British Columbia Youth Parliament
The British Columbia Youth Parliament is a youth service organization that operates in the guise of a "parliament" in the Canadian province of British Columbia. The BCYP fulfills its motto of "Youth Serving Youth" by means of "legislation" enacting community service projects and other youth-oriented activities; the BCYP is the successor to the Older Boys' Parliament of British Columbia, which first met in 1924. Each year between December 27–31, youth aged 16 to 21 from across British Columbia gather in the Legislative Chambers of the B. C. Parliament Buildings in the capital city of Victoria for the BCYP annual session. Members sit as independents and vote according to their individual conscience on all issues, they learn about parliamentary process, debate topics of interest, plan numerous activities for the upcoming year. Proposed activities in the form of community service projects, are presented in the form of government bills; this model differs from most other model youth parliaments in Canada.
During the sittings of the BCYP during its December session, members of the BCYP are given the opportunity to present "Private Members' Resolutions" for debate. These are on topics related to current events or other issues important to members and contain a provision for communicating the decision of the BCYP on that topic to the actual governmental authorities or other parties responsible for those issues. On occasion, a PMR on a whimsical topic is introduced. Unlike a real parliamentary government, the BCYP "government" cannot fall if it loses a vote on what would otherwise be a vote of confidence, such as a money bill or a motion of non-confidence. During the week that the BCYP meets in the Legislature, the members elect a new Premier, Leader of the Opposition and Deputy Speaker for the next legislative year. On the last day of the annual sitting of the BCYP, a Prorogation ceremony is held; as part of the ceremony, the Lieutenant Governor signs all approved bills into "law". After the December sittings, the members become the organization's own "civil service" and implement the community service projects legislated at the session.
Legislation passed at the session is subject to review by the organization's Senate. For most of the BCYP's history, the legislative year was referred to a "session"; the BCYP models itself on the Westminster Parliamentary system. The BCYP is sponsored by the Youth Parliament of B. C. Alumni Association. In keeping with the parliamentary structure of the BCYP, the board of directors of the Alumni Association is referred to as the "Senate"; the BCYP. The Premier-elect appoints various other officers, such as a Lieutenant Governor, a Speaker, a chief clerk, a Sergeant-At-Arms, among others; the legislative year for a Premier and their cabinet runs from October 1 to September 30 of the following year. The Premier and Cabinet plan the government's legislative plan and prepare the bills for consideration at the December sitting of the BCYP. Members of the BCYP are not elected to the Youth Parliament. Instead, potential members apply for the limited number of available positions. Applicants must be nominated by an organization.
The applicants are selected by a committee made up of representatives of the Senate and the BCYP cabinet. The selection committee attempts to ensure; this includes selecting at least one applicant from each of the real ridings for the actual provincial legislature. At the December sitting, all members will be assigned to a riding. Members who come from a riding, over-represented may be assigned a riding from which no applications were submitted. Otherwise, some ridings may have two or more members; the purpose of the Older Boys' Parliament in its early years was to recommend changes and additions to the "Canadian Standards Efficiency Training" programme and to promote Christian boys life. Its legislation consisted of recommendations made to the Boys' Work Board of British Columbia rather than its own programmes, occasional resolutions on social issues. During the 1950s, the OBP began to develop a more service-oriented programme run by its own members rather than working with programmes run by other organizations.
Projects included annual hobby shows, athletic competitions, leadership training programmes, work with handicapped youth. The OBP's social service programme expanded in the 1960s, with more work with the handicapped, delinquent boys, book drives, food drives; the OBP's project for Canada's Centennial was to help finance and build a church and meeting hall on a Nitinagt Indian Reserve on Vancouver Island. In 1981, the BCYP funded and constructed a playground for children living at Skeena Terrace, a provincially sponsored subsidized housing project at Cassiar and Broadway in Vancouver. In the 1980s, the Youth Parliament projects expanded to include educational workshops, youth oriented conferences, the Regional Youth Parliament program. Projects introduced in the 2000s include summe
Victoria Day is a federal Canadian public holiday celebrated on the last Monday preceding May 25, in honour of Queen Victoria's birthday. As such, it is the Monday between the 18th to the 24th inclusive, thus is always the penultimate Monday of May; the date is that on which the current Canadian sovereign's official birthday is recognized. It is sometimes informally considered the beginning of the summer season in Canada; the holiday has been observed in Canada since at least 1845 falling on Victoria's actual birthday. It continues to be celebrated in various fashions across the country. Victoria Day is a federal statutory holiday, as well as a holiday in six of Canada's ten provinces and all three of its territories. In Quebec, before 2003, the Monday preceding 25 May of each year was unofficially the Fête de Dollard, a commemoration of Adam Dollard des Ormeaux initiated in the 1920s to coincide with Victoria Day. In 2003, provincial legislation created National Patriots' Day on the same date.
