Hydropower or water power is power derived from the energy of falling water or fast running water, which may be harnessed for useful purposes. Since ancient times, hydropower from many kinds of watermills has been used as a renewable energy source for irrigation and the operation of various mechanical devices, such as gristmills, textile mills, trip hammers, dock cranes, domestic lifts, ore mills. A trompe, which produces compressed air from falling water, is sometimes used to power other machinery at a distance. In the late 19th century, hydropower became a source for generating electricity. Cragside in Northumberland was the first house powered by hydroelectricity in 1878 and the first commercial hydroelectric power plant was built at Niagara Falls in 1879. In 1881, street lamps in the city of Niagara Falls were powered by hydropower. Since the early 20th century, the term has been used exclusively in conjunction with the modern development of hydroelectric power. International institutions such as the World Bank view hydropower as a means for economic development without adding substantial amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, but dams can have significant negative social and environmental impacts.
In India, water wheels and watermills were built as early as the 4th century BC, although records of that era are spotty at best. In the Roman Empire, water-powered mills produced flour from grain, were used for sawing timber and stone. In China and the rest of the Far East, hydraulically operated "pot wheel" pumps raised water into crop or irrigation canals; the power of a wave of water released from a tank was used for extraction of metal ores in a method known as hushing. The method was first used at the Dolaucothi Gold Mines in Wales from 75 AD onwards, but had been developed in Spain at such mines as Las Médulas. Hushing was widely used in Britain in the Medieval and periods to extract lead and tin ores, it evolved into hydraulic mining when used during the California Gold Rush. In the Middle Ages, Islamic mechanical engineer Al-Jazari described designs for 50 devices, many of them water powered, in his book, The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, including clocks, a device to serve wine, five devices to lift water from rivers or pools, though three are animal-powered and one can be powered by animal or water.
These include an endless belt with jugs attached, a cow-powered shadoof, a reciprocating device with hinged valves. In 1753, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late nineteenth century, the electric generator was developed by a team led by project managers and prominent pioneers of renewable energy Jacob S. Gibbs and Brinsley Coleberd and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. Hydraulic power networks used pipes to carry pressurized water and transmit mechanical power from the source to end users; the power source was a head of water, which could be assisted by a pump. These were extensive in Victorian cities in the United Kingdom. A hydraulic power network was developed in Geneva, Switzerland; the world-famous Jet d'Eau was designed as the over-pressure relief valve for the network. At the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, water was the main source of power for new inventions such as Richard Arkwright's water frame.
Although the use of water power gave way to steam power in many of the larger mills and factories, it was still used during the 18th and 19th centuries for many smaller operations, such as driving the bellows in small blast furnaces and gristmills, such as those built at Saint Anthony Falls, which uses the 50-foot drop in the Mississippi River. In the 1830s, at the early peak in the US canal-building, hydropower provided the energy to transport barge traffic up and down steep hills using inclined plane railroads; as railroads overtook canals for transportation, canal systems were modified and developed into hydropower systems. Technological advances had moved the open water wheel into an enclosed water motor. In 1848 James B. Francis, while working as head engineer of Lowell's Locks and Canals company, improved on these designs to create a turbine with 90% efficiency, he applied scientific principles and testing methods to the problem of turbine design. His mathematical and graphical calculation methods allowed the confident design of high-efficiency turbines to match a site's specific flow conditions.
The Francis reaction turbine is still in wide use today. In the 1870s, deriving from uses in the California mining industry, Lester Allan Pelton developed the high efficiency Pelton wheel impulse turbine, which utilized hydropower from the high head streams characteristic of the mountainous California interior. A hydropower resource can be evaluated by its available power. Power is a function of volumetric flow rate; the head is the energy per unit weight of water. The static head is proportional to the difference in height. Dynamic head is related to the velocity of moving water; each unit of water can do an amount of work equal to its weight times the head. The power available from falling water can be calculated from the flow rate and density of water, the height of fall, the local acceleration due to gravity: W ˙ o u t =
A brick is building material used to make walls and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term brick referred to a unit composed of clay, but it is now used to denote any rectangular units laid in mortar. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil and lime, or concrete materials. Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types and sizes which vary with region and time period, are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are non-fired bricks. Block is a similar term referring to a rectangular building unit composed of similar materials, but is larger than a brick. Lightweight bricks are made from expanded clay aggregate. Fired bricks are one of the longest-lasting and strongest building materials, sometimes referred to as artificial stone, have been used since circa 4000 BC. Air-dried bricks known as mudbricks, have a history older than fired bricks, have an additional ingredient of a mechanical binder such as straw. Bricks are laid in courses and numerous patterns known as bonds, collectively known as brickwork, may be laid in various kinds of mortar to hold the bricks together to make a durable structure.
