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Western Caribbean Zone

The Western Caribbean Zone is a region consisting of the Caribbean coasts of Central America, from Yucatán in Mexico to northern Colombia, the islands west of Jamaica. The zone emerged in the late sixteenth century as the Spanish failed to conquer many sections of the coast, northern European powers supported opposition to Spain, sometimes through alliances with local powers. Unsubdued indigenous inhabitants of the region included some Maya polities, other chiefdoms and egalitarian societies in Belize, eastern Honduras and Costa Rica. In addition, the region was the refuge of several groups of runaway slaves, who formed independent settlements or intermixed with the indigenous societies; the combination of unsubdued indigenous people, an absence of outside control made it similar in some aspects to the American West or the Wild West, as the western half of North America is called. Its long engagement with the English-speaking Caribbean made it an ideal conduit for trade from both the English colonies of the Caribbean Jamaica, but North America, trading in the zone since the eighteenth century at least.

The low population and strategic location attracted United States-based transportation companies to promote infrastructure projects from railroads to the Panama Canal in the zone, conjointly with that to introduce large-scale fruit production toward the end of the nineteenth century bringing in labor from the English-speaking Caribbean to assist. Unique elements of the region, relative to the population of Central America in general, is the high percentage of people of whole or partial African descent, its cultural connections to English and the English-speaking Caribbean through language and religion; the first Spanish settlements on the mainland of South America were at Darien, where Spanish military activities were prominent in the first years of the sixteenth century. But, the Spanish abandoned their positions at Darien by 1520, leaving it, as well as the province of Veragua on the Caribbean coast of Panama, in the hands of the indigenous peoples; this situation continued well into the eighteenth century.

The government's occasional licenses given to ambitious Spaniards to conquer or settle these regions never resulted in any significant or long-lasting occupation, nor did attempts of missionaries to convert the indigenous inhabitants result in change. The Spanish founded towns along the coast of modern-day Venezuela and Colombia, Santa Marta in 1525 and Cartagena. From these towns they expanded inland to the lands of the Muisca in the highlands, they were less successful on several parts of the coast, where unconquered pockets remained, notably at the Rio de la Hacha and the Gulf of Urabá. Spanish successes in Central America took place on the Pacific side of the isthmus as the victorious Spanish and their Mexica and Tlaxcalan allies entered Guatemala in 1524 from the north. While the primary goal of the conquest was the Maya kingdoms of the Guatemala highlands, the Pipil and other kingdoms of Honduras and Nicaragua, most of their success occurred on the Pacific side of the Isthmus. A moderately wealthy Spanish colony, called the "Kingdom of Guatemala", was founded on the mining economy of that region, while not as prosperous as those of Peru or Mexico in gold exports supported Spanish towns and settlements at former Maya, Lenca or Pipil towns.

Farther south, attempts to subjugate the territory of modern-day Costa Rica were failures, although they did manage to capture slaves for labor elsewhere in the isthmus and outside it. There were numerous entradas authorized but all had to withdraw under stiff resistance. Towns that were founded in the 1560s were all destroyed by early seventeenth century attacks led by the Talamacas, as a result the Spanish only occupied the region around the town of Cartago and the Nicoya Peninsula. Attempts to reduce the area through missionary activity under the guidance of the Franciscans failed to produce much fruit, further hostilities in the 1760s and 1780s ended that period; the Spanish founded some towns on the Caribbean side of Central America, most notably Puerto de Caballos, Gracias a Dios and Portobelo, as well as a significant inland town at San Pedro Sula. But they failed to conquer the provinces of Taguzgalpa and Tologalpa in today’s northeast Honduras and western Nicaragua as well as much of the coast of Panamá and Costa Rica which lay beyond their control, save a few key towns.

They established reasonable control of the coastal lowlands of northern Yucatán after 1540, but the interior of Yucatán remained independent under the Itza kingdom. The coastal regions on the south and southeast side of Yucatán, while nominally under Spanish control in the province of Verapaz, were ruled by missionaries and exercised considerable freedom of action under the Spanish administration. For much of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the Spanish were content to allow the Caribbean side of Central America remain under loose control, they used the towns and the routes to them for transporting products of the Pacific side, including Peru to be shipped and exported to Spain. By the mid-sixteenth century, slaves working the transportation routes which carried silver from Peru to Panama and across the isthmus to Nombre de Dios, Portobello, ran away and formed independent communities in the mountains north of the city; the Spanish called. A large community with multiple settlements had developed there by 1550 headed by a king named Bayano whose headquarters