The birthday of Queen Victoria was a day for celebration in Canada long before Confederation, with the first legislation regarding the event being in 1845 passed by the parliament of the Province of Canada to recognize May 24 as the Queen's birthday. It was noted that on that date in 1854, the 35th birthday of Queen Victoria, some 5,000 residents of Canada West gathered in front of Government House to "give cheers to their queen". An example of a typical 19th century celebration of the Queen's birthday took place on May 24, 1866, in Omemee in Canada West: the town mounted a day-long fête to mark the occasion, including a gun salute at midnight, pre-dawn serenades, athletic competitions, a display of illuminations, a torch-light procession. Following the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, May 24 was made by law to be known as Victoria Day, a date to remember the late queen, deemed the "Mother of Confederation", and, in 1904, the same date was by imperial decree made Empire Day throughout the British Empire.
Over the ensuing decades, the official date in Canada of the reigning sovereign's birthday changed through various royal proclamations until the haphazard format was abandoned in 1952. That year, both Empire Day and Victoria Day were, by order-in-council and statutory amendment moved to the Monday before May 25 and the monarch's official birthday in Canada was by regular viceregal proclamations made to fall on this same date every year between 1953 and January 31, 1957, when the link was made permanent by royal proclamation; the following year, Empire Day was renamed Commonwealth Day and in 1977 it was moved to the second Monday in March, leaving the Monday before May 25 only as both Victoria Day and the Queen's Birthday. Victoria Day celebrations have been marred by major tragedy at least twice: In 1881, the passenger ferry Victoria overturned in the Thames River, near London, Ontario; the boat departed in the evening with 600 to 800 people on board—three times the allowable passenger capacity—and capsized part way across the river, drowning some 182 individuals, including a large number of children, with their families for Victoria Day picnics at Springbank Park.
The event came to be known as the Victoria Day disaster. On May 26, 1896, the Point Ellice Bridge disaster occurred in Victoria, British Columbia, when a bridge collapsed under the weight of a streetcar overloaded with passengers on their way to attend Victoria Day celebrations. In 2013, a group of prominent Canadian actors and politicians sent a petition to Prime Minister Stephen Harper, requesting that the holiday be renamed Victoria and First Peoples Day. Most workplaces in Canada are regulated by the territorial governments. Therefore, although Victoria Day is a statutory holiday for federal purposes, whether an employee is entitled to a paid day off depends on the province or territory of residence; the status of Victoria Day in each of the provinces and territories is as follows: It is a general holiday in Alberta, the Northwest Territories, Yukon and is a statutory holiday in British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Victoria Day is not a paid public holiday in Newfoundland and Labrador, but is a government holiday.
In Nunavut and New Brunswick, the date is set as a general holiday to mark the reigning sovereign's official birthday. In Quebec, the province's legislative assembly passed legislation that dedicated National Patriots' Day, commemorating the patriotes of the Lower Canada Rebellion of 1837, to be celebrated on the Monday preceding May 25; this replaced the Fête de Dollard, celebrated by Quebecers on Victoria Day since the 1960s and which commemorated Adam Dollard des Ormeaux. Canada is the only country. Federal government protocol dictates that, on Victoria Day, the Royal Union Flag is to be flown from sunrise to sunset at all federal government buildings—including airports, military bases, other Crown owned property across the country—where physical arrangements allow (i.e. where a second flag pole exists, as the Royal Un
Ralph Edward Goodale is Canada's Minister of Public Safety in the present Cabinet, headed by Justin Trudeau. He was Canada's Minister of Finance from 2003 to 2006, leader of the Saskatchewan Liberal Party from 1981 to 1988, he has been the Liberal Member of Parliament for Regina-Wascana since 1993, having served as the member for Assiniboia from 1974 to 1979. He was named Opposition House Leader by interim Liberal leader Bill Graham in 2006, continued to serve in this role under the leadership of Stéphane Dion and Michael Ignatieff until September 2010 when he was promoted to Deputy Leader—a post he retained under Trudeau. Goodale was born in Regina and raised on a farm near Wilcox, Saskatchewan, he earned the rank of Queen's Scout. He first attended the University of Saskatchewan, Regina Campus and obtained a law degree from the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, where he was awarded the Gold Medal for academic achievement. Active at politics from a young age, he was first elected to the Parliament of Canada in the 1974 election at the age of 24 from the seat of Assiniboia.
