Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages. Labialized sounds involve the lips; the term is restricted to consonants. When vowels involve the lips, they are called rounded; the most common labialized consonants are labialized velars. Most other labialized sounds have simultaneous velarization, the process may be more called labio-velarization. In phonology, labialization may refer to a type of assimilation process. Labialization is the most widespread secondary articulation in the world's languages, it is phonemically contrastive in Northwest Caucasian and Salishan language families, among others. This contrast is reconstructed for Proto-Indo-European, the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. American English has three degrees of labialization: tight rounded, slight rounded, unrounded, which in vowels is sometimes called'spread'; these secondary articulations are not universal. For example, French shares the English slight rounding of /ʃ/, /ʒ/ while Russian does not have slight rounding in its postalveolar fricatives.
A few languages, including Arrernte and Mba, have contrastive labialized forms for all of their consonants. Out of 706 language inventories surveyed by Ruhlen, labialization occurred most with velar and uvular segments and least with dental and alveolar segments. With non-dorsal consonants, labialization may include velarization as well. Labialization is not restricted to lip-rounding; the following articulations have either been described as labialization, or been found as allophonic realizations of prototypical labialization: Labiodental frication, found in Abkhaz Complete bilabial closure, found in Abkhaz and Ubykh "Labialization" without noticeable rounding of the lips, found in the Iroquoian languages. It may be. Rounding without velarization, found in Shona and in the Bzyb dialect of Abkhaz. Eastern Arrernte has labialization at all manners of articulation. Marshallese has labialization at all places of articulation except for coronal obstruents. In North America, languages from a number of families have sounds that sound labialized without participation of the lips.
See Tillamook language for an example. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, labialization of velar consonants is indicated with a raised w modifier, as in /kʷ/. There are diacritics to indicate greater or lesser degrees of rounding; these are used with vowels, but may occur with consonants. For example, in the Athabaskan language Hupa, voiceless velar fricatives distinguish three degrees of labialization, transcribed either /x/, /x̹/, /xʷ/ or /x/, /x̜ʷ/, /xʷ/; the extensions to the IPA has two additional symbols for degrees of rounding: Spread and open-rounded. It has a symbol for labiodentalized sounds. If precision is desired, the Abkhaz and Ubykh articulations may be transcribed with the appropriate fricative or trill raised as a diacritic:. For simple labialization, Ladefoged & Maddieson resurrected an old IPA symbol, which would be placed above a letter with a descender such as ɡ. However, their chief example is Shona sv and zv, which they transcribe /s̫/ and /z̫/ but which seem to be whistled sibilants, without being labialized.
Another possibility is to use the IPA diacritic for rounding, distinguishing for example the labialization in English soon and swoon. The open rounding of English /ʃ/ is unvelarized. Labialization refers to a specific type of assimilatory process where a given sound become labialized due to the influence of neighboring labial sounds. For example, /k/ may become /kʷ/ in the environment of /o/, or /a/ may become /o/ in the environment of /p/ or /kʷ/. In the Northwest Caucasian languages as well as some Australian languages rounding has shifted from the vowels to the consonants, producing a wide range of labialized consonants and leaving in some cases only two phonemic vowels; this appears to have been the case in Eastern Arrernte, for example. The labial vowel sounds still remain, but only as allophones next to the now-labial consonant sounds. Labialized voiceless alveolar stop labialized voiced alveolar stop labialized voiceless velar stop labialized voiced velar stop ( labialized voiceless uvular stop ( labialized pharyngealized voiceless uvular stop labialized voiced uvular stop ( labialized glottal stop ( labialized voiceless bilabial stop ( labialized voiced bilabial stop ( labialized prenasalized voiced bilabial plosive (in Tamamb
The Mamanuca Islands of Fiji are a volcanic archipelago lying to the west of Nadi and to the south of the Yasawa Islands. The group, a popular tourist destination, consists of about 20 islands, but about seven of these are covered by the Pacific Ocean at high tide; the islands offer crystal palm fringed sandy beaches and live coral reefs. There are islands, resorts to visit and swim; the coastal/marine ecosystem and recreation value of the archipelago contribute to its national significance as outlined in Fiji's Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. One of the islands, was made famous as the anonymous island that featured in the 2000 Robert Zemeckis film, Cast Away, starring Tom Hanks. Islands in the Mamanuca chain, not all of which are inhabited, include: Resorts in the Mamanucas are varied with the high-end travelers accommodations to the backpacker/budget conscious travelers; some of these are: Port Denarau is the gateway to the Mamanuca and Yasawa islands. One may find a resort to stay overnight.