Claes Adelsk├Âld

Claes Adolf Adelsköld was a Swedish civil engineer, railway engineer, Army officer, member of the upper house of the Parliament of Sweden, writer. A member of the noble family of that name, Adelsköld was born in Nolhaga, Alingsås Municipality, on 7 September 1824, he studied in Gothenburg, serving in the Swedish Army's Göta Artillery Regiment and became a lieutenant in 1844 in the Värmland jäger regiment. In 1852, he became a lieutenant in the newly organized Civil Engineering Corps, continued to advance in the Corps until taking leave in 1875, when he was elected a member of the Riksdag. With 26 years in railway and canal construction, Adelsköld proudly called himself "Sveriges rallarbuse Nr.1". In 1875, he was elected a member of the upper house of the Riksdag, in which he served until 1893: at first for Västerbotten County and for Blekinge County, he showed particular interest in defense issues. In 1867 he bought Steninge Castle in Sigtuna Municipality, where he led an extensive social life with people that included Prince Oscar.

He sold the castle in 1873 and in 1876 repurchased the traditional family property Nolhaga in Alingsås Municipality, where he built a castle-like building. In 1870 he was elected to the Swedish Academy of Sciences, of which he became chairman in 1891, he died on 1 October 1907 in Stockholm. Adelsköld Street near the railway station in Alingsås is named after Claes Adelsköld, he was a speaker of the international language Esperanto, composing a now used score for the poem La Espero, regarded as the quasi-anthem of the movement. En resa till Nordkap A trip to the North Cape Äventyr under en resa till Bornholm Adventure during a trip to Bornholm Utdrag ur mitt dagsverks, o. Pro diverse konto. Excerpts from my day-work Karl den tolfte och svenskarne. En historisk studie. Charles the Twelfth and Swedish trees: A historical study Uttalanden i malmfrågan Statements on the ore issue Konung Gustaf Eriksson Wasa King Gustav Eriksson Vasa

Jorma Elo

Jorma Elo is a contemporary choreographer. He was born 30 August 1961 in Finland, his father, Jaakko Elo, is mother Ruth Elo née Carlstedt, a dentist. Jorma Elo's partner since 1994 is Nancy Euverink, assistant to Elo; as a schoolboy, Elo wanted to be a ice hockey player, despite this he began studying modern and jazz dance at 12. At the age of 13 he was enrolled in Finnish National Ballet School for classical training. 1979–80, he studied in the Kirov Ballet School, which under the Soviet era was the name of the Maryinsky Ballet School in St. Petersburg. Elo was signed by the Finnish National Ballet at 16, acquired experience not only of stage, but of opera and ballet production processes, he danced with the Finnish National Ballet from 1978 to 1984. In 1983 he completed his compulsory military service. In 1980 he attended Varna International Ballet Competition and 1984 he was a finalist in Helsinki International Ballet Competition. Elo joined the Swedish Cullberg Ballet 1984 for six years; the modernist Cullberg Ballet led by choreographer Mats Ek was part of Riksteatern, the Swedish State Theater Organisation.

It toured in Sweden and the Nordic Countries. In 1990, Elo joined Netherlands Dance Theatre where he worked with choreographers such as Jiri Kylian, Hans van Manen, Ohad Naharin, William Forsythe. NDT produced a great volume of new dance works during 1990's and toured every year in all continents. During this time Elo met Nancy Euverink, a dancer of the Company, they became a couple in 1994. Elo's active stage career lasted 26 years, he gave his last public performances in 2004. Elo debuted as a choreographer in 2000 with “The View from Over Here” and “Blank Snow”. After 2004 he has worked in the US and been a resident since 2010, although he kept his home in the Netherlands. At the beginning he worked as a freelancer for a variety of dance companies, but in 2005 he was appointed the Resident Choreographer of Boston Ballet. In addition to Boston Ballet he has worked with New York City Ballet, San Francisco Ballet, American Ballet Theatre, the Royal Danish Ballet, Stuttgart Ballet, Nederlands Dans Theater, Vienna State Opera Ballet, Finnish National Ballet, Aspen Santa Fe Ballet and Hubbard Street Dance Chicago.

Up to 2012 Elo has choreographed more than 50 ballets, both new choreographies for classic ballet scores like Stravinsky's Pulcinella and new ones for example with Sibelius´ music. He has designed costumes, stage settings and video effects for his ballets. in the spring 2012 he is working on a new creation for the Bolshoi Ballet titled Dream of Dream to be premiered June 29, 2012 at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow. Elo makes synthesis of modern dance, he emphasizes athleticism and dynamic movement and speaks about Primal Contact with his body and the music. Elo considers it useful to give every dancer various roles so that every member of the company has opportunity to personal work. Many dancers have said that Elo is an empathetic personality without any need to promote his own ego. Elo has received numerous accolades for his choreography, including a mention by New York Times dance critic Anna Kisselgoff as a “talent to follow”. In 2005 he won a choreographic prize at the Helsinki International Ballet Competition.