He served as a government backbencher until the 1979 election. In 1981, Goodale was named leader of the Saskatchewan Liberal Party, he led that party to a poor showing in the 1982 provincial election, in which the party received 4.51% of the popular vote and won no seats in the provincial legislature. However, Goodale was the only Liberal candidate to receive more than 1,000 votes; the party won 9.99% of the vote in the 1986 provincial election, but only Goodale was elected to the legislature. Goodale ran on a platform of fiscal responsibility in this election, arguing that both the Progressive Conservative and New Democrat parties favoured excessive spending policies, typified by their proposals for a Keynesian-style stimulation of the provincial economy through subsidized home improvement and renovation schemes. Goodale resigned as leader to run for the federal Liberals in the 1988 election for the seat of Regina—Wascana, but he was narrowly defeated by former Regina mayor Larry Schneider, who went on to serve in Kim Campbell's cabinet.
Beginning earlier that year and prior to his resignation, Goodale's executive assistant was Jason Kenney. Kenney would become a Conservative Party of Canada MP in a Calgary riding. Goodale spent five years in the private sector, working for companies such as the Pioneer Life Assurance Company, Pioneer Lifeco Inc. and Sovereign Life Insurance Co.. Goodale contested Regina-Wascana again in the 1993 federal election and was elected as part of the Liberal landslide that year; as a member of the new Chrétien cabinet, Goodale was named Minister of Agri-Food. He has the prenominal "the Honourable" and the postnominal "PC" for life by virtue of being made a member of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada on November 4, 1993, he has been reelected for this riding, known as Wascana from 1997 to 2015, at every election since then. In 1997, he became the Minister of Natural Resources. In May 2002, he was named Minister of Public Works and Government Services, a few weeks after the Auditor General Sheila Fraser issued a report accusing the department of inappropriate contracting practices.
This began the exposure of the Sponsorship scandal. A close ally of Paul Martin, Goodale was appointed to the senior portfolio of Finance Minister when Martin became Prime Minister on December 12, 2003. In that capacity he tabled two consecutive balanced budgets and launched the Government's productivity agenda. On December 28, 2005, a letter surfaced from Royal Canadian Mounted Police Commissioner Giuliano Zaccardelli confirming the force was launching a criminal investigation into whether details regarding government tax policies relating to income trust funds were leaked from the Finance Minister's office. Goodale said he would co-operate with any investigation, but would not step aside while the RCMP continued their probe; the investigation dealt only with the Department of Finance, not the minister himself. On February 15, 2007 the RCMP announced the conclusion of the income trust investigation and laid a charge of'Breach of Trust' against Serge Nadeau, an official in the Department of Finance, who pleaded guilty in 2010.
Goodale was cleared of any wrongdoing, blamed the NDP's Judy Wasylycia-Leis for sabotaging the Liberals in the 2006 election. Goodale was re-elected to the House of Commons in the general election on January 23, 2006 but lost his cabinet position with the Liberal defeat. After the Liberals' defeat and Paul Martin's election night announcement that he would be resigning as party leader, Goodale indicated that he was not interested in succeeding Martin in that post. "I do not anticipate having to cross that bridge," he said. "I rule it out." On March 13, 2006, the Toronto Star reported that Goodale was reconsidering his decision, stated that he may enter the Liberal leadership election after all. In the end, he declined. On November 28, 2006, he endorsed Bob Rae to be the next leader of the Liberal Party. After the third ballot, Bob Rae, who finished third, was eliminated. Goodale endorsed Stéphane Dion, the eventual winner. Goodale was opposed to David Orchard's candidacy in the by-election for Desnethé—Missinippi—Churchill River.
