Cyrenaica is the eastern coastal region of Libya. Known as Pentapolis in antiquity, it formed part of the Roman province of Crete and Cyrenaica divided into Libya Pentapolis and Libya Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known after the city of Barca. Cyrenaica was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 until 1943 under British military and civil administration from 1943 until 1951, in the Kingdom of Libya from 1951 until 1963. In a wider sense, still in use, Cyrenaica includes all of the eastern part of Libya, including the Kufra District. Cyrenaica borders on Fezzan in the southwest; the region that used to be Cyrenaica until 1963 has formed several shabiyat, the administrative divisions of Libya, since 1995. The 2011 Libyan Civil War started in Cyrenaica, which came under the control of the National Transitional Council for most of the war. In 2012, the National Transitional Council declared Cyrenaica to be an autonomous region of Libya. Geologically, Cyrenaica rests on a mass of Miocene limestone that tilts up steeply from the Mediterranean Sea and falls inland with a gradual descent to sea level again.
This mass is divided into two blocks. The Jebel Akhdar extends parallel to the coast from the Gulf of Sidra to the Gulf of Bomba and reaches an elevation of 872 meters. There is no continuous coastal plain, the longest strip running from the recess of Gulf of Sidra past Benghazi to Tolmeita. Thereafter, except for deltaic patches at Susa and Derna, the shore is all precipitous. A steep escarpment separates the coastal plain from a level plateau, known as the Marj Plain, which lies at about 300 meters elevation. Above the Marj Plain lies a dissected plateau at about 700 meters elevation, which contains the highest peaks in the range; the Jebel Akhdar and its adjacent coast are part of the Mediterranean woodlands and forests ecoregion and have a Mediterranean climate of hot, dry summers and mild and rainy winters. The plant communities of this portion of Cyrenaica include forest, maquis, garrigue and oak savanna. Garrigue shrublands occupy the non-agricultural portions coastal plain and coastal escarpments, with Sarcopoterium spinosum, along with Asphodelus microcarpus and Artemisia herba-alba, as the predominant species.
Small areas of maquis are found on north-facing slopes near the sea, becoming more extensive on the lower plateau. Juniperus phoenicea, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus coccifera and Ceratonia siliqua are common tree and large shrub species in the maquis; the upper plateau includes areas of garrigue, two maquis communities, one dominated by Pistacia lentiscus and the other a mixed maquis in which the endemic Arbutus pavarii is prominent, forests of Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus phoenicea, Olea europaea, Quercus coccifera, Ceratonia siliqua, Pinus halepensis. Areas of red soil are found on the Marj Plain, which has borne abundant crops of wheat and barley from ancient times to the present day. Plenty of springs issue on the highlands. Wild olive trees are abundant, large areas of oak savanna provide pasture to the flocks and herds of the local Bedouins. Large areas of range were covered in forest; the forested area of the Jebel Akhdar has been shrinking in recent decades. A 1996 report to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that the forested area was reduced to 320,000 hectares from 500,000 hectares cleared to grow crops.
The Green Mountain Conservation and Development Authority estimates that the forested area decreased from 500,000 hectares in 1976 to 180,000 hectares in 2007. The southward slopes of the Jebel Akhdar are occupied by the Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe, a transitional ecoregion lying between the Mediterranean climate regions of North Africa and the hyper-arid Sahara Desert; the lower Jebel el-Akabah lies to east of the Jebel Akhdar. The two highlands are separated by a depression; this eastern region, known in ancient times as Marmarica, is much drier than the Jebel Akhdar and here the Sahara extends to the coast. Salt-collecting and sponge fishing were more important than agriculture. Bomba and Tobruk have good harbors. South of the coastal highlands of Cyrenaica is a large east-west running depression, extending eastward from the Gulf of Sidra into Egypt; this region of the Sahara is known as the Libyan Desert, includes the Great Sand Sea and the Calanshio Sand Sea. The Libyan Desert is home including Awjila and Jaghbub.