In 2006 he won the Choo-San Goh Choreographic Award and that same year Pointe Magazine named him a Dance VIP. In 2011, he was awarded the Prix Benois de la Danse as choreographer. "ONE/end/ONE" for Houston Ballet earned him the first Rudolf Nureyev Prize for New Dance in 2011. Most Elo has been celebrated by critics for his evening of dance at Boston Ballet entitled “Elo Experience”; the performance featured eight selections from Elo's repertoire, the remaining sections illustrated by Boston Ballet's premiere dancers Jeffrey Cirio and Larissa Ponomarenko. The View from Over here Blank Snow Alberta Ballet Faun/Spectre Alberta Ballet Twisted Shadow Finnish National Ballet Sharp side of Dark Boston Ballet 1st Flash NDT 1 Red with Me Pecs Ballet Black Shine Gala Stockholm DREAMTEAM Stockholm 59 North Happy is Happy Finnish National Ballet One Cue Pecs Ballet Plan to B Boston Ballet Drive Stockholm 59 North Cut to Drive Norwegian National Ballet Plan to A NDT 1 Two Fast Finnish National Ballet Hammer Ballet Debrecen OFFCORE Finnish National Ballet Carmen Boston Ballet Slice to Sharp New York City Ballet Slice to Core Ballet Nurnberg Scenes View 2 Ballet X Glow- Stop American Ballet Theater Pointe OFF Aspen Santa Fe Ballet 10 to Hyper M. Royal Danish Ballet Nijinsky Finnish TV From all Sides Hubbard St. dance company C. to C.

American Ballet Theater Brake the Eyes Boston Ballet Brake Green Norwegian National Ballet Lost by Last Royal Ballet of Flanders Lost on Slow Royal Danish Ballet In on Blue Boston Ballet Double Evil San Francisco Ballet Red Sweet Aspen Santa Fe Ballet Death and the Maiden Norwegian National Ballet Requiem Gothenburg Ballet Suite Murder Finnish National Ballet Sacre du Printemps Boston Ballet Bitter Suite Hubbard Street Dance Chicago Round about Tim, Solo for Tim Mathiakis for gala in Greece, Athens Midsummer Nights Dream full evening work, Vienna state Opera Ballet, Austria One Concerto Boston Ballet school, Boston Pur ti Miro, National Ballet of Canada, Toronto RED in 3, Stuttgart Ballet, Germany Touch Norwegian Nationa

Nelly Bromley

Eleanor Elizabeth Emily Bromley was an English actor and singer who performed in operettas, musical burlesques and comic plays. She is best remembered today for having created the role of the Plaintiff in Gilbert & Sullivan's first success, Trial by Jury, although she played in that piece for just over three months out of a successful career spanning nearly two decades. Bromley was born on 30 September 1850 in London to an actress and singer Eleanor Bromley; the identity of her father is unknown. Her mother was born into the large family of his wife Hannah née Shailer, her mother had begun acting while still a teenager, in 1843, appearing at many of the major West End theatres at the Olympic Theatre. She continued to act until she died in childbirth in 1860. In 1857, she had married Charles Henry Cook. After her mother's death and her younger sister, Jessy Cook, were raised by their grandmother Hannah. Bromley used her nickname "Nelly" as her stage name and, like her mother, began a stage career in her teens.

By December 1866, she was acting at the Royalty Theatre in London, playing Dolly Mayflower in a burlesque by F. C. Burnand of Black-Eyed Susan, she remained in the company at the Royalty, acting in other burlesques, including W. S. Gilbert's Highly Improbable and as Nimble Ned in Burnand's burlesque on Claude Duval, she played in comedies and toured with Edward Askew Sothern. Like her mother, she soon appeared in many of the West End theatres including the Globe, Royal Court, the Gaiety and the Strand. By 1873, she had become popular in H. B. Farnie's musical comedies. In his pasticcio The Black Prince and Selina Dolaro played sisters Flossie and Sybil, she returned to the Royalty to create the role of the Plaintiff, on 25 March 1875, in Gilbert and Sullivan's Trial by Jury. Although Bromley was a critical success in the part, she left the production in July 1875. "Trial by Jury Lancers", Charles d'Albert's dance arrangement of numbers from the piece, was dedicated to Bromley. She next played at the Criterion Theatre as Mrs Graham in The Great Divorce Case, an adaptation of Le Procès Veradieux.