The earliest bricks were dried brick, meaning that they were formed from clay-bearing earth or mud and dried until they were strong enough for use. The oldest discovered bricks made from shaped mud and dating before 7500 BC, were found at Tell Aswad, in the upper Tigris region and in southeast Anatolia close to Diyarbakir; the South Asian inhabitants of Mehrgarh constructed, lived in, airdried mudbrick houses between 7000–3300 BC. Other more recent findings, dated between 7,000 and 6,395 BC, come from Jericho, Catal Hüyük, the ancient Egyptian fortress of Buhen, the ancient Indus Valley cities of Mohenjo-daro and Mehrgarh. Ceramic, or fired brick was used as early as 3000 BC in early Indus Valley cities like Kalibangan; the earliest fired bricks appeared in Neolithic China around 4400 BC at Chengtoushan, a walled settlement of the Daxi culture. These bricks were made of red clay, fired on all sides to above 600 °C, used as flooring for houses. By the Qujialing period, fired bricks were being used to pave roads and as building foundations at Chengtoushan.
Bricks continued to be used during 2nd millennium BC at a site near Xi'an. Fired bricks were found in Western Zhou ruins; the carpenter's manual Yingzao Fashi, published in 1103 at the time of the Song dynasty described the brick making process and glazing techniques in use. Using the 17th-century encyclopaedic text Tiangong Kaiwu, historian Timothy Brook outlined the brick production process of Ming Dynasty China: "...the kilnmaster had to make sure that the temperature inside the kiln stayed at a level that caused the clay to shimmer with the colour of molten gold or silver. He had to know when to quench the kiln with water so as to produce the surface glaze. To anonymous labourers fell the less skilled stages of brick production: mixing clay and water, driving oxen over the mixture to trample it into a thick paste, scooping the paste into standardised wooden frames, smoothing the surfaces with a wire-strung bow, removing them from the frames, printing the fronts and backs with stamps that indicated where the bricks came from and who made them, loading the kilns with fuel, stacking the bricks in the kiln, removing them to cool while the kilns were still hot, bundling them into pallets for transportation.
It was hot, filthy work." Early civilisations around the Mediterranean adopted the use of fired bricks, including the Ancient Greeks and Romans. The Roman legions operated mobile kilns, built large brick structures throughout the Roman Empire, stamping the bricks with the seal of the legion. During the Early Middle Ages the use of bricks in construction became popular in Northern Europe, after being introduced there from Northern-Western Italy. An independent style of brick architecture, known as brick Gothic flourished in places that lacked indigenous sources of rocks. Examples of this architectural style can be found in modern-day Denmark, Germany and Russia; this style evolved into Brick Renaissance as the stylistic changes associated with the Italian Renaissance spread to northern Europe, leading to the adoption of Renaissance elements into brick building. A clear distinction between the two styles only developed at the transition to Baroque architecture. In Lübeck, for example, Brick Renaissance is recognisable in buildings equipped with terracotta reliefs by the artist Statius von Düren, active at Schwerin and Wismar.
Long-distance bulk transport of bricks and other construction equipment remained prohibitively expensive until the development of modern transportation infrastructure, with the construction of canal and railways. Production of bricks increased massively with the onset of the Industrial Revolution and the rise in factory building in England. For reasons of speed and economy, bricks were preferred as building material to stone in areas where the stone was available, it was at this time in London that bright red brick was chosen for construction to make the buildings more visible in the heavy fog and to help prevent traffic accidents. The transition from the traditional method of production known as hand-moulding to a mechanised form of mass-production took place during the first half of the nineteenth century; the first successful brick-making machine was patented by Henry Clayton, employed at the
Cumberland County, Maine
Cumberland County is a county in the U. S. state of Maine. As of the 2010 census, the population was 281,674, its county seat is Portland. Cumberland County was founded in 1760 from a portion of York County and named for William, Duke of Cumberland, a son of King George II. Cumberland County has the deepest and second largest body of water in the state, Sebago Lake, which supplies tap water to most of the county; the county is the state's economic and industrial center, having the resources of the Port of Portland, the Maine Mall, having corporate headquarters of major companies such as Fairchild Semiconductor, IDEXX Laboratories, TD Bank. Cumberland County is part of the Portland -- ME Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,217 square miles, of which 835 square miles is land and 382 square miles is water. Androscoggin County – north Oxford County – northwest Sagadahoc County – northeast York County – southwest Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 census, there were 265,612 people, 107,989 households, 67,709 families residing in the county.