The Berbers were the earliest recorded inhabitants of Cyrenaica, most modern Cyrenaicans are considered to be Berber in origin. Remnants of the Berber languages spoken by their ancestors are still found in the Awjila language of the oasis of Awjila; the ancient Berbers founded a number of cities and settlements, both on the coast and in the inland oases. Egyptian records mention that, during the New Kingdom of Egypt, the Libu and Meshwesh tribes of Cyrenaica made frequent incursions into Egypt. Cyrenaica was colonized by the Greeks beginning in the 7th century BC, when it was known as Kyrenaika; the first and most important colony was that of Cyrene, established in about 631 BC by colonists from the Greek island of Thera, which they had abandoned because of a severe famine. Their commander, took the Libyan name Battos, his dynasty, the Battaid, persisted in spite of severe conflict with Greeks in neighboring cities. The eastern portion of the province, with no major population centers, was called Marmarica.
Italian Libya was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy located in North Africa, in what is now modern Libya. Italian Libya was formed from the Italian colonies of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania that were taken by the Kingdom of Italy from the Ottoman Empire in 1911, during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912; the unified colony was established in 1934 with Tripoli as the capital. The territory of Italian Libya was called Italian North Africa, both before and after its unification. In 1923, indigenous rebels associated with the Senussi Order organized the Libyan resistance movement against Italian settlement in Libya; the rebellion was put down by Italian forces in 1932, after the so called "pacification campaign", which resulted in the deaths of a quarter of Cyrenaica's population. During World War II, Italian Libya became the setting for the North African Campaign. Although the Italians were defeated there by the Allies in 1943, many of the Italian settlers still remained in Libya. Under the terms of the 1947 peace treaty, Italy relinquished all claims to Libya, administrated by the United Kingdom and France until its independence in 1951.
The history of Libya as an Italian colony started in 1911 and was characterized by a major struggle with Muslim native Libyans that lasted until 1931. During this period, the Italian government controlled only the coastal areas of the colony. Between 1911 and 1912, over 1,000 Somalis from Mogadishu, the capital of Italian Somaliland, served as combat units along with Eritrean and Italian soldiers in the Italo-Turkish War. Most of the troops stationed never returned home until they were transferred back to Italian Somaliland in preparation for the invasion of Ethiopia in 1935. After the Italian Empire's conquest of Ottoman Tripolitania, in the 1911–12 Italo-Turkish War, much of the early colonial period had Italy waging a war of subjugation against Libya's population. Ottoman Turkey surrendered its control of Libya in the 1912 Treaty of Lausanne, but fierce resistance to the Italians continued from the Senussi political-religious order, a nationalistic group of Sunni Muslims; this group, first under the leadership of Omar Al Mukhtar and centered in the Jebel Akhdar Mountains of Cyrenaica, led the Libyan resistance movement against Italian settlement in Libya.
Italian forces under the Generals Pietro Badoglio and Rodolfo Graziani waged punitive pacification campaigns using chemical weapons, mass executions of soldiers and civilians and concentration camps. One quarter of Cyrenaica's population of 225,000 people died during the conflict. After nearly two decades of suppression campaigns the Italian colonial forces claimed victory. In the 1930s, the policy of Italian Fascism toward Libya began to change, both Cyrenaica and Tripolitania, along with Fezzan, were merged into Italian Libya in 1934. In the second half of the 1930s, under the Governor Italo Balbo, Italian Libya experienced a huge development; the colony expanded after concessions from the British colony of Sudan and a territorial agreement with Egypt. The Kufra district was nominally attached to British-occupied Egypt until 1925, but in fact remained a headquarters for the Senussi resistance until conquered by the Italians in 1931; the Kingdom of Italy at the 1919 Paris "Conference of Peace" received nothing from German colonies, but as a compensation Great Britain gave it the Oltre Giuba and France agreed to give some Saharan territories to Italian Libya.
After prolonged discussions through the 1920s, in 1935 under the Mussolini-Laval agreement Italy received the Aouzou strip, added to Libya. However this agreement was not ratified by France. In 1931, the towns of El Tag and Al Jawf were taken over by Italy. British Egypt had ceded Kufra and Jarabub to Italian Libya on December 6, 1925, but it was not until the early 1930s that Italy was in full control of the place. In 1931, during the campaign of Cyrenaica, General Rodolfo Graziani conquered Kufra District, considered a strategic region, leading about 3,000 soldiers from infantry and artillery, supported by about twenty bombers. Ma'tan as-Sarra was turned over to Italy in 1934 as part of the Sarra Triangle to colonial Italy by the Anglo-Egyptian Condominium, who considered the area worthless and so an act of cheap appeasement to Benito Mussolini's attempts at empire. During this time, the Italian colonial forces built a World War I–style fort in El Tag in the mid-1930s. In 1939 some Libyans were granted special Italian citizenship by Royal Decree No. 70 on 9 January 1939.
