Brad Davis (basketball)
Bradley Ernest Davis is an American retired professional basketball player who spent the bulk of his National Basketball Association career with the Dallas Mavericks. Born in Monaca, Davis graduated from Monaca High School and played basketball there under coach Dave Nichol. Davis attended the University of Maryland for four academic years and was a member of the Terrapins' varsity basketball team. Davis tried out for the Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball; some of his favorite baseball players include Bill Mazeroski, Buddy Bell, Billy Sample, Roberto Clemente and Steve Blass. Davis was selected by the Los Angeles Lakers in the first round of the 1977 NBA Draft. Davis played for the Lakers for parts of two seasons and for the Indiana Pacers for parts of two seasons. In between, he played with the Great Falls Sky of the Western Basketball Association, he played only part of the 1979-1980 NBA season for the Utah Jazz. In between his time with the Pacers and Jazz, he played with the Anchorage Northern Knights of the CBA during the 1979-80 basketball season.
Davis returned to the NBA with an expansion team, the Dallas Mavericks, for the 1980-81 basketball season. Davis spent the rest of his NBA career with the Mavericks; these included four seasons in which he played in all 82 games of the season, plus three other seasons in which he played in 81, 80, 79 games. In April 1992, Davis retired after 15 NBA seasons, he was the final Maverick remaining from the team's first season in 1980-81. On November 14, 1992, Davis was the first Maverick to have his number retired when his #15 jersey was raised to the rafters of Reunion Arena. In 1993, Davis became an assistant for the Mavericks under head coach Dick Motta. At the same time, he took a position as the color commentator for Mavericks televised games, he moved to radio broadcasts. Davis remained the radio analyst until the 2007-08 season, when he swapped positions with Mavericks TV commentator Bob Ortegel. Davis and Ortegel switched back to their original positions, Davis continues to be the color commentator on Mavericks' radio broadcasts.
Davis serves as the Mavericks' player development coach and a community services representative for the team. He is the brother of former NBA player Mickey Davis, he is married to Kelli Davis and father to three children: son Michael, daughters Erin and Cara Davis. Career statistics from basketball-reference.com
Herbert Brown is an American basketball coach and the brother of Hall of Fame coach Larry Brown. He is the former head coach of the Detroit Pistons. Brown was named head coach of the NBA's Detroit Pistons during the 1975-76 NBA season, replacing Ray Scott, who'd gone 17-25; the 39-year-old Brown, who'd been an assistant to Scott in Detroit, went 19-21 in his first season with the Pistons, who won 10 of their last 11 games of the regular season. He guided the team into the second round of the NBA playoffs where the Pistons lost to Golden State, four games to two; the following season, the Pistons went 44-38 under Brown, before losing in the first round of the playoffs to the Golden State Warriors. The Pistons fired Brown on December 15, 1977, after a 9-15 start to the 1977-78 NBA season, replacing him with the team's 32-year-old general manager, Bob Kauffman, who went 29-29 as head coach. In 1978, Brown was named head coach of the Tucson Gunners, a franchise in the newly formed Western Basketball Association.
He was named WBA Coach of the Year after guiding the team to a 32-16 record and the league championship, where Tucson beat Reno, four games to three. Brown was head coach of the Puerto Rico Coquis of the Continental Basketball Association from 1983–85, going 28-16 and 27-21, in 1983-84 and 1984–85, respectively, he earned CBA Coach of the Year honors following the 1983-84 season. He coached the Cincinnati Slammers of the CBA in 1985-86. In June 1990, Brown was named head coach and vice president of basketball operations for the Baltimore BayRunners of the International Basketball League, he was fired after going 10-20 in the team's inaugural season. The BayRunners won just seven more games after firing Brown to finish the season at 17-47; the Bobcats are Brown's third team. Together, they helped coach the Pistons to the NBA championship in 2004, led the Philadelphia 76ers to the 2001 NBA Finals. Brown has served as an assistant coach for several teams, including the Portland Trail Blazers, Houston Rockets, Indiana Pacers, Phoenix Suns, Atlanta Hawks.