The population density was 318 people per square mile. There were 122,600 housing units at an average density of 147 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.74% White, 1.06% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 1.40% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races. 0.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 107,989 households out of which 30.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.10% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.30% were non-families. 28.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.95. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.30% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 23.60% from 45 to 64, 13.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years.
For every 100 females, there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,048, the median income for a family was $54,485. Males had a median income of $35,850 versus $27,935 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,949. About 5.20% of families and 7.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.10% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over. 19.6% were of English, 15.5% Irish, 9.6% French, 7.8% United States or American, 7.7% Italian, 6.3% French Canadian and 5.9% German ancestry according to Census 2000. Most of those claiming to be of "American" ancestry are of English descent, but have family, in the country for so long, in many cases since the early seventeenth century that they choose to identify as "American". 94.4% spoke English and 2.1% French as their first language. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 281,674 people, 117,339 households, 70,778 families residing in the county.
The population density was 337.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 138,657 housing units at an average density of 166.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.8% white, 2.4% black or African American, 2.0% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.6% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 22.7% were English, 21.1% were Irish, 9.0% were German, 8.4% were Italian, 6.0% were Scottish, 5.5% were French Canadian, 4.4% were American. Of the 117,339 households, 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.7% were non-families, 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age was 41.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $55,658 and the median income for a family was $71,335.
Males had a median income of $48,158 versus $38,539 for females. The per capita income for the county was $31,041. About 6.9% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.4% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over. Cumberland County is represented by county commissioners and the daily operations are run by a county manager; the county has several responsibilities, including running a Sheriff's department, the Cumberland County Jail, a county court system. Cumberland County has its own treasury department, emergency management agency and has a district attorney office; the county has a stake in the Cross Insurance Arena, as well as programs in local economic development and tourism. Cumberland County is divided into five districts of approximate equal population, each of which elects one county commissioner; the sheriff is elected countywide and runs the Cumberland County Sheriff's office and the Cumberland County Jail. In 2012, the county voted 65% to legalize same-sex marriage.
Portland South Portland Westbrook Bailey Island Higgins Beach North Bridgton Orr's Island Prouts Neck Sebago Lake South Casco South Freeport White Rock The fictional town of Jerusalem's Lot, featured in the vampire novel'Salem's Lot by Stephen King, is situated in Cumberland County. King makes passing reference to other nearby towns and cities, including Portland and Westbrook
Interstate 95 in Maine
Interstate 95 in the US state of Maine is a 303-mile-long highway running from the New Hampshire state line near Kittery, to the Canadian border near Houlton. It is the only two-digit Interstate Highway in Maine. In 2004, the highway's route between Portland and Gardiner was changed so that it encompasses the entire Maine Turnpike, which runs from Kittery to Augusta. I-95 enters Maine from New Hampshire on the Piscataqua River Bridge, which connects Portsmouth, New Hampshire with Kittery. At mile 2 in Kittery, the highway becomes the Maine Turnpike; the highway runs in a general northeasterly direction, parallel with U. S. Route 1, at this point. I-95 bypasses connecting to Old Orchard Beach. At Scarborough, I-95 meets the southern terminus of I-295; the highway turns north, serving the Portland International Jetport and bypassing Portland to the west. At Falmouth, the highway meets unsigned I-495 called the Falmouth Spur; until January 2004, I-95 followed the Falmouth Spur and I-295 between Gardiner.
The highway continues north along the Maine Turnpike through Gray to Auburn and Lewiston, which the turnpike bypasses to the south. The highway runs in an easterly direction to meet the northern terminus of I-295 at Gardiner. From there, I-95 parallels the Kennebec River past Waterville; the highway crosses the river at Fairfield and turns northeast along the Sebasticook River past Pittsfield to Newport. I-95 continues east alongside US 2 from Newport to Bangor, where I-395 connects to the city of Brewer; the highway runs along the northern edge of Bangor's center turns northeast, following the Penobscot River past Orono and Old Town. The highway continues north, still running near the river, towards Howland. Near Lincoln, I-95 runs north through uninhabited forest land, crossing the Penobscot River at Medway; the highway goes northeast and east, passing a series of small Aroostook County farming towns before reaching Houlton, where it connects to New Brunswick Route 95 and US 2 at the international border.