This citizenship was necessary for any Libyan with ambitions to rise in the military or civil organizations. The recipients were referred to as Moslem Italians. Libya had become the fourth shore of Italy”; the incorporation of Libya into the Italian Empire gave the Italian Army a greater ability to exploit native Libyans for military service. Native Libyans served in Italian formations from the beginning of the Italian occupation of Libya. On 1 March 1940, 2nd Libyan Divisions were formed; these Libyan Infantry divisions were organized along the lines of the binary Italian infantry division. The 5th Italian Army received the 2nd Libyan Infantry division which it incorporated into the 13th corps; the Italian 10th Army received the 1st Libyan Infantry Division which it incorporated into the reserve. The Italian Libyan infantry divisions were colonial formations; these formations had Italian officers commanding them with Libyan soldiers. These native Libyan formations were made up of people drawn from the coastal Libyan populations
An erg is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand with little or no vegetative cover. The term takes its name from the Arabic word ʿarq, meaning "dune field". Speaking, an erg is defined as a desert area that contains more than 125 km2 of aeolian or wind-blown sand and where sand covers more than 20% of the surface. Smaller areas are known as "dune fields"; the largest hot desert in the world, the Sahara, covers 9 million square kilometres and contains several ergs, such as the Chech Erg and the Issaouane Erg in Algeria. 85% of all the Earth's mobile sand is found in ergs that are greater than 32,000 km2. Ergs are found on other celestial bodies, such as Venus and Saturn's moon Titan. Ergs are concentrated in two broad belts between 20° to 40°N and 20° to 40°S latitudes, which include regions crossed by the dry, subsiding air of the trade winds. Active ergs are limited to regions that receive, on average, no more than 150 mm of annual precipitation; the largest are in northern and southern Africa and western Asia, Central Australia.
In South America, ergs are limited by the Andes Mountains, but they do contain large dunes in coastal Peru and northwestern Argentina. They are found in several parts of the northeast coast of Brazil; the only active erg in North America is in the Gran Desierto de Altar that extends from the Sonoran Desert in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora to the Yuma Desert of Arizona and the Algodones Dunes of southeastern California. An erg, fixed by vegetation forms the Nebraska Sandhills. Sand seas and dune fields occur in regions downwind of copious sources of dry, loose sand, such as dry riverbeds and deltas, glacial outwash plains, dry lakes, beaches. All major ergs are located downwind from river beds in areas that are too dry to support extensive vegetative cover and are thus subject to long-continued wind erosion. Sand from these abundant sources migrates downwind and builds up into large dunes where its movement is halted or slowed by topographic barriers to windflow or by convergence of windflow.
Entire ergs and dune fields tend to migrate downwind as far as hundreds of kilometers from their sources of sand. Such accumulation requires long periods of time. At least one million years are required to build ergs with large dunes, such as those on the Arabian Peninsula, in North Africa, in central Asia. Sand seas that have accumulated in subsiding structural and topographic basins, such as the Murzuk Sand Sea of Libya, may attain great thicknesses but others, such as the ergs of linear dunes in the Simpson Desert and Great Sandy Desert of Australia, may be no thicker than the individual dunes superposed on the alluvial plain. Within sand seas in a given area, the dunes tend to be of a single type. For example, there are ergs or fields of linear dunes, of crescentic dunes, of star dunes, of parabolic dunes, these dune arrays tend to have consistent orientations and sizes. By nature, ergs are active. Smaller dunes migrate along the flanks of the larger dunes and sand ridges. Occasional precipitation fills basins formed by the dunes.
Individual dunes in ergs have widths, lengths, or both dimensions greater than 500 m. Both the regional extent of their sand cover and the complexity and great size of their dunes distinguish ergs from dune fields; the depth of sand in ergs varies around the world, ranging from only a few centimeters deep in the Selima Sand Sheet of Southern Egypt, to 1 m in the Simpson Desert, 21–43 m in the Sahara. This is far shallower. Evidence in the geological record indicates that some Mesozoic and Paleozoic ergs reached a mean depth of several hundred meters. Ergs are a geological feature that can be found on planets where an atmosphere capable of significant wind erosion acts on the surface for a significant period of time, creating sand and allowing it to accumulate. Today at least three bodies, apart from Earth, are known in the solar system to feature ergs on their surface: Venus and Titan. At least two ergs have been recognized by the Magellan probe on Venus: the Aglaonice dune field, which covers 1,290 km2, the Meshkenet dune field.
