Holmside Hall Wind Farm
Holmside Hall Wind Farm is a wind farm near Stanley, County Durham, England. Owned and operated by E. ON UK, the farm has a nameplate capacity of 5.5MW, containing two NM80 turbines each rated at 2.75 MW. At the time of construction, delayed due to high winds, the turbines were the largest and most powerful in the UK
Electricity sector in Germany
Germany's electrical grid is part of the Synchronous grid of Continental Europe. In 2018, Germany produced 540 TWh of electricity of which 40% was from renewable energy sources, 38% from coal, 8% from natural gas. While nuclear power production decreased only from 2013 to 2014, electricity generated from brown coal, hard coal, gas-fired power plants decreased by 3%, 9.5%, 13.8%, respectively. Germany will phase-out nuclear power by 2022. German prices in 2017 were €29.16 cents per kwh for residential customers, an increase of 35% over 2008. German households and small businesses pay the second highest electricity price in Europe for many years in a row now. More than half of the power price consists of components determined by the state; these include charges for using power grids, levies for financing investment in renewable energy and for other kinds of taxes. Germany, the largest exporter of electricity with 10% of the overall exports, reinforced its position as a net exporter by 20% during the year 2010 Germany has grid interconnections with neighboring countries representing 10% of domestic capacity.
Germany produced power per person in 77 % of the OECD average. On 8 May 2016 renewables supplied 87.6% of Germany's national electricity consumption, albeit under favourable weather conditions. According to the IEA the gross production of electricity was 631 TWh in 2008 which gave the seventh position among the world top producers in 2010; the top seven countries produced 59% of electricity in 2008. The top producers were the United States, Japan, India and Germany. In 2015, Germany generated electricity from the following sources: 24.0% Lignite 18.2% Hard coal 14.1% Nuclear 12.0% Onshore wind 8.8% Natural gas 6.8% Biomass 5.9% Solar 3.0% Hydro 1.3% Offshore wind 0.9% Waste 0.8% Oil 4.0% Other In 2008, power generation from coal contributed 291 TWh or 46% to the overall production of 631 TWh. Germany remains one of the world's largest power producer from coal besides USA and India. Germany has defined a firm active phase-out policy of nuclear power. Eight nuclear power plants were permanently shut down after the Fukushima accident.
All nuclear power plants are to be phased out by the end of 2022. According to BMU this is an opportunity for future generations. Siemens is the only significant nuclear constructor in Germany and the nuclear share was 3% of their business in 2000. In 2006 the large international bribes of Siemens in the energy and telecommunication business were revealed; the case was investigated, for example, in Nigeria, the United States and South Korea. The installed nuclear power capacity in Germany was 20 GW in 2008 and 21 GW in 2004; the production of nuclear power was 148 TWh in 2008 and 167 TWh in 2004. In 2009 compared to 2004 the nuclear power was produced 19% less and its share had declined smoothly over time from 27% units to 23% units; the share of renewable electricity increased. Germany has been called "the world's first major renewable energy economy". Renewable energy in Germany is based on wind and biomass. Germany had the world's largest photovoltaic installed capacity until 2014, as of 2016, it is third with 40 GW.
It is the world's third country by installed wind power capacity, at 50 GW, second for offshore wind, with over 4 GW. Chancellor Angela Merkel, along with a vast majority of her compatriots, believes, "As the first big industrialized nation, we can achieve such a transformation toward efficient and renewable energies, with all the opportunities that brings for exports, developing new technologies and jobs"; the share of renewable electricity rose from just 3.4% of gross electricity consumption in 1990 to exceed 10% by 2005, 20% by 2011 and 30% by 2015, reaching 36.2% of consumption by year end 2017. As with most countries, the transition to renewable energy in the transport and heating and cooling sectors has been slower. More than 23,000 wind turbines and 1.4 million solar PV systems are distributed all over the country. According to official figures, around 370,000 people were employed in the renewable energy sector in 2010 in small and medium-sized companies; this is an increase of around 8% compared to 2009, well over twice the number of jobs in 2004.
About two-thirds of these jobs are attributed to the Renewable Energy Sources Act. Germany's federal government is working to increase renewable energy commercialization, with a particular focus on offshore wind farms. A major challenge is the development of sufficient network capacities for transmitting the power generated in the North Sea to the large industrial consumers in southern parts of the country. Germany's energy transition, the Energiewende, designates a significant change in energy policy from 2011; the term encompasses a reorientation of policy from demand to supply and a shift from centralized to distributed generation, which should replace overproduction and avoidable energy consumption with energy-saving measures and increased efficiency. Grid owners included, in 2008, RWE, EnBW, Vattenfall and E. ON. According to the European Commission the electricity producers should not own the electricity grid to ensure open competition; the European Commission accused E. ON of the misuse of markets in February 2008.