Dion appointed Joan Beatty as the candidate. Goodale was re-elected once more in the fall of 2008. One month later,in November 2008, the three opposition parties in the Canadian parliament indicated their intention to defeat the Stephen H
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
Regina is the capital city of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The city is the second-largest in the province, after Saskatoon, a cultural and commercial centre for southern Saskatchewan, it is governed by Regina City Council. The city is surrounded by the Rural Municipality of Sherwood No. 159. Regina was the seat of government of the North-West Territories, of which the current provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta formed part, of the District of Assiniboia; the site was called Wascana, but was renamed to Regina in 1882 in honour of Queen Victoria. This decision was made by Queen Victoria's daughter Princess Louise, the wife of the Governor General of Canada, the Marquess of Lorne. Unlike other planned cities in the Canadian West, on its treeless flat plain Regina has few topographical features other than the small spring run-off, Wascana Creek. Early planners took advantage of such opportunity by damming the creek to create a decorative lake to the south of the central business district with a dam a block and a half west of the elaborate 260-metre long Albert Street Bridge across the new lake.
Regina's importance was further secured when the new province of Saskatchewan designated the city its capital in 1906. Wascana Centre, created around the focal point of Wascana Lake, remains one of Regina's attractions and contains the Provincial Legislative Building, both campuses of the University of Regina, First Nations University of Canada, the provincial museum of natural history, the Regina Conservatory, the Saskatchewan Science Centre, the MacKenzie Art Gallery and the Saskatchewan Centre of the Arts. Residential neighbourhoods include precincts beyond the historic city centre are or noteworthy neighbourhoods – namely Lakeview and The Crescents, both of which lie directly south of downtown. To the north of the central business district is the old warehouse district the focus of shopping and residential development. In 1912, the Regina Cyclone destroyed much of the town; the CCF, formulated its foundation Regina Manifesto of 1933 in Regina. In recent years, Saskatchewan's agricultural and mineral resources have come into new demand, it has entered a new period of strong economic growth.
The population of the Regina CMA as of 2016, was 236,481, growing 12% since 2011 according to Statistics Canada. Regina was established as the territorial seat of government in 1882 when Edgar Dewdney, the lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories, insisted on the site over the better developed Battleford and Fort Qu'Appelle; these communities were considered better locations for what was anticipated would be a metropole for the Canadian plains. These locations resided on treed rolling parklands. "Pile-of-Bones," as the site for Regina was called, was by contrast located in arid and featureless grassland. Lieutenant-Governor Dewdney had acquired land adjacent to the route of the future CPR line at Pile-of-Bones, distinguished only by collections of bison bones near a small spring run-off creek, some few kilometres downstream from its origin in the midst of what are now wheat fields. There was an "obvious conflict of interest" in Dewdney's choosing the site of Pile-of-Bones as the territorial seat of government and it was a national scandal at the time.
But until 1897, when responsible government was accomplished in the Territories, the lieutenant-governor and council governed by fiat and there was little legitimate means of challenging such decisions outside the federal capital of Ottawa. There, the Territories were remote and of little concern. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, wife of the Governor General of Canada, named the new community Regina, in honour of her mother, Queen Victoria. Commercial considerations prevailed and the town's authentic development soon began as a collection of wooden shanties and tent shacks clustered around the site designated by the CPR for its future station, some two miles to the east of where Dewdney had reserved substantial landholdings for himself and where he sited the Territorial Government House. Regina attained national prominence in 1885 during the North-West Rebellion when troops were able to be transported by train on the CPR from eastern Canada as far as Qu'Appelle Station, before marching to the battlefield in the further Northwest – Qu'Appelle having been the major debarkation and distribution centre until 1890 when the completion of the Qu’Appelle, Long Lake, Saskatchewan Railway linked Regina with Saskatoon and Prince Albert.
Subsequently, the rebellion's leader, Louis Riel, was tried and hanged in Regina – giving the infant community increased and, at the time, not unwelcome national attention in connection with a figure, at the time considered an unalloyed villain in anglophone Canada. The episode, including Riel's imprisonment and execution, brought the new Regina Leader the "Leader-Post," to national prominence. Regina was incorporated as a city on 19 June 1903, with the MLA who introduced the charter bill, James Hawkes, declaring, "Regina has the brightest future before it of any place in the
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
Burnaby is a city in British Columbia, located to the east of Vancouver. It is the third-largest city in British Columbia by population, surpassed only by nearby Surrey and Vancouver. Burnaby was incorporated in 1892 and achieved City status in 1992, one hundred years after incorporation, it is the seat of Metro Vancouver's regional government. At incorporation, the municipality's citizens unanimously chose to name it after the legislator, speaker and explorer Robert Burnaby, private secretary to Colonel Richard Moody, the first land commissioner for the Colony of British Columbia, in the mid-19th century. In 1859 Burnaby had surveyed the freshwater lake near. Moody chose to name it Burnaby Lake. In the first 30 to 40 years after its incorporation, the growth of Burnaby was influenced by its location between the expanding urban centres of Vancouver and New Westminster, it first served as a rural agricultural area supplying nearby markets. It served as an important transportation corridor between Vancouver, the Fraser Valley and the Interior, continues to do so.