He coached overseas, most notably in Spain in the early 1990s. At the college level, Brown was head basketball coach at Stony Brook University from 1964–69, earning Coach of the Year honors following the 1969 season. Brown served as head coach at C. W. Post from 1972–74, going 21-5 and 13-12 over two seasons. On September 3, 2014, Brown was named an assistant coach at Portland. Born in Brooklyn, New York, Brown is a graduate of the University of Vermont; the author of three books about basketball, he runs a Basketball Academy in the summer at the New Jersey Y Camps. In 2006, he was inducted into the National Jewish Sports Hall of Museum. Brown now lives in Portland, with his wife, he has two children--in Charlotte and Atlanta, respectively--and two step-children. NBA profile
The Boston Celtics are an American professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. The Celtics compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Atlantic Division. Founded in 1946 as one of the league's original eight teams, the team play their home games at TD Garden, which they share with the National Hockey League's Boston Bruins; the Celtics are one of the most successful teams in NBA history. The Celtics have a notable rivalry with the Los Angeles Lakers, have played the Lakers a record 12 times in the NBA Finals, of which the Celtics have won nine. Four Celtics players have won the NBA Most Valuable Player Award for an NBA record total of 10 MVP awards. Both the nickname "Celtics" and their mascot "Lucky the Leprechaun" are a nod to Boston's large Irish population. After winning 16 championships throughout the 20th century, the Celtics, after struggling through the 1990s, rose again to win a championship in 2008 with the help of Kevin Garnett, Paul Pierce, Ray Allen in what was known as the new "Big Three" era, following the original "Big Three" era that featured Larry Bird, Kevin McHale, Robert Parish, which combined to win the 1981, 1984, 1986 championships.
Following the win in 2008, general manager Danny Ainge began a rebuilding process with the help of head coach Brad Stevens, who led the Celtics to a return to the playoffs from 2015. During the following season, the Celtics clinched the top seed in the Eastern Conference, but were eliminated in the Conference Finals; this prompted an aggressive rebuild in 2017, where the team acquired All-Stars Kyrie Irving and Gordon Hayward. However, the pair struggled with injuries throughout the 2017–18 season, the team was again defeated in the Eastern Conference Finals; the Boston Celtics were formed on June 6, 1946, by Boston Garden-Arena Corporation president Walter A. Brown as a team in the Basketball Association of America, became part of the National Basketball Association after the absorption of the National Basketball League by the BAA in the fall of 1949. In 1950, the Celtics signed Chuck Cooper; the Celtics struggled until the hiring of coach Red Auerbach. In the franchise's early days, Auerbach had no assistants, ran all the practices, did all the scouting—both of opposing teams and college draft prospects—and scheduled all road trips.
One of the first great players to join the Celtics was Bob Cousy, whom Auerbach refused to draft out of nearby Holy Cross because he was "too flashy." Cousy's contract became the property of the Chicago Stags, but when that franchise went bankrupt, Cousy went to the Celtics in a dispersal draft. After the 1955–56 season, Auerbach made a stunning trade, sending perennial All-Star Ed Macauley to the St. Louis Hawks along with the draft rights to Cliff Hagan for the second overall pick in the draft. After negotiating with the Rochester Royals—a negotiation that included a promise that the Celtics owner would send the sought-after Ice Capades to Rochester if the Royals would let Russell slide to #2—Auerbach used the pick to select University of San Francisco center Bill Russell. Auerbach acquired Holy Cross standout, 1957 NBA Rookie of the Year, Tommy Heinsohn. Russell and Heinsohn worked extraordinarily well with Cousy, they were the players around whom Auerbach would build the champion Celtics for more than a decade.
With Bill Russell, the Celtics advanced to the 1957 NBA Finals and defeated the St. Louis Hawks in seven games, the first of a record 17 championships. Russell went on making him the most decorated player in NBA history. In 1958, the Celtics again advanced to this time losing to the Hawks in 6 games. However, with the acquisition of K. C. Jones that year, the Celtics began a dynasty. In 1959, the Celtics won the NBA Championship after sweeping the Minneapolis Lakers, the first of their record eight consecutive championships. During that time, the Celtics met the Lakers in the Finals five times, starting an intense and bitter rivalry that has spanned generations. In 1964, the Celtics became the first NBA team to have an all African-American starting lineup. On December 26, 1964, Willie Naulls replaced an injured Tommy Heinsohn, joining Tom'Satch' Sanders, K. C. Jones, Sam Jones, Bill Russell in the starting lineup; the Celtics defeated St. Louis 97–84. Boston won its next 11 games with Naulls starting in place of Heinsohn.