E. ON sold its share of the network; as of July 2016 the four German TSOs are: 50Hertz Transmission GmbH (owned by Elia, fo
Great Eppleton Wind Farm
Great Eppleton Wind Farm is a wind farm near Hetton-le-Hole, England. It is owned and operated by E. ON UK. Constructed in 1997, it was notable for consisting of twin-bladed turbines, as most wind turbines have three blades. On 29 September 2009 E. ON announced it would replace these with four new REpower MM92 turbines giving a nameplate capacity of 8.2 MW. E. ON UK - Great Eppleton Wind Farm
Herten is a town and a municipality in the district of Recklinghausen, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated in some 5 km west of Recklinghausen. Herten was the seat of the governors of the County of Vest Recklinghausen, an autonomous state within the Archbishopric of Cologne, its best known sights are the moated red brick castle of Schloss Herten, dating back to the 14th century, the "altes Dorf Westerholt" with its many historic half-timbered houses. Herten covers an area of 37.31 km2, with a maximum north-south extent of 9.5 km, a maximum east-west extent of 6.5 km. The municipality's highest natural point is in Scherlebeck, close to the border with Recklinghausen, with an altitude of 110 m. Herten is divided into the following urban districts: Herten borders Marl in the north, Recklinghausen in the east, Herne in the south, Gelsenkirchen in the west. Herten is twinned with: Schneeberg, Germany Arras, France Szczytno, Poland Doncaster, United Kingdom Adolf Galland, Luftwaffe General Ludger Pistor, actor Barbara Mensing, archer Christian Timm, professional footballer Official website
Fossil fuel power station
A fossil fuel power station is a thermal power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity. Central station fossil fuel power plants are designed on a large scale for continuous operation. In many countries, such plants provide most of the electrical energy used. Fossil fuel power stations have machinery to convert the heat energy of combustion into mechanical energy, which operates an electrical generator; the prime mover may be a steam turbine, a gas turbine or, in small plants, a reciprocating internal combustion engine. All plants use the energy extracted from expanding either steam or combustion gases. Although different energy conversion methods exist, all thermal power station conversion methods have efficiency limited by the Carnot efficiency and therefore produce waste heat. By-products of fossil fuel power plant operation must be considered in their operation; the flue gas from combustion of the fossil fuels is discharged to the air.
This gas contains carbon dioxide and water vapor, as well as other substances such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, traces of other metals, for coal-fired plants, fly ash. Solid waste ash from coal-fired boilers must be removed; some coal ash can be recycled for building materials. Fossil fueled power stations are major emitters of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, a major contributor to global warming; the results of a recent study show that the net income available to shareholders of large companies could see a significant reduction from the greenhouse gas emissions liability related to only natural disasters in the United States from a single coal-fired power plant. However, as of 2015, no such cases have awarded damages in the United States. Per unit of electric energy, brown coal emits nearly two times as much CO2 as natural gas, black coal emits somewhat less than brown. Carbon capture and storage of emissions has been proposed to limit the environmental impact of fossil fuel power stations, but it is still at a demonstration stage.
In a fossil fuel power plant the chemical energy stored in fossil fuels such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas or oil shale and oxygen of the air is converted successively into thermal energy, mechanical energy and electrical energy. Each fossil fuel power plant is a custom-designed system. Construction costs, as of 2004, run to $650 million for a 500 MWe unit. Multiple generating units may be built at a single site for more efficient use of land, natural resources and labor. Most thermal power stations in the world use fossil fuel, outnumbering nuclear, biomass, or solar thermal plants; the second law of thermodynamics states that any closed-loop cycle can only convert a fraction of the heat produced during combustion into mechanical work. The rest of the heat, called waste heat, must be released into a cooler environment during the return portion of the cycle; the fraction of heat released into a cooler medium must be equal or larger than the ratio of absolute temperatures of the cooling system and the heat source.