These seem to be transverse dune fields. Mars shows large ergs next to the polar caps, where dunes can reach a considerable size. Ergs on Mars can exhibit strange shapes and patterns, due to complex interaction with the underlying surface and wind direction. Radar images captured by the Cassini spacecraft as it flew by Titan in October 2005 show sand dunes at Titan's equator much like those in deserts of Earth. One erg was observed to be more than 930 miles long. Dunes are a dominant landform on Titan. 15-20% of the surface is covered by ergs with an estimated total area of 12–18 million km2 making it the largest dune field coverage in the solar system identified to date. The sand dunes are believed to be formed by wind generated as a result of tidal forces from Saturn on Titan's atmosphere; the images are evidence that these dunes were built from winds that blow in one direction before switching to another and back to the first direction and so on, c
Long Range Desert Group
The Long Range Desert Group was a reconnaissance and raiding unit of the British Army during the Second World War. Called the Long Range Patrol, the unit was founded in Egypt in June 1940 by Major Ralph A. Bagnold, acting under the direction of General Archibald Wavell. Bagnold was assisted by Captain William Shaw. At first the majority of the men were from New Zealand, but they were soon joined by Southern Rhodesian and British volunteers, whereupon new sub-units were formed and the name was changed to the better-known Long Range Desert Group; the LRDG never numbered more than 350 men. The LRDG was formed to carry out deep penetration, covert reconnaissance patrols and intelligence missions from behind Italian lines, although they sometimes engaged in combat operations; because the LRDG were experts in desert navigation, they were sometimes assigned to guide other units, including the Special Air Service and secret agents across the desert. During the Desert Campaign between December 1940 and April 1943, the vehicles of the LRDG operated behind the Axis lines, missing a total of only 15 days during the entire period.
Their most notable offensive action was during Operation Caravan, an attack on the town of Barce and its associated airfield, on the night of 13 September 1942. However, their most vital role was the'Road Watch', during which they clandestinely monitored traffic on the main road from Tripoli to Benghazi, transmitting the intelligence to British Army Headquarters. With the surrender of the Axis forces in Tunisia in May 1943, the LRDG changed roles and moved operations to the eastern Mediterranean, carrying out missions in the Greek islands and the Balkans. After the end of the war in Europe, the leaders of the LRDG made a request to the War Office for the unit to be transferred to the Far East to conduct operations against the Japanese Empire; the request was declined and the LRDG was disbanded in August 1945. Before the war, Major Ralph Bagnold learned how to maintain and operate vehicles, how to navigate, how to communicate in the desert. On 23 June 1940 he met General Archibald Wavell, the commander of the Middle East Command in Alexandria and explained his concept for a group of men intended to undertake long-range reconnaissance patrols to gather intelligence behind the Italian lines in Libya.
General Wavell was familiar with desert warfare, having been a liaison officer with the Egyptian Expeditionary Force during the First World War, he understood and endorsed Bagnold's suggested concept. Wavell assisted in equipping the force; the unit known as the No.1 Long Range Patrol Unit, was founded on 3 July 1940. Bagnold wanted men who were energetic, self-reliant and mentally tough, able to live and fight in seclusion in the Libyan desert. Bagnold felt that New Zealand farmers would possess these attributes and was given permission to approach the 2nd New Zealand Division for volunteers. Two officers and 85 other ranks including 18 administrative and technical personnel were selected, coming from the Divisional Cavalry Regiment and the 27th Machine-Gun Battalion. Once the men had been recruited, they started training in desert survival techniques and desert driving and navigation, with additional training in radio communications and demolitions; the LRP could form only three units, known as patrols, but a doubling of strength allowed the addition of a new Heavy Section.
