Brentford is a town in western Greater London, the contested county town of Middlesex and part of the London Borough of Hounslow. It lies at the confluence of the River Brent and the Thames, 8 miles west-by-southwest of Charing Cross, it has formed part of Greater London since 1965. Its economy has diverse company headquarters buildings. Brentford has a convenience dining venue grid of streets at its centre. Brentford at the start of the 21st century attracted regeneration of its little-used warehouse premises and docks including the re-modelling of the waterfront to provide more economically active shops and apartments, some of which comprises Brentford Dock. A 19th and 20th centuries mixed social and private housing locality: New Brentford is contiguous with the Osterley neighbourhood of Isleworth and Syon Park and the Great West Road which has most of the largest business premises; the name is recorded as Breguntford in 705 in an Anglo-Saxon charter and means'ford over the River Brent'. The name of the river is Celtic and means'holy one' and the'-ford' suffix is Old English.
The ford was most located where the main road crossed the river. New Brentford is recorded as Newe Braynford in 1521 and was known as Westbraynford. Old Brentford is recorded as Old Braynford in 1476 and was known as Estbraynford; the settlement pre-dates the Roman occupation of Britain, thus pre-dates the founding of London itself. Many pre-Roman artifacts have been excavated in and around the area in Brentford known as'Old England'. Bronze Age pottery and burnt flints have been found in separate sites in Brentford; the quality and quantity of the artefacts suggests that Brentford was a meeting point for pre-Romanic tribes. One well known Iron Age piece from about 100 BC – AD 50 is the Brentford horn-cap – a ceremonial chariot fitting that formed part of local antiquarian Thomas Layton's collection, now held by the Museum of London; the Celtic knot pattern on this item has been copied for use on modern jewellery. Brentford is the first point on the tidal portion of the River Thames, fordable by foot.
For this reason it has been suggested that Julius Cæsar crossed the Thames here during his invasion of Britain in 54 BC, the Brentford Monument outside the County Court asserts that a battle took place here at this time between Cæsar's forces and Cassivellaunus. In his own account, Cæsar writes that he crossed the river 80 miles from the sea, Brentford is this distance from his supposed landing beach, he further states. During the building of Brentford Dock many such oak stakes were discovered. Dredging the river uncovered so many more that they had to be removed, for they were a hazard to navigation. Although Cæsar's descriptions are compelling, there has been no archaeological proof that this was the spot where he and his army had to fight to cross, it must be kept in mind that Julius Cæsar's own accounts suffered in some part to his embellishment of the facts. A local town fair, called the Brentford Festival, has been held in Brentford every September since 1900; the building of Brentford Dock was started in 1855 and it was formally opened in 1859.
The dock yard is now housing estate. A notable family from Brentford was the 18th/19th century architectural father and son partnership, the Hardwicks. Thomas Hardwick Senior and Thomas Hardwick Junior were both from Brentford and are buried in the old church of St Laurence. Hardwick Senior was the master mason for the Adam Brothers during the construction of Syon House. Hardwick Junior assisted in the building of Somerset House and was known for his designs of churches in the capital, he was a tutor of J. M. W Turner whom he helped start Turner's illustrious career in art. Both father and son did a great deal of rebuilding on the church of St Laurence. 54 BC Brentford is a site of a battle recorded by Julius Cæsar between Julius Cæsar and the local king, Cassivellaunus. 781 Council of Brentford recording settlement of a dispute between King Offa of Mercia, the Bishop of Worcester 1016 Battle of Brentford between the invading Canute and Edmund Ironside 1431 Relocation of Syon Abbey to Brentford from Twickenham 1539 Destruction of Syon Abbey by King Henry VIII 1616 – 1617 Pocahontas, Pamunkey princess, resided in Brentford with her husband, John Rolfe and son Thomas.