The Celtics of the late 1950s–1960s are considered as one of the most dominant teams of all time. Auerbach retired as coach after the 1965–66 season and Russell took over as player-coach, Auerbach's ploy to keep Russell interested. With his appointment Russell became the first African-American coach in any U. S. pro sport. Auerbach would remain a position he would hold well into the 1980s. However, the Celtics' string of NBA titles ended when they lost to the Philadelphia 76ers in the 1966 Eastern Conference Finals; the aging team managed two more championships in 1968 and 1969, defeating the Los Angeles Lakers each time. Russell retired after the 1969 season ending a Celtics dynasty that had garnered an unrivaled 11 NBA titles in 13 seasons; the team's run of 8 consecutive is the longest championship streak in U. S. professional sports history. The 1970 season was a rebuilding year, as the Celtics had their first losing record since the 1949–50 season
Jim Boylan is an American basketball coach. He served as the interim head coach for the Chicago Bulls for part of the 2007–08 NBA season, he served as an interim coach for the Milwaukee Bucks for part of the 2012–13 NBA season. Most he played a part in helping the Cleveland Cavaliers win the 2016 NBA Finals over the Golden State Warriors. Born and raised in Jersey City, New Jersey, Boylan played basketball at St. Mary High School, he started his college career at Assumption College in Worcester, Massachusetts a strong NCAA Division II program before transferring to Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. His older brother, had enjoyed an outstanding basketball career at Assumption, he was Division II Player of the Year among the school's all-time scoring leaders. Jim started at point guard his first two years at Assumption, 1973-1977, leading the team to a third-place finish in the national championship tournament both seasons. Following his sophomore season he transferred to Marquette University in Division I.
He played point guard at Marquette, where he helped the Warriors win the 1977 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament by scoring 14 points in the National Championship Game versus the North Carolina Tar Heels. After leading Marquette in assists in his junior and senior season, Boylan was drafted in the fourth round in the 1978 NBA draft by the Buffalo Braves, who became the San Diego Clippers after the 1977–78 season. Boylan played for the Tucson Gunners in the Western Basketball Association during the 1978–79 season, he was named a second team All Star, he helped the Gunners with the WBA championship. However, Boylan never played an NBA game, he headed to Europe instead. He played for Sweden in the 1979 -- 80 season. Boylan began his coaching career as a player-coach in Switzerland from 1982 to 1986 and led Vevey Basket to its first championship in its 30-year history. At age 31, he moved back to the States becoming an assistant under Jud Heathcote at Michigan State University from 1986–89.
Boylan took over head coaching duties at the University of New Hampshire, succeeding Gerry Friel. In 1992 Boylan entered the NBA as a video advance scout for the Cleveland Cavaliers. In 1997, he moved over to the Vancouver Grizzlies, serving as an assistant under Brian Hill and Lionel Hollins. In 2001, Boylan became a member of Frank Johnson's coaching staff in Phoenix, remained working for the Phoenix Suns under Johnson's successor Scott Skiles. After Skiles was fired in 2002, Boylan worked with Terry Stotts for the Atlanta Hawks during the 2003–04 NBA season. In 2004, Boylan became lead assistant to Skiles, who had taken over as head coach of the Chicago Bulls. On December 27, 2007, after the firing of Scott Skiles, Jim was named the interim coach for the Bulls for the remaining season. Boylan was not retained at the conclusion of the season after compiling a 24–32 record with the Bulls. On May 14, 2008, he was hired as an assistant to Scott Skiles by the Milwaukee Bucks; when Skiles resigned in January 2013, Boylan became head coach of the Bucks.
The team went 22–28 under his guidance and made the playoffs, but were swept in the first round by the Miami Heat. At the end of the season, the Bucks decided not to give Boylan a new contract. Instead, Boylan would be hired by the Cleveland Cavaliers on in the same year, he would on be a part of the 2015–16 Cleveland Cavaliers squad to earn an NBA Finals championship over the 73–9 Golden State Warriors
New York Yankees
The New York Yankees are an American professional baseball team based in the New York City borough of the Bronx. The Yankees compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division, they are one of two major league clubs based in New York City, the other being the New York Mets of the National League. In the 1901 season, the club began play in the AL as the Baltimore Orioles. Frank Farrell and Bill Devery purchased the franchise and moved it to New York City, renaming the club the New York Highlanders; the Highlanders were renamed the Yankees in 1913. The team is owned by Yankee Global Enterprises, an LLC controlled by the family of the late George Steinbrenner, who purchased the team in 1973. Brian Cashman is the team's general manager, Aaron Boone is the team's field manager; the team's home games were played at the original Yankee Stadium from 1923 to 1973 and from 1976 to 2008. In 1974 and 1975, the Yankees shared Shea Stadium with the Mets, in addition to the New York Jets, New York Giants.