As Vancouver expanded and became a metropolis, Burnaby was one of the first-tier bedroom-community suburbs of Vancouver itself, along with the city and district of North Vancouver, Richmond. During the suburbanization of Burnaby, "Mid-Century Vernacular" homes were built by the hundreds to cope with population increase, these houses are still common in the city. Burnaby has shifted in character over time from rural to suburban to urban. Burnaby occupies 98.60 square kilometres and is located at the geographical centre of the Metro Vancouver area. Situated between the city of Vancouver on the west and Port Moody and New Westminster on the east, Burnaby is further bounded by Burrard Inlet and the Fraser River on the north and south respectively. Burnaby and New Westminster collectively occupy the major portion of the Burrard Peninsula; the elevation of Burnaby ranges from sea level to a maximum of 370 metres atop Burnaby Mountain. Due to its elevation, the city of Burnaby experiences quite a bit more snowfall during the winter months than nearby Vancouver or Richmond.
Overall, the physical landscape of Burnaby is one of hills, valleys and an alluvial plain. The land features and their relative locations have had an influence on the location and form of development in the city. Burnaby is home to many commercial firms. British Columbia's largest commercial mall, the Metropolis at Metrotown, is located in Burnaby. Still, Burnaby's ratio of park land to residents is one of the highest in North America, it maintains some agricultural land along the Fraser foreshore flats in the Big Bend neighbourhood along its southern perimeter. Major parklands and waterways in Burnaby include Central Park, Robert Burnaby Park, Kensington Park, Burnaby Mountain, Still Creek, the Brunette River, Burnaby Lake, Deer Lake, Squint Lake. Given that the Simon Fraser University weather station is located 365 meters above sea level on Burnaby Mountain, the climate shown is cooler and wetter with more snowfall, as compared to the rest of the city; the SkyTrain rapid transit system, based in Burnaby, crosses the city from east to west in two places: the Expo Line crosses the south along Kingsway and the Millennium Line follows Lougheed Highway.
The SkyTrain has encouraged closer connections to New Westminster and Surrey, as well as dense urban development at Lougheed Town Centre on the city's eastern border, at Brentwood Town Centre in the centre-west and, most notably, at Metrotown in the south. Major north-south streets crossing the City include Boundary Road, Willingdon Avenue, Royal Oak Avenue, Kensington Avenue, Sperling Avenue, Gaglardi Way, Cariboo Road, North Road. East-west routes linking Burnaby's neighbouring cities to each other include Hastings Street, Barnet Highway, the Lougheed Highway, Canada Way and Marine Drive/Marine Way. Douglas Road, which used to cross the city from northwest to southeast, has been absorbed by the Trans-Canada Highway and Canada Way. Since the 1990s, Burnaby has developed a network of cycling trails, it is well served by Metro Vancouver's bus system, run by the Coast Mountain Bus Company, a division of TransLink. According to the 2011 Census, Statistics Canada reported that Burnaby had a population of 223,218 who resided in 86,839 of its 91,383 total dwellings, a 10.1% change from the 2006 census.
With a land area of 90.61 km2, it had a population density of 2,463.5/km2 in 2011. The median age is 39.8 years old younger than the British Columbia median of 41.9 years old. Burnaby's religious profile: 41.6% No religious affiliation 42.9% Christian 4.8% Buddhist 4.5% Muslim 2.9% Sikh 2.2% Hindu 0.3% Jewish 0.8% Other religions While Burnaby occupies about 4% of the land area of the Greater Vancouver Regional District, it accounted for about 10% of the region's population in 2001. It is the third most populated urban centre in British Columbia with an estimated population of 205,261. Like much of Greater Vancouver, Burnaby has always had large ethnic and immigrant communities: to cite two examples, North Burnaby near Hastings Street has long been home to many Italian restaurants and recreational bocce games, while Metrotown's ever-sprouting condominium towers in the south have been fuelled in part by more recent arrivals from China and South Korea. According to the 2006 Census, 54% of Burnaby residents have a mother tongue that is