Swift Refrigerator Line
The Swift Refrigerator Line was a private refrigerator car line established around 1875 by Chicago meat packer Gustavus Swift, the founder of Swift and Company. Swift hoped to develop an alternative to transporting live cattle across the Midwest, he experimented by moving dressed meat using a string of ten boxcars which ran with their doors removed, made a few test shipments to New York City during the winter months over the Grand Trunk Railway. The method proved too limited to be practical. In 1878, Swift hired engineer Andrew Chase to design a ventilated car, well-insulated, positioned the ice in a compartment at the top of the car, allowing the chilled air to flow downward; the meat was packed at the bottom of the car to keep the center of gravity low and to prevent the cargo from shifting. Chase's design proved to be a practical solution to providing temperature-controlled carriage of dressed meats, allowed Swift & Company to ship their products all over the United States, internationally, in doing so radically altered the meat business.
Swift's attempts to sell this design to the major railroads were unanimously rebuffed as the companies feared that they would jeopardize their considerable investments in stock cars and animal pens if refrigerated meat transport gained wide acceptance. In response, Swift financed the initial production run on his own — when the American roads refused his business — he contracted with the Grand Trunk Railway to haul them into Michigan and eastward through Canada. In 1880 the Peninsular Car Company delivered to Swift the first of these units, the Swift Refrigerator Line was created. Within a year the Line’s roster had risen to nearly 200 units, Swift was transporting an average of 3,000 carcasses a week to Boston. Competing firms such as Armour and Company followed suit. By 1920 the SRL operated 7,000 of the ice-cooled rail cars; the General American Transportation Corporation assumed ownership of the line in 1930. Swift Refrigerator Transportation Company Roster, 1900–1930: Source: The Great Yellow Fleet, p. 17.
Swift & Company. The Meat Packing Industry in America. Swift & Company, Illinois. White, John H.. The Great Yellow Fleet. Golden West Books, San Marino, CA. ISBN 0-87095-091-6. White, John H. Jr.. The American Railroad Freight Car: From the Wood-Car Era to the Coming of Steel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4404-5. OCLC 26130632
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
The BNSF Railway Company is the largest freight railroad network in North America. One of eight North American Class I railroads, BNSF has 44,000 employees, 32,500 miles of track in 28 states, more than 8,000 locomotives, it has three transcontinental routes that provide rail connections between the western and eastern United States. BNSF trains traveled over 169 million miles in 2010, more than any other North American railroad; the BNSF and Union Pacific have a duopoly on all transcontinental freight rail lines in the Western U. S. and share trackage rights over thousands of miles of track. The BNSF Railway Company is the principal operating subsidiary of parent company Burlington Northern Santa Fe, LLC. Headquartered in Fort Worth, the railroad's parent company is a wholly owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway, Inc. According to corporate press releases, the BNSF Railway is among the top transporters of intermodal freight in North America, it hauls bulk cargo, including enough coal to generate around ten per cent of the electricity produced in the United States.
The creation of BNSF started with the formation of a holding company on September 22, 1995. This new holding company purchased the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and Burlington Northern Railroad, formally merged the railways into the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway on December 31, 1996. On January 24, 2005, the railroad's name was changed to BNSF Railway Company using the initials of its original name. On November 3, 2009, Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway announced it would acquire the remaining 77.4 percent of BNSF it did not own for $100 per share in cash and stock — a deal valued at $44 billion. The company is acquiring $10 billion in debt. On February 12, 2010, shareholders of Burlington Northern Santa Fe Corporation voted in favor of the acquisition. BNSF's history dates back to 1849, when the Aurora Branch Railroad in Illinois and the Pacific Railroad of Missouri were formed; the Aurora Branch grew into the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, a major component of successor Burlington Northern.
