|OS grid reference|
|• London||73.5 miles (118.3 km)|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|EU Parliament||South East England|
|Website||Sparsholt and Westcot|
The Oxfordshire Fire and Rescue Service is the fire service serving the county of Oxfordshire, England. It is known as an on-call fire service with whole-time support. Fire and Rescue Service Headquarters is in Kidlington, Oxfordshire; this is the location of the fire service control room and workshops. Oxfordshires control room is now based at Reading, known as Thames valley fire control centre, in partnership with Royal Berkshire and Buckingham / Milton keynes fire and rescue services. Kidlington's control room now acts as a backup/secondary control; the current chief fire officer is Simon Furlong. The Oxfordshire Fire and Rescue Service operates out of 25 fire stations, All with On-call firefighters, 3x with Wholetime 24hr cover 4x day crewed located across Oxfordshire. 1x Body recovery unit working on behalf of the coroners office. List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Official Website Fire Station List
Wantage is a historic market town and civil parish in the ceremonial county of Oxfordshire, England. Part of Berkshire, it has been administered as part of the Vale of White Horse district of Oxfordshire since 1974; the town is on Letcombe Brook, about 8 miles south-west of Abingdon, 24 miles north-west of Reading, 15 miles south-west of Oxford and 14 miles north north-west of Newbury. It is notable as the birthplace of King Alfred the Great in 849. Wantage was a small Roman settlement but the origin of the toponym is somewhat uncertain, it is thought to be from an Old English phrase meaning "decreasing river". King Alfred the Great was born at the royal palace there in the 9th century. Wantage appears in the Domesday Book of 1086, its value was £61 and it was in the king's ownership until Richard I passed it to the Earl of Albemarle in 1190. Weekly trading rights were first granted to the town by Henry III in 1246 Markets are now held twice weekly on Wednesdays and Saturdays. Royalist troops were stationed in Wantage during the English Civil War.
In the 19th century, Lord Wantage became a notable national benefactor. He was involved in founding the British Red Cross Society. In 1877 he paid for a marble statue of King Alfred by Count Gleichen to be erected in Wantage market place, where it still stands today, he donated the Victoria Cross Gallery to the town. This contained paintings by Louis William Desanges depicting deeds which led to the award of a number of VCs, including his own gained during the Crimean War, it is now a shopping arcade. Since 1848, Wantage has been home to the Community of Saint Mary the Virgin, one of the largest communities of Anglican nuns in the world. Wantage once had two breweries. In 1988 the town was thrust into the headlines after a Brass Tacks programme entitled "Shire Wars" exposed the drunken violence that plagued the town and surrounding villages at that time. Wantage has a town council consisting of 16 councillors, 11 of whom are Conservatives with the remaining five councillors being made up of four Liberal Democrats and one Labour councillor.
It is part of the district of the Vale of White Horse. Until 1974, Wantage had two local government councils: Wantage Rural District, which had its headquarters in Belmont and Wantage Urban District, which had its headquarters in Portway; these bodies were both abolished as part of the Local Government Act 1972 and became part of the Vale of White Horse District Council. The Wantage constituency is represented by Conservative MP Ed Vaizey. Vaizey was first elected in the 2005 general election and was re-elected again in 2010 and 2015; the nearby towns of Didcot and Wallingford are part of the Wantage constituency. At the time of the 2010 general election, the Wantage constituency had a total electorate of 80,456. Wantage is at the foot of the Berkshire Downs escarpment in the Vale of the White Horse. There are gallops at Black Bushes and nearby villages with racing stables at East Hendred, Letcombe Bassett and Uffington. Wantage includes the suburbs of Belmont to Charlton to the east. Grove is a separate parish.
Wantage parish stretches from the northern edge of its housing up onto the Downs in the south, covering Chain Hill, Edge Hill, Wantage Down, Furzewick Down and Lattin Down. The Edgehill Springs rise between Manor Road and Spike Lodge Farms and the Letcombe Brook flows through the town. Wantage is home to the Downland Museum. There is a large market square containing a statue of King Alfred, surrounded by shops some with 18th-century facades. Quieter streets radiate including one towards the large Church of England parish church. Wantage is the "Alfredston" of Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure. Wantage is at the crossing of the B4507 valley road, the A417 road between Reading and Cirencester and the A338 road between Hungerford and Oxford. Bus services link Wantage with Oxford and other nearby towns and villages including Abingdon, Didcot and Grove. Stagecoach in Oxfordshire provide the main services between Wantage and Oxford with up to three buses per hour Monday to Saturday and up to two buses per hour on Sundays and bank holidays, operated under Stagecoach's luxury Stagecoach Gold brand.