North of Bangor, traffic levels drop noticeably, with AADT averaging only about 5,000 in northern Penobscot County and going down to as low as 2,000–4,000 in Houlton. The Maine Turnpike Authority was created by the Maine Legislature in 1941 to build and operate a toll highway connecting Kittery and Fort Kent. In 1947, the first section of highway, designated the Maine Turnpike, opened between Kittery and Portland. In 1953, the Turnpike Authority began construction on an extension to the state capital at Augusta using the former right-of-way of the Portland–Lewiston Interurban railway from Portland through Falmouth; the original turnpike was the largest construction project in the state's history until the construction of the extension, which opened to the public on December 13, 1955. The Maine Turnpike was the first highway funded using revenue bonds, it does not receive funding from the state or federal government. When the first section opened in 1947, it was only the second long-distance superhighway in the United States following the October 1940 opening of the Pennsylvania Turnpike.
For these reasons, the Maine Turnpike was named a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Civil Engineers in 1999. In 1956, one year after the Portland-Augusta extension opened, Congress created the Interstate Highway System; the remaining sections to be built—from Augusta to Fort Kent—would be publicly funded freeways instead of toll roads under the Maine Turnpike Authority. Today this highway, which ends at Houlton instead of Fort Kent, is signed as Interstate 95 throughout and the Maine Turnpike between the New Hampshire line at Kittery and the junction with US 202 near Augusta; the Maine Turnpike had a posted speed limit of 70 mph in the early 1970s, but as Maine had no law against traveling less than 10 mph over the posted limit, the de facto speed limit was 79 mph. In 1974, as part of a federal mandate, the speed limit was reduced to 55 mph, with a new law including a "less than 10 over" violation. In 1987, Congress allowed states to post 65 mph on rural interstate highways.
Following the relaxation, Maine increased its speed limit. In May 2011, a bill was introduced to raise the speed limit on I-95 from Old Town to Houlton from 65 mph to 75 mph, it passed, with Maine the first state east of the Mississippi River since the 1970s to establish a 75 mph speed limit. A further law passed in 2013 by the Maine Legislature allowed the Maine Department of Transportation and the Turnpike Authority to change speed limits with the approval of the Maine State Police. Per that law, Maine DOT increased the 65 mph limit to 70 mph on several sections of Interstate 95 on May 27, 2014; these areas included the section from mile marker 114 just outside Augusta to mile 126 just before Waterville. In addition, the section from Fairfield to Bangor saw an increase to 70 mph. Speed limits on sections controlled by the Turnpike Authority increased on August 11, 2014; the sections from mile marker 2.1 in Kittery to mile marker 44.1 in Scarborough and the section from mile marker 52.3 in Falmouth to mile marker 109 in Augusta increased from 65 mph to 70 mph.
The section from mile marker 44.1 in Scarborough to mile marker 52.3 in Falmouth increased from 55 mph to 60 mph. The Maine Turnpike is a toll road for all of its length except south of York and between Auburn and
Lumber or timber is a type of wood, processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber is used for structural purposes but has many other uses as well. There are two main types of lumber, it may be surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and other items requiring additional cutting and shaping, it is available in many species hardwoods. Finished lumber is supplied in standard sizes for the construction industry – softwood, from coniferous species, including pine and spruce, hemlock, but some hardwood, for high-grade flooring, it is more made from softwood than hardwoods, 80% of lumber comes from softwood. In the United States milled boards of wood are referred to as lumber. However, in Britain and other Commonwealth nations, the term timber is instead used to describe sawn wood products, like floor boards. In the United States and Canada timber describes standing or felled trees. In Canada, lumber describes cut and surfaced wood.
In the United Kingdom, the word lumber is used in relation to wood and has several other meanings, including unused or unwanted items. Referring to wood, Timber is universally used instead. Remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of milled lumber, it is lumber cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not processed by a primary sawmill. Resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing. Structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock, its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength and fire resistance. Plastic fiberglass structural lumber can have a "class 1 flame spread rating of 25 or less, when tested in accordance with ASTM standard E 84," which means it burns slower than all treated wood lumber.
Logs are converted into timber by being hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with irregular grain and large knots, to be used and is more economical. There are various types of sawing: Plain sawn – A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log and the grain runs across the width of the boards. Quarter sawn and rift sawn – These terms have been confused in history but mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber. Boxed heart – The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure. Heart center – the center core of a log. Free of heart center – A side-cut timber without any pith. Free of knots – No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber, cut to standardized width and depth, specified in inches. Carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, 4×4; the length of a board is specified separately from the width and depth.