Activities in the Mamanucas include sailing, snorkelling, semi-submersible coral viewing, swimming with reef sharks, hiking, visiting villages, mini golf and discovering secluded beaches. The American edition of Survivor has used the islands as the location for filming, beginning with its 33rd season in April 2016; this has continued to the present season. Two 39 day competitions will be filmed back to back, with the first season airing in the fall of that year, the second airing in the spring of the following year; this marks the longest consecutive period. Before the airing of the 35th season, host Jeff Probst said in an interview with Entertainment Weekly that the Mamanuca Islands is the optimal location for the show and he would like to stay there permanently; the following seasons have filmed in the Mamanuca Islands: Survivor: Millennials vs. Gen X Survivor: Game Changers Survivor: Heroes vs. Healers vs. Hustlers Survivor: Ghost Island Survivor: David vs. Goliath Survivor: Edge of Extinction Mamanuca Islands travel guide from Wikivoyage
The Yasawa Group is an archipelago of about 20 volcanic islands in the Western Division of Fiji, with an approximate total area of 135 square kilometres. The Yasawa volcanic group consists of numerous smaller islets; the archipelago, which stretches in a north-easterly direction for more than 80 kilometres from a point 40 kilometres north-west of Lautoka, is volcanic in origin and mountainous, with peaks ranging from 250 to 600 metres in height. The only safe passage for shipping is between Yasawa Island and Round Island, 22 kilometers to the north-east; the British navigator William Bligh was the first European to sight the Yasawas in 1789, following the mutiny on the Bounty. Captain Barber in HMS Arthur visited the islands in 1794, but they were not charted until 1840, when they were surveyed and charted by a United States expedition commanded by Charles Wilkes. Throughout the 1800s, Tongan raiders bartered for, sometimes stole, the sail mats for which the Yasawa was famous for; the islands were ignored by the wider world until World War II, when the United States military used them as communications outposts.
Until 1987, it was the policy of the Fiji government that the Yasawa Group was closed to land-based tourism. This was because the King of the Yasawa Group, not controlled by the government did not want tourism. There were limited cruise operations since the 1950s. Without tourism, the local residents lived in harmony in a communal atmosphere. Since the Fijian government lifted the restrictions on land-based tourism in the Yasawa Group, a number of resorts have been established there. Due to its freehold real-estate status, three budget resorts were operating on Tavewa island since the early 1980s. Areas of the Yasawas were the locales for both the 1949, 1980 filming of the romance adventure film The Blue Lagoon, including the Sawa-i-lau caves, the island Nanuya Levu Tourism is growing in importance. Permission is required to visit all islands in the group except Tavewa; the home of the Tui Yasawa, the Paramount Chief of the Yasawa Islands, is at Yasawa-i-Rara, on Yasawa Island, but the largest village is Nabukeru.
As one of the outer island chains, options to get to the Yasawa Islands are a bit more limited than some of the closer islands to Nadi and Denarau. Sea planes from local airlines make multiple flights to the Yasawa resorts per day, charters are available. Helicopter charters are available or you can take the Yasawa Flyer, a catamaran. Backpackers and Billionaires - article about the Yasawa Group's history Yasawa Islands travel guide from Wikivoyage
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world. It was first issued in 1951, is now published annually by SIL International, a U. S.-based, Christian non-profit organization. SIL's main purpose is to study and document languages to promote literacy and for religious purposes; as of 2018, Ethnologue contains web-based information on 7,097 languages in its 21st edition, including the number of speakers, dialects, linguistic affiliations, availability of the Bible in each language and dialect described, a cursory description of revitalization efforts where reported, an estimate of language viability using the Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale. Ethnologue has been published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas; the organization studies numerous minority languages to facilitate language development, to work with speakers of such language communities in translating portions of the Bible into their languages.