Route S8 links Wantage with Grove, East Hanney, Marcham and Oxford, along with a late-night service on Friday and Saturday evenings with buses running to Oxford until 2am and buses from Oxford to Wantage until 3am. Route S9 provides a more direct service between Wantage and Oxford. There are up to two buses per hour between Wantage and Didcot via Harwell Campus which are operated by Thames Travel. Thames Travel operate the Faringdon to Wantage service which runs up to every 60 minutes, a local service to Grove. Wantage does not have a railway station; the Great Western Mainline is just north of Grove where the former Wantage Road railway station used to be. It was closed during the Beeching cuts in 1964; the Wantage Tramway used to link Wantage with Wantage Road station. The tramway's Wantage terminus was in Mill Street and its building survives, but little trace remains of the route. One of the tramway's locomotives, alias Jane, is preserved at Didcot Railway Centre. Oxfordshire County Council have ambitions to re-open the former Wantage Road railway station and has stated that the station is a priority in their Connecting Oxfordshire plans.
It is hoped that the station could be served by a direct service between Bristol. The
Sparsholt is a village and civil parish about 3 miles west of Wantage in the Vale of White Horse district of Oxfordshire. The parish includes the hamlet of Westcot about 1⁄2 mile west of the village. Sparsholt was part of Berkshire until the 1974 boundary changes transferred the Vale of White Horse to Oxfordshire. Sparsholt village is a spring line settlement at the foot of the Berkshire Downs escarpment; the parish measures more than 5 miles miles north – south but less than 1 mile east – west. It is bounded to the north by a tributary of the River Ock. On other sides it is bounded by field boundaries. In 1924 the parish's area was 5,311 acres; the highest point in the parish is Sparsholt Down, a chalk hill 1 1⁄2 miles south of the village, whose summit is 801 feet above sea level. The earliest known record of the toponym is as Speresholte or Speresholt in an Anglo-Saxon charter from AD 963 now reproduced in the Cartularium Saxonicum; the Domesday Book of 1086 records it as Spersolt and a pipe roll from 1156 records it as Speresholt.
It is derived from Old English and means "wood where spear-shafts were obtained". The Domesday Book records, it was a royal manor from the Norman conquest of England until the reign of KingHenry I, who granted it with the manor of Aldermaston to Robert Achard for one knight's fee. Sparsholt remained with Aldermaston until 1622, when Sir Humphrey Forster sold it to Elizabeth, Lady Craven, she left it to her son William Craven, 1st Earl of Craven, who in 1660 conveyed it to his cousin Anthony Craven, made a baronet in 1661. It passed to Anthony Craven's descendants in the Palmer and Gabbit families until 1807, when it was sold to a Rev. John Hippisley; the Hippisley family still held the manor in 1924. The oldest part of the Church of England parish church of Holy Cross is the nave, built in the 12th century; the church has a 13th-century west tower, 13th-century arches leading to the chancel and south transept. In the 14th century the chancel and transept were rebuilt and several new windows were inserted.
The chancel was given a Decorated Gothic piscina and triple sedilia with ornate cusped arches. A pair of tomb recesses in a similar style was installed, one on the south side of the chancel beside the sedilia and the other on the north side. In the transept are three rare 14th-century oak effigies, two of them under canopies like those in the chancel; some 13th- and 14th-century stained glass survives in the church. Late in the 15th century a vestry was added on the north side of the chancel, more windows were inserted in the nave and the nave roof was replaced. On the north wall in the nave is a large Renaissance monument with strapwork flanked by Doric columns, it commemorates John Playdell who died in 1591 and his wife Bridget who died in 1623. In the south transept is a smaller Renaissance monument with strapwork flanked by Ionic columns, it commemorates Sir George Hyde KG of Kingston Lisle who died in 1623. The chancel has a 17th-century collar truss roof; the north porch is late 18th-century, as is the transept roof.
In the 19th century a Gothic Revival traceried. The church is a grade; the west tower has a ring of four bells. Joseph Carter of Reading cast the treble and third bells in 1578 and the tenor bell in 1603. Mears and Stainbank of the Whitechapel Bell Foundry cast or re-cast the second bell in 1914. Holy Cross parish is part of the Ridgeway Benefice, along with the parishes of Childrey, Kingston Lisle, Letcombe Bassett, Letcombe Regis and West Challow. Between 1805 and 1807 the section of the Wilts & Berks Canal between Longcot and Challow was completed, it passes through the parish less than 3⁄4 mile north of the village. Traffic on the canal had ceased by 1901 and the route was formally abandoned in 1914; the Wilts & Berks Canal Trust is restoring the canal. Sparsholt has the Star Inn. Dalby, LJ; the Wilts and Berks Canal. Usk: Oakwood Press. P. 23. ISBN 0-85361-562-4. Ditchfield, PH. A History of the County of Berkshire. Victoria County History. IV. assisted by John Hautenville Cope. London: The St Katherine Press.