A portion of the Pacific Railroad became the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway was chartered in 1859. It built one of the first transcontinental railroads in North America, linking Chicago and Southern California; the Interstate Commerce Commission denied a proposed merger with the Southern Pacific Transportation Company in the 1980s. The Burlington Northern Railroad was created in 1970 through the consolidation of the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, the Great Northern Railway, the Northern Pacific Railway and the Spokane and Seattle Railway, it absorbed the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway in 1980, its main lines included Chicago-Seattle with branches to Texas and Montgomery and access to the low-sulfur coal of Wyoming's Powder River Basin. On June 30, 1994, BN and ATSF announced plans to merge. S. Class I railroads; the long-rumored announcement was delayed by a disagreement over the disposition of Santa Fe Pacific Gold Corporation, a gold mining subsidiary that ATSF agreed to sell to stockholders.
This announcement began the next wave of mergers, as the "Super Seven" were merged down to four in the next five years. The Illinois Central Railroad and Kansas City Southern Railway, two of the five "small" Class Is, announced on July 19 that the former would buy the latter, but this plan was called off on October 25; the Union Pacific Railroad, another major Western system, started a bidding war with BN for control of the SF on October 5. The UP gave up on January 1995, paving the way for the BN-ATSF merger. Subsequently, the UP acquired the Southern Pacific Transportation Company in 1996, Eastern systems CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern Railway split Conrail in 1999. On February 7, 1995, BN and ATSF heads Gerald Grinstein and Robert D. Krebs both announced shareholders had approved the plan, which would save overhead costs and combine BN's coal and ATSF's intermodal strengths. Although the two systems complemented each other with little overlap, in contrast to the Santa Fe-Southern Pacific merger, which failed because it would have eliminated competition in many areas of the Southwest, BN and ATSF came to agreements with most other Class Is to keep them from opposing the merger.
UP was satisfied with a single segment of trackage rights from Abilene, Kansas to Superior, which BN and ATSF had both served. KCS gained haulage rights to several Midwest locations, including Omaha, East St. Louis, Memphis, in exchange for BNSF getting similar access to New Orleans. SP requesting far-reaching trackage rights throughout the West, soon agreed on a reduced plan, whereby SP acquired trackage rights on ATSF for intermodal and automotive traffic to Chicago, other trackage rights on ATSF in Kansas, south to Texas, between Colorado and Texas. In exchange, SP assigned BNSF trackage rights over the former Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad between El Paso and Topeka and haulage rights to the Mexican border at Eagle Pass, Texas. Regional Toledo and Western Railway obtained trackage rights over BN from Peoria to Galesburg, Illinois, a BN hub where it could interchange with SP; the Interstate Commerce Commission approved the BNSF merger on July 20, 1995, less than a month before UP announced on August
Western Refrigerator Line
Two distinct and separate railroad refrigerator car companies have operated under the name Western Refrigerator Line. The first, the Western Refrigerator Line was a refrigerator car leasing company founded by the Western Pacific Railroad on January 1, 1923 to service the fruit and green vegetable farmers in California's Central Valley. In early 1924, the WP and Pacific Fruit Express entered into an agreement whereby the PFE would handle all of Western Pacific's perishable goods. All of the WP's 2,000 pieces of existing rolling stock were placed into PFE's car pool, including an additional 775 units ordered that year. All cars delivered prior to the agreement were painted yellow with black ends and roofs, were lettered "Western Refrigerator Line," and bore a diamond-shaped herald formed by the words "Perishable Products" surrounding the letters "WRL." Units arriving after the contract's execution were painted yellow-orange, were lettered and numbered according to PFE's classification, were emblazoned with WP's "Feather River Route" emblem on each side.
After three decades of service, 900 of the best cars were reconditioned at PFE's Roseville, California shops. The units were outfitted with electrically powered circulation fans and other improvements required to bring them up to current standards. By 1967, all but a few of the cars had been retired. Facing the need to invest millions of dollars toward the purchase of new, mechanically cooled refrigerator cars, the Western Pacific chose instead to become a partner in the PFE's rival Fruit Growers Express in June of that year. A handful of the original wood refrigerator cars were converted for ice service on the WP system; the Western Refrigerator Line Company was established in 1929 to operate a 500-car fleet of reefers for the Green Bay and Western Railroad. WRX was headquartered at Norwood Yard in Green Bay, Wisconsin until the property was purchased by the GBW in the 1960s. WRX rolling stock sported the GBW's "Green Bay Route" emblem. By 1981, the WRX had become part of the Burlington Northern Railroad.