In 2009, they moved into a new ballpark of the same name after the previous facility was closed and demolished. The team is perennially among the leaders in MLB attendance; as arguably the most successful sports club in the United States, the Yankees have won 40 AL pennants, 27 World Series championships, all of which are MLB records. The Yankees have won more titles than any other franchise in the four major North American sports leagues. Forty-four Yankees players and eleven Yankees managers have been inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame, including Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Joe DiMaggio, Mickey Mantle, Yogi Berra, Whitey Ford. In pursuit of winning championships, the franchise has used a large payroll to attract talent during the Steinbrenner era. According to Forbes, the Yankees are the second highest valued sports franchise in the United States and the fifth in the world, with an estimated value of $4 billion; the Yankees have garnered enormous popularity and a dedicated fanbase, as well as widespread enmity from fans of other MLB teams.
The team's rivalry with the Boston Red Sox is one of the most well-known rivalries in U. S. sports. From 1903-2018, the Yankees overall win-loss record is 10275-7781. In 1900, Ban Johnson, the president of a minor league known as the Western League, changed the Western League name to the American League and asked the National League to classify it as a major league. Johnson held that his league would operate in friendly terms with the National league, but the National league ridiculed the plan. Johnson declared official major league status for his league in 1901. Plans to add a team in New York City were blocked by the NL's New York Giants. A team was instead placed in Baltimore, Maryland in 1901. Between 1901 and 1903, many players and coaches on the Orioles roster jumped to the Giants. In January 1903, a "peace conference" was held between the two leagues to settle disputes and try to coexist. At the conference, Johnson requested that an AL team be put in New York, to play alongside the NL's Giants.
It was put to a vote, 15 of the 16 major league owners agreed on it. The Orioles' new owners, Frank J. Farrell and William S. Devery moved the team to New York in 1903; the team's new ballpark, Hilltop Park, was constructed in one of Upper Manhattan's highest points—between 165th and 168th Streets. The team was named the New York Highlanders. Fans believed the name was chosen because of the team's elevated location in Upper Manhattan, or as a nod to team president Joseph Gordon's Scottish-Irish heritage; the team was referred to as the New York Americans. The team was referred to as the "Invaders" in the Evening Journal. New York Press Sports Editor Jim Price coined the unofficial nickname Yankees for the club as early as 1904, because it was easier to fit in headlines; the Highlanders finished second in the AL in 1904, 1906, 1910. In 1904, they lost the deciding game to the Boston Americans, who became the Boston Red Sox; that year, Highlander pitcher Jack Chesbro set the single-season wins record at 41.
At this time there was no formal World Series agreement wherein the AL and NL winners would play each other. The original Polo Grounds burned down in 1911 and the Highlanders shared Hilltop Park with the Giants during a two-month renovation period. From 1913 to 1922, the Highlanders shared the Polo Grounds with the Giants. While playing at the Polo Grounds, the name "Highlanders" fell into disuse among the press. In 1913 the team became known as the New York Yankees. By the middle of the decade, Yankees owners Farrell and Devery had become estranged and in need of money. At the start of 1915, they sold the team to Colonel Jacob Ruppert, a brewer, Captain Tillinghast L'Hommedieu Huston, a contractor-engineer. All the games of the 1921 and 1922 World Series were played in the Polo Grounds, when the Yankees squared off against their intracity rivals, the Giants. In the years around 1920, the Yankees, the Red Sox, the Chicago White Sox had a détente; the trades between the three ballclubs antagonized Ban Johnson and garnered the teams the nickname "The Insurrectos".