The determination of what characteristics define a single language depends upon sociolinguistic evaluation by various scholars. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based on mutual intelligibility. Shared language intelligibility features are complex, include etymological and grammatical evidence, agreed upon by experts. In addition to choosing a primary name for a language, Ethnologue provides listings of other name for the language and any dialects that are used by its speakers, government and neighbors. Included are any names that have been referenced regardless of whether a name is considered official, politically correct or offensive; these lists of names are not complete. In 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an'SIL code', to identify each language that it described; this set of codes exceeded the scope of other standards, e.g. ISO 639-1 and ISO 639-2; the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into a draft international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard, called ISO 639-3. This standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue. In only one case and the ISO standards treat languages differently. ISO 639-3 considers Akan to be a macrolanguage consisting of two distinct languages and Fante, whereas Ethnologue considers Twi and Fante to be dialects of a single language, since they are mutually intelligible; this anomaly resulted because the ISO 639-2 standard has separate codes for Twi and Fante, which have separate literary traditions, all 639-2 codes for individual languages are automatically part of 639–3 though 639-3 would not assign them separate codes. In 2014, with the 17th edition, Ethnologue introduced a numerical code for language status using a framework called EGIDS, an elaboration of Fishman's GIDS, it ranks a language from 0 for an international language to 10 for an extinct language, i.e. a language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity.
In December 2015, Ethnologue launched a metered paywall. As of 2017, Ethnologue's 20th edition described 237 language families including 86 language isolates and six typological categories, namely sign languages, pidgins, mixed languages, constructed languages, as yet unclassified languages. In 1986, William Bright editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it "is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world". In 2008 in the same journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said: "Ethnologue...has become the standard reference, its usefulness is hard to overestimate."In 2015, Harald Hammarström, an editor of Glottolog, criticized the publication for lacking citations and failing to articulate clear principles of language classification and identification. However, he concluded that, on balance, "Ethnologue is an impressively comprehensive catalogue of world languages, it is far superior to anything else produced prior to 2009." Starting with the 17th edition, Ethnologue has been published every year.
Linguasphere Observatory Register Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert. The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 9783110198744. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove. Linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights?. Routledge. ISBN 9781135662356. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Paolillo, John C.. "Evaluating language statistics: the Ethnologue and beyond". UNESCO Institute of Statistics. Pp. 3–5. Retrieved October 8, 2015. Web version of Ethnologue
Fiji the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres; the most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 898,760; the capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry—or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount.
Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited. The majority of Fiji's islands formed through volcanic activity starting around 150 million years ago; some geothermal activity still occurs today, on the islands of Vanua Taveuni. The geothermal systems on Viti Levu are non-volcanic in origin, with low-temperature surface discharges. Sabeto Hot Springs near Nadi is a good example. Humans have lived in Fiji since the second millennium BC—first Austronesians and Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Europeans visited Fiji from the 17th century onwards, after a brief period as an independent kingdom, the British established the Colony of Fiji in 1874. Fiji operated as a Crown colony until 1970. A military government declared a Republic in 1987 following a series of coups d'état. In a coup in 2006, Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power; when the High Court ruled the military leadership unlawful in 2009, President Ratu Josefa Iloilo, whom the military had retained as the nominal Head of State, formally abrogated the 1997 Constitution and re-appointed Bainimarama as interim Prime Minister.
In 2009, Ratu Epeli Nailatikau succeeded Iloilo as President. After years of delays, a democratic election took place on 17 September 2014. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party won 59.2% of the vote, international observers deemed the election credible. Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific thanks to its abundant forest and fish resources, its currency is the Fijian dollar, its main sources of foreign exchange are its tourist industry, remittances from Fijians working, bottled water exports. The Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development supervises Fiji's local government, which takes the form of city and town councils. Fiji's main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbours in Tonga, its emergence can be described as follows: Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga.
They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, all their Manufactures bark cloth and clubs, were valued and much in demand, they called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, it was by this foreign pronunciation, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known. "Feejee", the Anglicised spelling of the Tongan pronunciation, was used in accounts and other writings until the late 19th century, by missionaries and other travellers visiting Fiji. Located in the central Pacific Ocean, Fiji's geography has made it both a destination and a crossroads for migrations for many centuries. According to oral tradition, the indigenous Fijians of today are descendants of the chief Lutunasobasoba and those who arrived with him on the Kaunitoni canoe. Landing at what is now Vuda, the settlers moved inland to the Nakauvadra mountains. Though this oral tradition has not been independently substantiated, the Fijian government promotes it, many tribes today claim to be descended from the children of Lutunasobasoba.
Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled by Austronesian peoples before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, with Melanesians following around a thousand years although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived. Archeological evidence shows signs of settlement on Moturiki Island from 600 BC and as far back as 900 BC. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Trade between Fiji and neighbouring archipelagos long before European contact is testified by the canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and the Marquesas Islands. In the 10th century, the Tu'i Tonga Empire was established in Tonga, Fiji came within its sphere of influence.
The Tongan influence brought Polynesian cu
Viti Levu is the largest island in the Republic of Fiji, the site of the nation's capital and home to a large majority of Fiji's population. Fiji lies in a tectonically complex area between the Pacific Plate; the Fiji Platform lies in a zone bordered with active extension fault lines around which most of the shallow earthquakes were centered. These fault lines are the Fiji Fracture Zone to the north, the 176° Extension Zone to the west, the Hunter Fracture Zone and Lau Ridge to the east; the oldest rocks on the island consist of the Eocene to Lower Miocene Wainimala Group. The Lower portion of the Group are composed of volcanic flows and volcanoclastics, which grade from basalt to trachyte and rhyolite. Geographically, this group is found south of Nadi, including the peaks of Koromba and Natambumgguto, down to Sigatoka. From Sigatoka, the Group extends all the way to Lodoni, includes the peaks of Tuvutau and Tikituru, while along the southern coast it extends to Nausori; the Group is intruded by the Tholo Plutonics consisting of similar age stocks of tonalite, granodiorite and diorite.
Mio-Pliocene sandstones and marl, grading into epiclastics and andesitic volcanics of the Suva Group are found in the river valleys such as those formed by the Nadi River and Navua River. The Plio-Pleistocene Mba Grouop is found on the northern portion of the island and consists of porphyritic basalt flows and volcanoclastics grading into greywacke. Geographically it includes the peaks of Koroyanitu, Monavatu, Mount Tomanivi, Ndelamendamu, extends along the eastern coast to Nausori, it includes the Emperor Mine near Vatukoula. Viti Levu is the largest island in the nation, home to 70% of the population, is the hub of the entire Fijian archipelago; the island measures 146 kilometres long and 106 kilometres wide, has an area of 10,389 square kilometres. It is comparable to the size of the Big Island of Hawaiʻi, smaller than the U. S. state of Connecticut. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions account for the somewhat rugged terrain of the island, divided into equal halves by a north-south mountain range.
The centre of the island is forested and includes the nation's highest peak Mount Tomanivi rising to 1,324 metres. The eastern side of the island experiences heavy rainfall, while the western side is noticeably drier in the range's rain shadow. Accordingly, sugar cane production thrives in the west, while a dairy industry is being built in the east. Fiji's biggest cattle ranch is at Yaqara, with 7000 head of cattle on its 70 square kilometres, located halfway between Tavua and Rakiraki; the island is the only known home of one of the world's largest insects, the Giant Fijian long-horned beetle. Viti Levu hosts the capital city of Suva, is home to nearly three quarters of the population of the Republic. Other important towns, all around the coast, include Ba, Nadi, Nausori and Sigatoka. One major road has been built around the perimeter of Viti Levu. Well-known localities include Pacific Harbour. Eight of Fiji's fourteen Provinces are in Viti Levu; the Provinces of Ba, Nadroga-Navosa, Ra comprise the Western Division, while Naitasiri, Rewa and Tailevu form the Central Division.
In part because of its high concentration of Indo-Fijians, whose ancestors came as indentured workers from India between 1879 and 1916, the political dynamics of western Viti Levu are somewhat different from those of eastern Viti Levu, apart from the multi-racial urban areas, indigenous Fijians are more concentrated. Viti Levu is believed to have been inhabited longer than the northern island of Vanua Levu. According to oral traditions, the first Melanesian settlers landed at Vuda Point and established Viseisei, believed to be Fiji's oldest settlement, although archaeologists refute this claim; the Canadian entrepreneur Peter Munk named his Klosters house after the island, as Viti Levu was where he and David Gilmour started the Southern Pacific Hotel chain in the 1960s. Viti Levu travel guide from Wikivoyage