Raising the furnace temperature improves the efficiency but complicates the design by the selection of alloys used for construction, making the furnace more expensive. The waste heat cannot be converted into mechanical energy without an cooler cooling system. However, it may be used in cogeneration plants to heat buildings, produce hot water, or to heat materials on an industrial scale, such as in some oil refineries and chemical synthesis plants. Typical thermal efficiency for utility-scale electrical generators is around 37% for coal and oil-fired plants, 56 – 60% for combined-cycle gas-fired plants. Plants designed to achieve peak efficiency while operating at capacity will be less efficient when operating off-design Practical fossil fuels stations operating as heat engines cannot exceed the Carnot cycle limit for conversion of heat energy into useful work. Fuel cells do not have the same thermodynamic limits; the efficiency of a fossil fuel plant may be expressed as its heat rate, expressed in BTU/kilowatthour or megajoules/kilowatthour.
In a steam turbine power plant, fuel is burned in a furnace and the hot gasses flow through a boiler. Water is converted to steam in the boiler; the hot steam is sent through controlling valves to a turbine. As the steam expands and cools, its energy is transferred to the turbine blades which turn a generator; the spent steam has low pressure and energy content. The condensed water is pumped into the boiler to repeat the cycle. Emissions from the boiler include carbon dioxide, oxides of sulfur, fly ash from non-combustible substances in the fuel. Waste heat from the condenser is transferred either to the air, or sometimes to a cooling pond, lake or river. One type of fossil fuel power plant uses a gas turbine in conjunction with a heat recovery steam generator, it is referred to as a combined cycle power plant because it combines the Brayton cycle of the gas turbine with the Rankine cycle of the HRSG. The thermal efficiency of these plants has reached a record heat rate of 5690 Btu/, or just under 60%, at a facility in Baglan Bay, Wales.
The turbines are fueled either with natural gas, syngas or fuel oil. While more efficient and faster to construct, the economics of such plants is influenced by the volatile cost of fuel natural gas; the combined cycle plants are designed in a vari
Bełchatów Power Station
The Bełchatów Power Station is the world's largest lignite-fired power station situated near Bełchatów in Łódź Voivodeship, Poland. It is the largest thermal power station in Europe, second largest fossil-fuel power station in the world, it produces 20 % of the total power generation in Poland. The power station is owned and operated by PGE GIEK Oddział Elektrownia Bełchatów, a subsidiary of Polska Grupa Energetyczna. In 2011 a new 858 MW unit was commissioned and the total capacity of the power has risen to 5,053 MW; the new unit has an efficiency rating of 42%, contributing to reduction of both fuel consumption and emissions compared to the existing units. The unit was built by Alstom. Alstom has carried out the modernization of the low pressure parts in all 12 turbines and on 8 April 2009, PGE and Alstom signed a contract to modernise unit 6. After modernization of other units total installed capacity reached 5,420 MW in September 2015. In March 2017 the electrical capacity of Elektrownia Bełchatow was increased to 5,472 MW.
The station's exhaust is expelled through two 300 m tall chimneys, among Poland's tallest free-standing structures. Coal for the plant is provided by a large neighboring strip mine; the building of the power station itself has a height of 118 metres, a length of 740 metres and a width of 117 metres. In 2007, the World Wide Fund for Nature ranked the power station as Europe's 11th most inefficient power station due to carbon dioxide emissions of 1.09 kg per kWh of energy produced, the highest absolute emitter, with 30.1 million tonnes of CO2 per year. In July 2009, the facility was titled as the biggest carbon polluter in the European Union by the Sandbag Climate Campaign; as of 2016 it remains as the largest carbon dioxide emitter, according to European Commission data analysed by Sandbag, with annual CO2 emissions of 34.9 million tonnes. To reduce CO2 emissions, the company had planned to introduce storage technology. On 8 December 2008, PGE and Alstom signed a memorandum of understanding, according to which Alstom would design and construct a pilot carbon capture plant at Unit 12 by mid-2011.
The larger carbon capture plant had to be integrated with the new 858 MW unit by 2015. The project failed to receive a European Commission grant for €180 million allocation from the European Energy Programme for Recovery, was cancelled in 2013. In April 2014, the European Commission ranked Bełchatów Power Station "the most climate-damaging power plant in the European Union", with CO2 emissions of 37.2 million tonnes in 2013. List of largest power stations in the world List of least carbon efficient power stations List of coal power stations Energy portal Bełchatów Unit 1–6, skyscraperpage.com. Bełchatów Unit 7–12, skyscraperpage.com
GKK Etzenricht, abbreviation for Gleichstromkurzkupplung Etzenricht, that means Etzenricht HVDC-back-to-back station, was an HVDC back-to-back facility near Etzenricht in the district of Neustadt an der Waldnaab in Bavaria, Germany. It was built up on area of Etzenricht substation, a 380 kV/220 kV/110 kV-substation, which went in service in 1970 and expanded afterwards several times; the operator of this facility, used between 1993 and 1995 for exchange of power between Germany and Czech, was Bayernwerk AG. Construction started April 26, 1991 and was completed September 1991. First power was achieved in May 1992 and a powerline to Hradec, Czech was completed September 3, 1992. Trial operation started January 27, 1993 with official opening July 9, 1993, it was shutdown after synchronisation of the German and the Czech Power Grid on October 18, 1995. After the synchronization of the power grids between Germany and Czech the maximum amount of power, which can be transmitted between Etzenricht and Hradec increased from 600 MW to 1316 MW.