This détente paid off well for the Yankees. Most new players who contributed to the team's success came from the Red Sox, whose owner, Harry Frazee, was trading them for large sums of money to finance his theatrical productions. Pitcher-turned-outfielder Babe Ruth was the most talented of all the acquisition
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Alfred Manuel Martin Jr. called Billy Martin, was an American Major League Baseball second baseman and manager who, in addition to leading other teams, was five times the manager of the New York Yankees. First known as a scrappy infielder who made considerable contributions to the championship Yankee teams of the 1950s, he built a reputation as a manager who would make bad teams good, before being fired amid dysfunction. In each of his stints with the Yankees he managed them to winning records before being fired or forced to resign by team owner George Steinbrenner amid a well-publicized scandal such as Martin's involvement in an alcohol-fueled fight. Martin was born in a working-class section of California, his skill as a baseball player gave him a route out of his home town. Signed by the Pacific Coast League Oakland Oaks, Martin learned much from Casey Stengel, the man who would manage him both in Oakland and in New York, enjoyed a close relationship with him. Martin's spectacular catch of a wind-blown Jackie Robinson popup late in Game Seven of the 1952 World Series saved that series for the Yankees, he was the hitting star of the 1953 World Series, earning the Most Valuable Player award in the Yankee victory.
He missed most of two seasons, 1954 and 1955, after being drafted into the Army, his abilities never returned. Martin bitterly resented being traded, did not speak to Stengel for years, a time during which Martin completed his playing career, appearing with a series of also-ran baseball teams; the last team for whom Martin played, the Minnesota Twins, gave him a job as a scout, he spent most of the 1960s with them, becoming a coach in 1965. After a successful managerial debut with the minor-league Denver Bears, Martin was made Twins manager in 1969, led the club to the American League West title, but was fired after the season, he was hired by a declining Detroit Tigers franchise in 1971, led the team to an American League East title in 1972 before being fired by the Tigers late in the 1973 season. He was hired by the Texas Rangers, turned them for a season into a winning team, but was fired amid conflict with ownership in 1975, he was immediately hired by the Yankees. As Yankee manager, Martin led the team to consecutive American League pennants in 1976 and 1977.
The 1977 season saw season-long conflict between Martin and Steinbrenner, as well as between the manager and Yankee slugger Reggie Jackson, including a near brawl between the two in the dugout on national television, but culminated in Martin's only world championship as a manager. He was forced to resign midway through the 1978 season after saying of Jackson and Steinbrenner, "one's a born liar, the other's convicted", he was fired at season's end by Steinbrenner. From 1980 to 1982, he managed the Oakland Athletics, earning a division title with an aggressive style of play known as "Billyball", but he was fired after the 1982 season, he was rehired by the Yankees, whom he managed three more times, each for a season or less and each ending in his firing by Steinbrenner. Martin died in an automobile accident in upstate New York on Christmas night, 1989, is fondly remembered by many Yankee fans. Alfred Manuel Martin Jr. was born on May 1928, in Berkeley, California. He was given his father's name.
Al Martin had been born in Kauai, the son of Portuguese immigrants, had moved to Oakland. Billy Martin's mother's birth name was Juvan Salvini, but she went by the first name Jenny for most of her life; the daughter of Italian immigrants who had lived in San Francisco, but who moved across the Bay about the time of the 1906 earthquake, she changed her last name, first when she married Donato Pisani around 1918, by whom she had a son, nicknamed Tudo, before the marriage broke up—Jenny claimed Donato was unfaithful. There is some doubt that Jenny and Al married, but they lived together as a wedded couple for a time, during which Billy Martin was born at his maternal grandmother's house in West Berkeley. Billy Martin acquired his name because his grandmother, who never mastered English, would croon bello over the baby, who only learned his birth name when a teacher used it at school; the Martin couple broke up soon after Billy was born, each accused the other of infidelity. In any event, Billy Martin would have no further contact with his father until he was in his thirties, the conflict between the parents left him with emotional wounds.
With Al Martin having returned to his native Hawaii, Jenny no longer used his name, either in conversation or as part of hers, before Billy's first birthday had met John "Jack" Downey, a laborer and jack-of-all-trades, whom she married in late 1929, whose name she took for herself, but not for her sons. Billy Martin called his stepfather a "great guy". Jenny always regretted. Billy was an indifferent student once he started school, from the age of about 12, was in trouble with teachers or the principal, his unusual home situation, his small size and large nose, his residence in poverty-stricken West Berkeley caused other children to mock him, leading to conflict. Intensely