1642 Battle of Brentford during the English Civil War 1682 A violent storm of rain, accompanied with thunder and lightning, caused a sudden flood, which did great damage to the town of Brentford. The whole place was overflown. 1717 Brentford Turnpike Trust founded to maintain the road between Kensington and Hounslow 1756 Ronalds nursery established by Hugh Ronalds' father on Brentford High Street 1805 Start of operations of the Grand Junction Canal 1806 James Montgomrey’s father James Montgomrey Snr commenced operating a large timber mill at Montgomrey's Wharf, a yard occupied by his cousin 1815 – 1817 John Quincy Adams, sixth President of the US, lived in Brentford. 1828 William Corder was arrested on Wednesday 23 April at Everley Grove House, Ealing Lane in Brentford, for the notorious Red Barn Murder. 1841 Brentford was flooded, caused by the Brent Reservoir becoming overfull so that the overflow cut a breach in the earth dam. Sev
Hayes is a town in West London, situated 13 miles west of Charing Cross. In Middlesex, Hayes became part of the London Borough of Hillingdon in 1965; the town's population was recorded as 95,763 in the 2011 census. Hayes has a long history; the area appears in the Domesday Book. Landmarks in the area include the Grade II* listed Parish Church, St Mary's – the central portion of the church survives from the twelfth century and it remains in use – and Barra Hall, a Grade II listed manor house; the town's oldest public house – the Adam and Eve, on the Uxbridge Road – though not the original seventeenth-century structure, has remained on the same site since 1665. Hayes is best known as the erstwhile home of EMI; the words "Hayes, Middlesex" appear on the reverse of The Beatles' albums, which were manufactured at the town's Old Vinyl Factory. The town centre's "gold disc" installation marks the fiftieth anniversary on 1 June 2017 of the Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band album, manufactured in Hayes in 1967.
The town is the location of the U. K. headquarters of companies including: Heinz, United Biscuits and Rackspace U. K. Notable historical residents include the early modern "father of English music", William Byrd, a pre-eminent figure of twentieth-century English literature, George Orwell; the place-name Hayes comes from the Anglo-Saxon Hǣs or Hǣse: " brushwood". The town's name is spelt Hessee in a 1628 entry in an Inquisition post mortem held at The National Archives. Hayes is formed of what were five separate villages: Botwell, Hayes Town, Hayes End, Wood End and Yeading; the name Hayes Town has come to be applied to the area around Station Road between Coldharbour Lane and Hayes & Harlington railway station, but this was the hamlet called Botwell. The original Hayes Town was the area to the east of St Mary's Church, centred around Church Road, Hemmen Lane and Freeman's Lane. For some 700 years up to 1546, Hayes formed part of the Archbishop of Canterbury's estates, ostensibly owing to grants from the Mercian royal family.
In that year, the then-Archbishop Thomas Cranmer was forced to surrender his land to King Henry VIII, who subsequently granted the estate to Edward North, 1st Baron North. The area changed hands several times thereafter, but by the eighteenth century, two family-names had established themselves as prominent and long-time landowners: Minet and Shackle. John Wesley and Charles Wesley, founders of the evangelical Methodist movement, preached in Hayes on at least ten occasions between 1748 and 1753; the Salvation Army – founded in 1865 in London by William Booth – registered a barracks in Hayes between 1887 and 1896. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Hayes was home to several private boarding schools catering for wealthy families; the former Manor House on Church Road was by the 1820s a boys' school called Radnor House Academy. Wood End House was used - from 1848 to c. 1905 - as an asylum. Notable psychiatrist John Conolly was one of its licensed proprietors, between 1848 and 1866; the building was demolished in 1961.