Pp. 311–319. Ekwall, Eilert. Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-Names. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Sparsholt. ISBN 0198691033. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Berkshire; the Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 223–224. Sparsholt & Westcot, Oxfordshire Haval, Nikhilesh. "Holy Cross, Sparsholt". Oxfordshire in 360 degrees. Nikreations
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust is the ambulance service for the counties of Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Hampshire. It is a foundation trust of the National Health Service, one of 10 NHS ambulance trusts in England; as an ambulance service, SCAS responds to emergency 999 calls, in addition to calls from the NHS non-emergency number. These services are provided in an area that covers the counties of Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire and Hampshire; the exceptions are North East Hampshire, served by South East Coast Ambulance Service and the Shrivenham area of Oxfordshire, served by South Western Ambulance Service. The service provides an emergency transport service for patients in life-threatening condition and a Non-Emergency Patient Transport Service; the NEPTS transports patients unable to use public transport due to their medical conditions, patients using outpatient clinics and patients being admitted or discharged from hospital. The Trust has a commercial division, which provides first aid training to members of the public, a community equipment service and logistic services.
Since 2017, SCAS has run the NEPTS in Sussex and Surrey, within the South East Coast ambulance area. It has a resilience and specialist operations department which plans for major or hazardous incidents; this includes a Hazardous Area Response Team, which responds to emergencies involving chemical, radiological or nuclear materials, as well as major incidents. The Trust trains and supports volunteer community first responders, it is the only NHS ambulance organisation in the UK to be supported by its own League of Friends, a registered charity. The South Central Ambulance League of Friends raises funds that are used to enhance the standard of care for patients, provide additional benefits for service personnel, encourage the acquisition of essential life-support skills among the public, support the deployment of volunteer community first responders; this group had been founded in 1982 to raise funds for the former Oxfordshire Ambulance NHS Trust. South Central Ambulance Service NHS Trust was formed on 1 July 2006, following the merger of the Royal Berkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, the Hampshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust, the Oxfordshire Ambulance NHS Trust, part of the Two Shires Ambulance NHS Trust.
The Trust achieved Foundation status on 1 March 2012, becoming known as South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust. In June 2011 it was named England's top performing ambulance service, managing to respond to 77.5% of Cat A calls within the 8 minute target time, compared to the national average of 74.9%. In October 2011 the BBC discovered that SCAS spent more on private ambulance services to cover 999 calls than any other service in the country. On 1 March 2012, the Trust became an NHS Foundation Trust. In October 2013 the Trust accidentally published on its website a document listing the age and religion of all its 2,826 staff members. SCAS took over patient transport services in Hampshire in October 2014. In 2014 the trust held a recruitment drive in Poland to help fill vacancies. On 1 November 2016, it was announced that the trust would take over the running of NEPTS in the south-east of England from April 2017; the service had been run by South East Coast Ambulance Service until 1 April 2016, when it had been taken over by Coperforma, a private-sector provider, unable to provide a satisfactory level of service.
In 2015 the trust established a subsidiary company, South Central Fleet Services Ltd, to which 41 estates and facilities staff were transferred. The intention was to achieve VAT benefits, as well as pay bill savings, by recruiting new staff on less expensive non-NHS contracts. VAT benefits arise because NHS trusts can only claim VAT back on a small subset of goods and services they buy; the Value Added Tax Act 1994 provides a mechanism through which NHS trusts can qualify for refunds on contracted out services. Performance of SCAS is provided by national NHS England Ambulance Quality Indicators. In February 2016: The Trust managed to respond to 70% of Red 1 calls within 8 minutes 68% of Red 2 calls were responded to within 8 minutes 93% of Red 19 calls were responded to within 19 minutes Cardiac arrest survival rates were 16% 53% of stroke patients arrived at a thrombolysis centre within 60 minutes of their calls The average time to answer 999 calls was 43 seconds There were 21,024 incidents requiring patients being taken to an A&E department 42% of 999 patients were treated by paramedic crews only.