In November 1940, the name of the LRP was changed to the "Long Range Desert Group", the New Zealanders were joined by volunteers from British and Southern Rhodesian regiments. The British volunteers, who came from the Brigade of Guards and Yeomanry regiments, were incorporated into their own patrols; the original patrol unit consisted of two officers and 28 other ranks, equipped with a Canadian Military Pattern Ford 15 Imperial hundredweight truck and 10 Chevrolet 30 cwt trucks. In March 1941 new types of trucks were issued and the patrol units were split into half-patrols of one officer and 15–18 men in five or six vehicles; each patrol incorporated a medical orderly, a navigator, a radio operator and a vehicle mechanic, each of whom manned a truck equipped for their role. The Long Range Patrol comprised a 15-man headquarters with Bagnold in command. There were three sub-units:'R' Patrol commanded by Captain Donald Gavin Steele,'T' Patrol commanded by Captain Patrick Clayton and'W' Patrol commanded by Captain Edward'Teddy' Cecil Mitford.'T' and'W' Patrols were combat units while'R' Patrol was intended to be a support unit.
In November 1940, the LRP was re-designated the Long Range Desert Group. It was expanded to six Patrols:'T','W' and'R' Patrols were joined by'G','S' and'Y' Patrols; each patrol was expected to belong to the same regimental group, but only the Brigade of Guards and the Yeomanry regiments formed their own Patrols,'G' and'Y' respectively. The men of'G' Patrol were drawn from the 3rd Battalion Coldstream Guards and the 2nd Battalion Scots Guards under command of Captain Michael Crichton-Stuart. The'Y' Patrol men were drawn from the Nottinghamshire Yeomanry under command Captain P. J. D. McCraith, with additional men from the Royal Northumberland Fusiliers and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. In December 1940,'W' Patrol was disbanded and its personnel used to bring'R' and'T' Patrols up to strength, while'G' Patrol took over their vehicles. By June 1941 the LRDG was re-organised into two squadrons: the New Zealand and Rhodesian'A' Squadron with'S','T' and'R' Patrols, and'B' Squadron with'G','H' and'Y' Patrols.
There was a Headquarters Section along with signals, survey an
New Valley Governorate
New Valley Governorate or El Wadi El Gedid Governorate is one of the governorates of Egypt. It is in the southwestern part of the country, in Egypt's Western Desert, between the Nile, northern Sudan, southeastern Libya. Consisting of a third of Egypt's area, this spacious governorate is the country's largest and one of the biggest subnational divisions on the African continent, as well as the world. At 440,098 square kilometers in area, New Valley Governorate is just larger than the country of Iraq; the capital is at the Kharga Oasis. The governorate is divided into municipal divisions with a total estimated population as of July 2017 of 242,300. In the case of New Valley governorate, there is one kism with urban and rural parts, four marakiz. In an effort to decentralize the administration of Kharga, it was divided into four sections effective 19 June, 2018. According to population estimates, in 2015 the majority of residents in the governorate lived in rural areas, with an urbanization rate of only 48.0%.
Out of an estimated 225,416 people residing in the governorate, 117,180 people lived in rural areas and only 108,236 lived in urban areas. According to population estimates, in 2018 the population was 245,000, with an urbanization rate of 46.7%. New Valley has a number of cities and oases; as of 2018, Kharga Oasis, Dakhla Oasis were the two places in New Valley with a population of over 15,000. Farafra Oasis and Baris Oasis are in New Valley. According to the Egyptian Governing Authority for Investment and Free Zones, in affiliation with the Ministry of Investment, the following industrial zones are located in this governorate: Al Kharga Heavy industrial zone - El Dakhla Heavy industrial zone - Wadi Waer West 2011 Egyptian revolutionViolent clashes were reported in the New Valley Governorate on February 8–9, 2011 as part of the 2011 Egyptian revolution. Protesters set fire to the National Democratic Party building. Multiple deaths were reported in addition to hundreds of injuries amid claims that the police opened fire on protesters in Kharga Oasis with live ammunition.
Manufacturing of palm dates Tourism and safaris Agricultural activities Gilf Kebir New Valley Project El Watan News of New Valley Governorate
Gazala, or Ain el Gazala, is a small Libyan village near the coast in the northeastern portion of the country. It is located 60 kilometres west of Tobruk. In the late 1930s, the village was the site of an Arab concentration camp, which the men of the Senussi resistance tried in vain to penetrate. Gazala is best known for the memorable World War II battle that took place in the surrounding area from May to June 1942 between Axis forces and Allied forces; this battle resulted in an Axis victory and the subsequent capture of Tobruk on 21 June 1942
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It