world. The local authority is Kensington and Chelsea London Borough Council, the boroughs motto is Quam Bonum in Unum Habitare, which can be roughly translated as How good to dwell in unity. The borough was created in 1965 from the boroughs of Kensington. Kensingtons Royal Borough status was inherited by the new borough, the new borough was originally to be called just Kensington – the inclusion of Chelsea was locally supported. Due to its high French population it has held the unofficial title of the 21st arrondissement of Paris.
In 2005, the borough had more of its covered by domestic buildings than anywhere else in England at 19%. It had the fifth highest proportion of land covered by buildings at 12%. As of 2010, statistics released by the Office for National Statistics showed that life expectancy at birth for females was 89.8 years in 2008–2010, male life expectancy at birth for the same period was 85.1 years. The figures in 1991–1993 were significantly lower,73.0 years for males and 80.0 for females, the borough has a higher proportion of high earners than any other local government district in the country. It has the highest proportion of workers in the financial sector, in December 2006, Sport England published a survey which showed that the boroughs residents were the fourth most active in England in sports and other fitness activities. 27. 9% of the population participate at least three times a week for 30 minutes, the top quarter earn at least £41 per hour, three and a half times the level of the lowest quarter at £12 per hour or less.
Two of its more notable leaders were Nicholas Freeman, from 1977 until 1989. The Council has 42 Conservative,9 Labour and 3 Liberal Democrat councillors, the borough has combined a number of services and departments with its neighbours, Hammersmith & Fulham and Westminster City Council. Chelsea has less Underground access than Kensington, the station within Chelsea being Sloane Square. There are long-term plans for the Chelsea-Hackney line, with a station in the Kings Road near Chelsea Old Town Hall, buses Many London bus routes pass through the borough, most of them along Kings Road, Fulham Road, Kensington High Street and Ladbroke Grove
London Buses route 31
London Buses route 31 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between White City bus station and Camden Town, it is operated by Tower Transit, three months later, on 7 December 1911, it was further extended to Finchley Road station. From 31 October 1912, it was re-routed at Belsize Road to run to Gospel Oak via Eton Avenue, Englands Lane, this extension did not last long and in December 1912 route 31 was curtailed to run daily from Chelsea to South Hampstead. In 1988, Gold Arrow routes 28 and 31 were introduced, operated by CentreWest and these vehicles were quickly found to be too small, and were replaced with Dennis Darts three years later. On 29 May 1999, the route was withdrawn between Notting Hill Gate and Chelsea and replaced by new route 328, double-deck operation was reintroduced with low-floor Volvo B7TLs in 2004, there was no reduction in frequency. On 2 December 2006, the route was extended to Shepherds Bush Green in preparation for the extension of the congestion charge.
On 29 November 2008, the route was extended to White City bus station to coincide with the opening of Westfield London, although route 31 was extended in connection with the Western extension of the congestion charging zone, after the congestion charge was removed, the extension has remained. However, TfL has committed to a review of bus services, on 22 June 2013, route 31 was included in the sale of First Londons Atlas Road garage to Tower Transit. The film can be viewed online as part of the BBC Four Collection series of programmes made available on BBC iPlayer. Media related to London Buses route 31 at Wikimedia Commons Timetable