Until the end of the nineteenth century, Hayes's key areas of work were brickmaking. The Second Industrial Revolution brought change in the late nineteenth century, up to World War I; the town's location on the Grand Junction Canal and the Great Western Railway – Hayes & Harlington railway station had opened in 1868 – made it well-placed for industry. The town's favourable location caused the Hayes Development Company to make available sites on the north-side of the railway, adjacent to the canal, Hayes became a centre for engineering and industry. HDC's company secretary, Alfred Clayton, is commemorated in the name of Clayton Road. Residential districts consisting of dwellings of the garden suburb type were built to house workers after World War I. In 1904 the parish council created Hayes Urban District in order to address the issue of population growth. Hayes and Harlington Urban District continued until 1965 when Hayes became part of the newly established London Borough of Hillingdon. Author George Orwell, who adopted his pen name while living in Hayes and worked in 1932-3 as a schoolmaster at The Hawthorns High School for Boys, situated on Church Road.
The school has since closed and the building is now the Fountain House Hotel. The hotel bears a plaque commemorating its distinguished former resident. Returning several times to Hayes, Orwell was at the same time characteristically acerbic about his time in the town, camouflaging it as West Bletchley in Coming Up for Air, as Southbridge in A Clergyman's Daughter, grumbling comically in a letter to author/friend Frank Jellinek: Hayes... is one of the most godforsaken places I have struck. The population seems to be made up of clerks who frequent tin-roofed chapels on Sundays and for the rest bolt themselves within doors. King Edward VIII visited Hayes in January 1936 in order to view the production of His Master's Voice radio instruments; the Grade II listed War Memorial at Cherry Lane Cemetery on Shepiston Lane commemorates wh
London Borough of Hounslow
The London Borough of Hounslow is a London borough in West London, forming part of Outer London. It was created in 1965 when three smaller Middlesex council areas amalgamated under the London Government Act 1963, it is governed by Hounslow London Borough Council. The borough stretches from near Central London in the east to the border with Surrey in the west, covering Chiswick, Isleworth and Feltham; the Borough is home to the London Museum of Water & Steam and the attractions of Osterley Park, Gunnersbury Park, Syon House, Chiswick House. Moreover, landmarks straddling the border of Hounslow include; the borough's area is quarter parkland. Large areas of London's open space fall within its boundaries, including Chiswick House and Gardens, Gunnersbury Park, Syon Park, Osterley Park, Hounslow Heath, Avenue Park in Cranford; the borough's predominant land use is residential, with a large, commercial town centre of Hounslow. Other large town centres include Chiswick and Brentford. Business is focused on retail.
Parts of the Borough. With other areas such as Hounslow and Heston being more affordable; the borough is home to the headquarters of GlaxoSmithKline and Sky plc, both based in Brentford's'Golden Mile' stretch of the A4 Great West Road, several supermarket outlets once known across the globe for its cluster of factories and offices, is going under extensive re developments in the form of new apartment blocks and offices. Fuller's Griffin Brewery is in the borough, in Chiswick. Aston Martin were based in Feltham for several years before moving to Newport Pagnell, Buckinghamshire. DHL Air UK has its head office in Hounslow. Air France-KLM's head office for United Kingdom and Ireland operations, which includes facilities for Air France and KLM, is located in Plesman House in Hatton Cross in the borough; the Plesman House, outside of Terminal 4 of London Heathrow Airport, has the UK commercial team, sales team, support team. Sega Europe has its head office in Brentford. Menzies Aviation has its head office by the airport in Feltham.
JCDecaux UK has its head office in Brentford. Before winding-up British Mediterranean Airways was headquartered at Hetherington House near London Heathrow Airport A 2017 study by Trust for London and New Policy Institute found that pay inequality in Hounslow is the second largest of any London borough, it found that 25% people in Hounslow live in poverty, lower than the London-wide poverty rate of 27%. 53.3% of the borough's population is White, 34.4% is Asian, 11.6% is Black. The Borough has a high ethnic diversity in the central parts of the borough with the majority of the White British population residing in the eastern and western parts of the borough. In terms of religion, 42% identify themselves as Christian, 14% Muslim, 10.3% Hindu, 9% Sikh, 1.4% Buddhist and 0.3% Buddhist, 18% of the population are not religious.. At 9%, Hounslow has the largest proportion of Sikhs in London, the third-highest in England before Slough and Wolverhampton; the following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2011 census in Hounslow.