It is thus possible to find 2×4s that are four and twelve feet in length. In Canada and the United States, the standard lengths of lumber are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 feet. For wall framing, "stud" or "precut" sizes are available, are used. For an eight-, nine-, or ten-foot ceiling height, studs are available in 92 5⁄8 inches, 104 5⁄8 inches, 116 5⁄8 inches; the term "stud" is used inconsistently to specify length. Under the prescription of the Method of Construction issued by the Southern Song government in the early 12th century, timbers were standardized to eight cross-sectional dimensions. Regardless of the actual dimensions of the timber, the ratio between width and height was maintained at 1:1.5. Units are in Song Dynasty inches. Timber smaller than the 8th class were called "unclassed"; the width of a timber is referred to as one "timber", the dimensions of other structural components were quoted in multiples of "timber". The dimensions of timbers in similar application show a gradual diminution from the Sui Dyansty to the modern era.
The length of a unit of dimensional lumber is limited by the height and girth of the tree it is milled from. In general the maximum length is 24 ft. Engineered wood products, manufactured by binding the strands, fibers, or veneers of wood, together with adhesives, to form composite materials, offer more flexibility and greater structural strength than typical wood building materials. Pre-cut studs save a framer much time, because they are pre-cut by the manufacturer for use in 8-, 9-
Harrison is a town in Cumberland County, United States. The population was 2,730 at the 2010 census. A historic resort area, Harrison straddles Long Lake and Crystal Lake, it is Maine metropolitan statistical area. The Massachusetts General Court granted Otis Field Plantation in 1771 to James Otis and other heirs of Captain John Gorham and his company for their service in the 1690 Battle of Quebec, it replaced a 1736 grant, ruled invalid. In 1797, the plantation was incorporated as Otisfield. On March 8, 1805, Harrison was incorporated from portions of Otisfield and Bridgton, it was named after Harrison Gray Otis of Boston, the heir of James Otis. In the autumn of 1792, two brothers from Gorham and Nathan Carsley, built a camp and cleared land in Harrison. During the winter they returned to Gorham; because John Carsley and his wife remained in Harrison when Nathan Carsley and his wife resumed living in Gorham until 1796, he is considered the town's first permanent settler. More pioneers arrived; the outlet of Crystal Lake into Long Lake provided water power for industry, James Sampson erected at Harrison village the first sawmill and gristmill.
Over the years other industries followed, including a wire-making business, shingle mill, harness-maker, carriage maker, clothing maker and shoe shop. Scribner's Mill was built in 1847 on the Crooked River. On the Bear River, in 1867 the Harrison Water Power Company established the Bear River Woolen Mill, destroyed by fire in 1872. In 1832, the Cumberland and Oxford Canal opened. A series of 27 locks lifted vessels from sea level at Casco Bay to Sebago Lake, 270 feet above sea level. From there they traveled up the Songo River to Brandy Pond continued along the Chute River to Long Lake; as the company name indicates, the canal was planned to reach Oxford County, but instead terminated at Harrison. The town became a center for transportation, with wharves and warehouses lining the shore. In 1847, the Sebago & Long Pond Steam Navigation Company built Fawn, the first steamboat to ply the lakes and waterways, it had a shallow draft to navigate the winding Songo River, with passengers asked to shift sides as ballast to keep both paddlewheels in the water around sharp curves.
The lakes became a popular summer tourist destination, with The Elm House opening in 1860. When the Portland and Ogdensburg Railroad commenced service to Sebago Lake Station in 1870, the canal was abandoned as obsolete. Beginning in 1898, the Bridgton and Saco River Railroad, a narrow gauge line, delivered freight and passengers directly to Harrison. In 1906, the Harrison Hotel opened. Camp Kineo operated beside Long Lake as a camp for boys. Today, Harrison remains a recreational area. Harrison is home to Fernwood Cove, a half-season summer camp for girls on the same spot as Camp Chickawah was, it is located on Island Pond. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 36.81 square miles, of which, 33.19 square miles of it is land and 3.62 square miles is water. Harrison is drained by the Bear Crooked River; the Maine state routes that cross through Harrison are 117 and 35. Harrison is bordered by the town of Bridgton to its west and Norway to its north, Otisfield to its east, Naples to its south.