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom NHS ambulance services prior to 2006 Hampshire & Isle of Wight Air Ambulance South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Central Ambulance League of Friends
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Thames Valley Police known as Thames Valley Constabulary, is the territorial police force responsible for policing the Thames Valley area covered by the counties of Berkshire and Oxfordshire. It is one of the largest territorial police forces in England covering 2,200 square miles and a population of over 2.1 million people. The police force consists of 4,244 constables, 506 special constables, 466 Police Community Support Officers and 2,576 police staff. Policing in Thames Valley dates back to 1773 when Newbury Borough Police were operating as a small police force; the force was one of around twenty borough forces. These were Buckinghamshire Constabulary, Oxfordshire Constabulary, Berkshire Constabulary, Reading Borough Police and Oxford City Police founded in 1857, 1857, 1856, 1836 and 1868 respectively. Under the Police Act 1964 these five forces were amalgamated on 1 April 1968 to form Thames Valley Constabulary. Thomas Charles Birkett Hodgson, David Holdsworth Peter Imbert Colin Smith Sir Charles Pollard Peter Neyroud Sara Thornton Francis Habgood John Campbell Thames Valley Police is overseen by a locally elected Thames Valley Police and Crime Commissioner.
The incumbent commissioner is Anthony Stansfeld, a Conservative Party candidate elected with 34.7% of the votes in the first round of voting and 57.2% of the votes after the second round. The police and crime commissioner is scrutinised by the Thames Valley Crime Panel. Thames Valley was overseen by a police authority consisting of 19 members, made up of councillors, members from unitary authorities, independents and a magistrate. In April 2011, the force adopted a Local Policing Model; as a result, the force is now split into each led by a superintendent. These consist of two local authority areas; these are in turn split into a number of neighbourhoods which are based off ward and parish boundaries. This alignment is to ensure. Aylesbury Bracknell and Wokingham* Cherwell and West Oxfordshire Chiltern and South Bucks Milton Keynes Oxford Reading South Oxfordshire and Vale of White Horse Slough West Berkshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wycombe Each area is responsible for delivering response policing, neighborhood policing teams and a local priority crime and Criminal Investigation Department.
Other functions that used to be held at Basic Command Unit level are now delivered at Force Headquarters level using a shared service approach. A number of teams are run from Force Headquarters with their staff deployed at various locations around the Force area: Major Investigation Team Control and Communications Police Dog Section Counter Terrorism Squad Intelligence Agency Thames Valley Police has a local policing team working from every police station; these teams consist of officers, community support, special constables and police staff who work to patrol and attend local incidents. They use marked vans which read neighbourhood policing on the side rear panel under the Thames Valley Police corporate logo; these officers will be unarmed and carry taser weapons. The neighbourhood police vans double up as prisoner transport vans. However, most LPA police vehicles are available to this unit. LPA Response units work out of most major stations in the force area and are tasked with patrolling and responding to 999 calls.
These officers are constables issued with Taser weapons. These officers may be tasked to patrol high crime areas for an increased police presence or to conduct follow up investigations. Both the Neighbourhood Policing Group and Incident Response Unit units all share the LPA standard Vauxhall Astra police car; some rural police offices make use of Mitsubishi L200's as a more effective vehicle. Thames Valley Police have 52 operational police dogs; the dogs are donated from the RSPCA or public, are trained at the force headquarters. They serve until they are 8 years old, receiving refresher training every year, living with their handler after retirement, they are part of the Joint Operations Unit with Hampshire Police. The dog section operates with marked and unmarked Mitsubishi Outlanders as well as Ford Mondeo estates. Thames Valley Police patrols 196 miles of motorways including the M1, M4, M40, A329, A404 and M25, as well as many other'A' route roads including the busy A43; the Unit Mainly uses Marked Volvo V70s and New BMW 530d touring's, Unmarked BMW 330ds and Volvo V80's along with some Marked BMW X5s and Mitsubishi Shoguns.
These units are based at 6 geographical traffic bases. Roads Policing in Thames Valley is part of the Joint Operations Unit which works together with Hampshire Constabulary's Roads Policing Unit. Thames Valley Police's Armed Response Unit is a 24/7 unit that responds to major and serious crimes where firearms may be involved; this unit is shared with Hampshire Police as part of the Joint Operations Unit. The training facility is at Sulhamstead with a state of the art firearms range; the unit uses the traffic bases within the force basing themselves out of Three Mile Cross, Milton Keynes, Bicester. This unit can be identified by the red asterisk on the marked patrol cars they use, which includes the Volvo XC70 and BMW X5; the unit use