In 1875 Bromley played the Princess of Granada in H. S. Leigh's translation of Jacques Offenbach's Les brigands, presented at the Globe Theatre with the title Falsacappa. Bromley acted at the Criterion in a series of long-running English adaptations of French farces: Hot Water, On Bail and, as Rebecca, in the original cast of The Pink Dominos, as well as René in a Farnie and Robert Reece adaptation of Offenbach, La Créole, at the Folly Theatre. In 1879, she created the role of Amy Jones in another hit and Toothpick, she returned to the Royalty in 1880, appearing in Venus, an extravaganza by Edward Solomon, Edward Rose and Augustus Harris. By 1881, Bromley had moved in with artist Archibald Stuart-Wortley, they married in 1884, he acted as father to her four children: Lillian Bertha, Valentine Robert and John. In 1882, she replaced Lottie Venne in Burnand's farce Betsy at the Criterion. In 1883, she appeared in Freedom at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, earning a good review in The Theatre, she retired from the stage around the same time.

In life, Bromley used her married name, Mrs. Archibald Stuart-Wortley. Bromley died in Lymington, Hampshire in 1939 at the age of 89. Ayre, Leslie; the Gilbert & Sullivan Companion. London: W. H. Allen & Co Ltd. Introduction by Martyn Green. Allen, Reginald; the First Night Gilbert and Sullivan. London: Chappell & Co. Ltd

Family Tradition (Hank Williams Jr. song)

"Family Tradition" is a song written and recorded by American country music artist Hank Williams Jr. It was released in May 1979 as the fourth and final single and title track from his album of the same name, it peaked at No. 4, is one of his most popular songs. It has sold 909,000 digital copies as of April 2016; the song is a Williams' statement of rebellion, not only in his lifestyle and living out the lyrics of his songs, but of his musical identity and direction. With the latter point, the lyrics state Williams' unapologetic desire to forge his own style in response to criticism for his change from countrypolitan and covers of his father's songs. At the same time proclaiming how proud and honored he is to be part of his father's musical legacy, the younger Williams makes clear that his musical style – southern rock fused with honky tonk – is different from the blues-oriented honky-tonk popular during Williams' lifetime. Taking off on the point of his father, the younger Williams notes that the hard-living lifestyle is a "family tradition," referring to the alcohol and drug use that became associated with his personal life.

Charlie Daniels performs the fiddle-led bridge between the third verses. When played in concert, at parties, or sung at karaoke, "Family Tradition" becomes a call-and-response song during the chorus. One typical example: "Why do you drink?" "TO GET DRUNK!" "And why do you roll smokes?" "TO GET STONED!" "Why must you live out/the songs that you wrote?" "TO GET LAID!" For the 2008 US presidential campaign, Williams wrote a version of the song called "McCain-Palin Tradition" which included a line suggesting that Barack Obama had "radical friends"

Chatham Square

Chatham Square is a major intersection in Chinatown, New York City. The square lies at the confluence of eight streets: the Bowery, Doyers Street, East Broadway, St. James Place, Mott Street, Oliver Street, Worth Street and Park Row; the small park in the center of the square is known as Lin Ze Xu Square. Chatham Square was named for William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham and Prime Minister of Great Britain before the American Revolution. Pitt Street in the Lower East Side is named for him, Park Row was once Chatham Street. Up until about 1820, the square was used as a large open air market for goods and livestock horses. By the mid-19th century, it became a center for tattoo parlors and saloons, as a seedy section of the old Five Points neighborhood. In the 20th century, after The Great Depression and Prohibition, the area was reformed; the Kimlau Memorial Arch was erected by the American Legion, Lt. B. R. Kimlau Post 1291 in 1961 to honor United States service members of Chinese ancestry who have fought and died serving their country.

The arch is named after 26-year-old 2nd Lt. Benjamin Ralph Kimlau, an aircraft commander in the 380th Bombardment Group, shot down on a mission over Los Negros Island on March 5, 1944 during World War II; the memorial was designed by Poy G. Lee, bears calligraphy by noted Chinese calligrapher and poet Yu Youren. There is a larger-than-lifesize bronze statue of Lin Zexu in the square sculpted by Li Wei-Si. Chatham Square was a major station on both the Second Avenue Elevated Line and the Third Avenue Elevated Line of the New York City Subway; these lines closed in 1942 and 1955 in anticipation of being replaced by the long-planned Second Avenue Subway. Phase 1 of the Second Avenue Subway on the Upper East Side opened in 2017. A new station is proposed for Chatham Square as part of Phase 4, though as of 2019, no timeline has been established and the funding has not yet been allocated. Notes Chatham Square Cemetery Media related to Chatham Square at Wikimedia Commons