Crystal Lake is north of Long Lake, overflows into Long Lake through downtown Harrison. Smallmouth bass thrive with a few lake trout; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,730 people, 1,113 households, 779 families residing in the town. The population density was 82.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,761 housing units at an average density of 53.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.4% White, 0.3% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population. There were 1,113 households of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 30.0% were non-families. 23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.84.
The median age in the town was 45.3 years. 21.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.3% male and 48.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,315 people, 920 households, 662 families residing in the town; the population density was 70.1 people per square mile. There were 1,430 housing units at an average density of 43.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.79% White, 0.52% African American, 0.04% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.52% of the population. There were 920 households out of which 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.1% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.0% were non-families. 22.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.90. I
Sebago Lake is the deepest and second-largest lake in the U. S. state of Maine. The lake is 316 feet deep at its deepest point, with a mean depth of 101 feet, covers about 45 square miles in surface area, has a length of 14 miles and has a shoreline length of 105 miles; the surface is around 270 feet above sea level, so the deep bottom is below the present sea level. It is in Cumberland County, bordered by the towns of Casco, Raymond, Sebago and Windham; the seasonally occupied town of Frye Island is on an island in the lake. Sebago Lake is known for its erratic and sudden changes in weather due to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and to Mt. Washington, a notorious extreme weather hotspot; the lake is connected to Brandy Pond by the Songo River and to Long Lake in Naples. The name comes from a local Native American tribe; the lake is drained by the Presumpscot River. The lake and rivers were an early transportation corridor from the coast to the interior, encouraged the first incorporated European settlement of interior Maine in 1762.
Sebago Lake was linked to Portland harbor by the Cumberland and Oxford Canal in 1832. The outlet to the Presumpscot River was controlled for the canal by the Eel Weir Dam and the Head Dam and operated by the Oriental Powder Company after the canal was replaced by a railroad and by the S. D. Warren Paper Mill after 1878; the lake was a comparatively safe place for training military pilots from NAS Brunswick about flying over water. A Grumman TBF Avenger from the Lewiston Naval Auxiliary Air Facility ditched and sank near Raymond on 16 August 1943. Two low-flying British Vought Corsairs from Brunswick were lost after a mid-air collision over the lake near Raymond on 16 May 1944. In December 2014 the first Sebago Lake beach landing in the history of the world was made by a yellow Supercub. Sebago Lake is the primary water supply for the Portland Water District, which serves the Greater Portland region and about 20% of Maine's population; the lake's watershed covers parts of 24 Maine towns. The lake holds 995 billion US gallons of water that on average resides 5.1 to 5.4 years in the lake.
The direct watershed is about 171 square miles of land plus the 45 square miles of the lake, the indirect watershed about 190 square miles of land plus about 28 square miles of other bodies of water. As of May 1990 86% of the watershed was forests and fallow fields, 2.5% in active timber operations, 9.3% in residential and commercial use, 2.2% used for other purposes. Water inflow is estimated at 544 million US gallons per day and outflow at 498 million US gallons per day, of which 24 million US gallons /day are for the water district. In 1938, Maine opened Sebago Lake State Park as one of its original five state parks; the area was a recreation center before this. The park is now 1,400 acres, open year-round, has facilities including two public boat launches and a 250-site campground. There are numerous private campgrounds and other recreational facilities in the area. Sebago Lake hosts a sailing instruction and charter service and is located in what the Maine tourism industry refers to as the Western Lakes and Mountains Region.
Efforts are underway to complete the Sebago to the Sea Trail, a trail running 28 miles from Sebago Lake to Casco Bay following the path of the Presumpscot River. The lake is the point of origin of the land-locked salmon, stated in the species's scientific name. At one point, the entire watershed was under seawater, the first populations of these marine animals became established as the land rose and seawaters retreated. Other game fish that can be found in the lake include lake trout, brook trout, brown trout, largemouth bass, northern pike; some of these are stocked by the state, either in the lake directly or in connected bodies of water, while others were introduced illegally. The state encourages anglers to kill and notify them of all northern pike taken in the lake because they were introduced illegally, are not native to the region, could disrupt the lake ecosystem, including that of Sebago Lake's original fish species, such as the Landlocked Salmon. Center Day Camp, a day camp run by the Jewish Community Alliance of Southern Maine, is located on the shores of Sebago Lake.
Camp O-At-Ka, founded in 1906, is located along a half mile of waterfront in the northwest corner of Sebago Lake. Camp Sebago, a camp run by The Salvation Army is located on the south western corner of Sebago Lake. Portland Water District – Sebago Lake Vacation Rentals Manila – Vacation Rentals Manila