Western Refrigerator Line Company Roster, 1930–1970: Source: The Great Yellow Fleet, p. 17. White, John H.. The Great Yellow Fleet. Golden West Books, San Marino, CA. ISBN 0-87095-091-6. Template:White – American railroad freight car History of the Green Bay Route: Western Refrigerator Line Company
American Refrigerator Transit Company
The American Refrigerator Transit Company was a St. Louis, Missouri-based private refrigerator car line established in 1881 by the Missouri Pacific and Wabash railroads, it is now a subsidiary of the Union Pacific Corporation. American Refrigerator Transit Company, 1900–1970: *estimated. Source: The Great Yellow Fleet, p. 16. Green, Gene "Refrigerator Car Color Guide", Morning Sun Books, Scotch Plains, NJ. ISBN 1-58248-165-2. White, John W.. The Great Yellow Fleet. Golden West Books, San Marino, CA. ISBN 0-87095-091-6. White, John H. Jr.. The American Railroad Freight Car: From the Wood-Car Era to the Coming of Steel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4404-5. OCLC 26130632
"Juice Train" is the popular name for famous unit trains of Tropicana fresh orange juice operated by railroads in the United States. Tropicana Products was founded in 1947 in Bradenton, Florida, by Anthony T. Rossi, an Italian immigrant, growing from 50 employees to over 8,000 in 2004. Early distribution of fresh orange juice was by way of hand-delivered juice jars to nearby homes, but demand grew in New York City. By 1957, a ship, S. S. Tropicana was taking 1.5 million US gallons of juice to New York each week. In 1970, Tropicana orange juice was shipped in bulk via insulated boxcars in one weekly round-trip from Florida to Kearny, New Jersey. By the following year, the company was operating two 60-car unit trains a week, each carrying around 1 million US gallons of juice. On June 7, 1971 the "Great White Juice Train" commenced service over the 1,250-mile route. An additional 100 cars were soon incorporated into the fleet, small mechanical refrigeration units were installed to keep temperatures constant on hot days.
Tropicana saved $40 million in fuel costs alone during the first ten years in operation. Starting out on Seaboard Coast Line Railroad south of Tampa, the original used former Seaboard Air Line Railroad and Atlantic Coast Line Railroad tracks, it crossed over to the Richmond and Potomac in Richmond, Virginia at pier 5 of the famous concrete James River Bridge. At Potomac Yard, in Alexandria, Penn Central Transportation took over and operated it under the overhead wire with electric locomotives most of the way to Kearny. There have been more than a few changes over the years. Tropicana, now a division of PepsiCo, became the world's leading producer of branded fruit juices. In 1976, Conrail took over from ill-fated Penn Central, with electrification discontinued in 1981. SCL became part of CSX Corporation in 1980, was successively merged into Seaboard System Railroad and CSX Transportation, which included RF&P by 1991. In 1997, a second Juice Train began serving Ohio; when CSX acquired part of Conrail in 1999, an all-CSX train began traveling to a new larger facility in Jersey City, New Jersey on the National Docks Secondary.
Rolling stock has changed, including orange and blue cars, some with innovative refrigeration. The Florida East Coast Railway is now carrying Tropicana cars from a second processing facility in Fort Pierce, Florida. A reliable and economically viable transport mode, the Juice Trains are a powerful mode of advertising, running ten trips each week to Jersey City and Cincinnati. Additional shipments with specially-equipped refrigerated cars now travel 3,000 miles by rail to California. Tropicana had No. 98, to switch cars at the New Jersey destination. In the 21st century, the Tropicana-CSX Juice Trains have been the focus of efficiency studies and have received awards, they are considered good examples of how modern rail transportation can compete with trucking and other modes to carry perishable products. In 2017 CSX abolished separate Juice Trains between Florida. Tropicana products are now carried on other CSX trains to and from Florida. A separate train for Tropicana operates over the short distance north of Philadelphia.