The inauguration of the second 380 kV-interconnection to Prestice substation on July 29, 1997 increased the transmission capacity from Etzenricht to Czech to further 1579 MW, so via Etzenricht substation today a maximum power exchange of 2895 MW between Czech and Germany is possible. In 1997, after inauguration of the second 380 kV-powerline to Czech, which ends at Prestice substation, most external components of GKK Etzenricht were dismantled and stored on the area of the facility. Since beginning of this dismantling, the facility was not workable any more. Only the transformers, the smoothing reactor and one harmonic filter remained on their original sites. Since shutdown of the static inverter, it was planned to sell the installation to eastern Europe, where it would have allowed the construction of an HVDC back-to-back station for exchanging power between eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union; as the static inverter went more and more out of date and one was meanwhile able to build static inverters like that of GKK Etzenricht much simpler by using photo thyristors, no such deal took place.
In 2006 the facility was sold to IDPC, an Austrian recycling company, which wanted first to sell the installation and as this did not work, part by part. However, only a few components were sold. In spring 2009 all remaining components of GKK Etzenricht were scrapped. GKK Etzenricht had a maximum transmission power of 600 megawatts and worked with a DC voltage of 160 kV; the two static inverters are in a 13 metres high hall with 430 square metres of surface area, built in a combination of local and finished concrete building method. Each static inverter consists of 432 thyristors, which are put in six thyristor towers arranged in a row; each thyristor tower has 2 valve functions and consist of 8 thyristor modules, which are arranged one on top of the other. Each thyristor module consists of 9 thyristors switched in series and the necessary auxiliary equipment as the saturation coils, which are in series with the thyristors. Parallel to each thyristor a series combination of a resistor and a capacitor is switched, which limits the speed of current grow.
From this combination the power for the supply of the electronic used for thyristor steering is gained. The electronic used for thyristor steering has at operation a high voltage potential against ground, it is connected to the main control electronic on ground potential by fiber-optic cables, which allow a bidirectional data transmission. Parallel to each thyristor module a capacitor and parallel to each valve function a varistor is switched; as thyristors the model U78 S346 S34 manufactured by Siemens, which has a maximum power rating of 4100 amperes and, when GKK Etzenricht was built the most powerful thyristor in the world. At both ends of the hall there are three bays for the accommodation of the static inverter transformers, which are built as single-phase units. GKK Etzenricht was used in connection with the power transmission line between Germany and the Czech Republic; the single-circuit 380kV power transmission link runs from the GKK Etzenricht to the Czech substations at Hradec u Kadaně.
In 1997 a second single-circuit 380 kV-interconnection from Etzenricht to Přeštice substation was realized. Its conductors, which are of the same type as that used for the line to Hradec, are between Etzenricht and Straz installed on the same pylons. For overvoltage protection the whole powerline is equipped with two ground conductors, which are installed on a separate crossbar on the top of the pylons. One conductor contains a fiber optic cable for data transmission; the link from Etzenricht to Hradec has a maximum power transmission capacity of 1639 MW at an operating voltage of 380 kV. However it is limited by substation equipment to 1316 MW. On the German section of the line the conductors are bundles of four ropes consisting of steel and aluminum; each conductor has a cross section of 340 mm² aluminum and 30 mm² steel. Between Weiden and Etzenricht this line is installed on 14 pylons of the "Danube type". One of these pylons was built after the shutdown of the GKK, in order to run the line directly - past the static inverter hall - into the switchyard of the Etzenricht substation.
By this the length of the German section of the line grow by 180 metres to 33.8 kilometres. Except of the first pylon, these pylons were used before 1992 for the 110 kV-powerline from Etzenricht to Weiden. In 1992 this line was rebuilt on pylons running parallel to the old 110 kV-powerline to Weiden, whose pylons were equipped with a third crossbar for the ground conductors and with the 380 kV-conductors for the line to Czech; the section between Weiden/Oberpfalz and Eslarn consists of 60 pylons with a fourth crossbar under the c