White, John W.. The Great Yellow Fleet. San Marino, CA: Golden West Books. ISBN 0-87095-091-6. Tropicana's Official Web Site CSX Corporation Official Web Site Florida East Coast Railway Official Web Site
San Marino, California
San Marino is a residential city in Los Angeles County, United States. It was incorporated on April 25, 1913. With a median home price of $2,431,900, San Marino is one of the most expensive and exclusive communities in the United States; the city takes its name from the ancient Republic of San Marino, founded by Saint Marinus who fled his home in Dalmatia at the time of the Diocletianic Persecution of Christians. Marinus took refuge at Monte Titano on the Italian peninsula, where he built a chapel and founded a monastic community in 301 A. D; the state which grew from the monastery is the world's oldest surviving republic. The seal of the City of San Marino, California is modeled on that of the republic, depicting the Three Towers of San Marino each capped with a bronze plume, surrounded by a heart-shaped scroll with two roundels and a lozenge at the top; the crown representing the monarchy on the original was replaced with five stars representing the five members of the City's governing body.
Beneath the city's seal are crossed palm fronds and orange branches. The city celebrated its centennial in 2013, including publication by the San Marino Historical Society of a 268-page book, San Marino, A Centennial History, by Elizabeth Pomeroy. In September 2014, this book and author Elizabeth Pomeroy received a prestigious Award of Merit for Leadership in History from the American Association for State and Local History; the site of San Marino was occupied by a village of Tongva Indians located where the Huntington School is today. The area was part of the lands of the San Gabriel Mission. Principal portions of San Marino were included in an 1838 Mexican land grant of 128 acres to Victoria Bartolmea Reid, a Gabrieleña Indian.. She called the property Rancho Huerta de Cuati. After Hugo Reid's death in 1852, Señora Reid sold her rancho in 1854 to Don Benito Wilson, the first Anglo owner of Rancho San Pascual. In 1873, Don Benito conveyed to his son-in-law, James DeBarth Shorb, 500 acres, including Rancho Huerta de Cuati, which Shorb named "San Marino" after his grandfather's plantation in Maryland, which, in turn, was named after the Republic of San Marino located on the Italian Peninsula in Europe.
In 1903, the Shorb rancho was purchased by Henry E. Huntington, who built a large mansion on the property; the site of the Shorb/Huntington rancho is occupied today by the Huntington Library, which houses a world-renowned art collection and rare-book library, botanical gardens. In 1913 the three primary ranchos of Wilson and Huntington, together with the subdivided areas from those and smaller ranchos, such as the Stoneman and Rose ranchos, were incorporated as the city of San Marino; the first mayor of the city of San Marino was George Smith Patton. The son of a slain Confederate States of America colonel in the U. S. Civil War, Patton graduated from the Virginia Military Institute in 1877, just before moving west, he married the daughter of Don Benito Wilson. Their son was George S. Patton, Junior. To a prior generation of Southern Californians, San Marino was known for its old-money wealth and as a bastion of the region's WASP gentry. By mid-century, other European ethnic groups had become the majority.
The city is located in the San Rafael Hills, is divided into seven zones, based on minimum lot size. The smallest lot size is about 4,500 square feet, with many averaging over 30,000 square feet; because of this and other factors, most of the homes in San Marino, built between 1920 and 1950, do not resemble the houses in surrounding Southern California neighborhoods. San Marino has fostered a sense of historic preservation among its homeowners. With minor exceptions, the city's strict design review and zoning laws have thus far prevented the development of large homes found elsewhere in Los Angeles. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.8 square miles all land. San Marino is restrictive of commercial operations in the city, it is one of the few cities that requires commercial vehicles to have permits to work within the city. The rationale is that commercial vehicle operators and service providers, such as gardeners, pool service providers and maintenance workers, are more to cause social disruption within the city, so must be preauthorized for crime control and prosecutorial purposes.
This regulation and others, including the bans on apartment buildings and overnight parking, are some of the more obvious examples. The 2010 United States Census reported that San Marino had a population of 13,147; the population density was 3,483.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Marino was 5,434 White, 55 African American, 5 Native American, 7,039 Asian, 2 Pacific Islander, 198 from other races, 414 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 855 persons; the census reported that 13,066 people lived in households, 81 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 4,330 households, out