Main Article: Hounslow parks and open spaces Major parks and recreational spaces include. Parks that are a short distance from Hounslow's border are; the River Thames forms the natural boundary between Richmond-upon-Thames. It runs through the borough at Chiswick and Isleworth. Various tributaries and dis tributaries of the Thames flow including. Elections across the London Boroughs are held every four years. Since the Hounslow borough was formed it has been controlled by the Labour Party on all but two elections: in 1968 the Conservatives formed a majority until they lost control to Labour in 1971; the 2006 local elections produced a no overall control result. Although Labour was the largest party on the Council, the Conservatives formed a coalition with the six Councillors from the independent Isleworth Community Group which administered the area until the 2010 local elections when Labour regained control. Seat distribution as of 2018 elections: Reflecting how votes were cast in the national elections, in separate polls
Southall is a large suburban district of west London and part of the London Borough of Ealing. It is situated 10.7 miles west of Charing Cross. Neighbouring places include Yeading, Hanwell, Hounslow and Northolt; the area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Southall is located on the Grand Union Canal which first linked London with the rest of the growing canal system, it was one of the last canals to carry significant commercial traffic and is still open to traffic and is used by pleasure craft. The area is home to London's largest Sikh community; the name Southall derives from the Anglo-Saxon dative æt súð healum, "At the south corner" and súð heal, "South corner" and separates it from Northolt, norþ heal, "North corner" which through a association with Anglo-Saxon holt, "Wood, copse" developed into Northolt. The district of Southall has many other Anglo-Saxon place-names such as Waxlow, its earliest record, from ad 830, is of Warberdus bequeathing Norwood Manor and Southall Manor to the archbishops of Canterbury.
Southall formed part of the chapelry of Norwood in the ancient parish of Hayes, in the Elthorne hundred of Middlesex. For Poor Law it was grouped into the Uxbridge Union and was within Uxbridge Rural Sanitary District from 1875; the chapelry of Norwood had functioned as a separate parish since the Middle Ages. On 16 January 1891 the parish adopted the Local Government Act 1858 and the Southall Norwood Local Government District was formed. In 1894 it became the Southall Norwood Urban District. In 1936 the urban district was granted a charter of incorporation and became a municipal borough, renamed Southall. In 1965 the former area of the borough was merged with that of the boroughs of Ealing and Acton to form the London Borough of Ealing in Greater London; the southern part of Southall used to be known as Southall Green and was centred on the historic Grade II* listed Tudor-styled Manor House which dates back to at least 1587. A building survey has shown much of the building is original, dating back to the days when Southall Green was becoming a quiet rural village.
Minor 19th and 20th century additions exist in some areas. It is used as serviced offices; the extreme southernmost part of Southall is known as Norwood Green. It has few industries and is a residential area, having remained for many years agricultural whilst the rest of Southall developed industrially. Norwood Green borders, part is inside, the London Borough of Hounslow; the main east west road through the town is Uxbridge Road, though the name changes in the main shopping area to The Broadway and for an shorter section to High Street. Uxbridge Road was part of the main London to Oxford stagecoach route for many years and remained the main route to Oxford until the building of the Western Avenue highway to the north of Southall in the first half of the 20th century. First horse drawn electric trams and electric trolleybuses, gave Southall residents and workers quick and convenient transport along Uxbridge Road in the first half of the 20th century before they were replaced by standard diesel-engined buses in 1960.
The opening of the Grand Junction Canal as the major freight transport route between London and Birmingham in 1796 began a commercial boom, intensified by the arrival of Brunel's Great Western Railway in 1839, leading to the establishment and growth of brick factories, flour mills and chemical plants which formed the town's commercial base. In 1877, the Martin Brothers set up a ceramics factory in an old soap works next to the canal and until 1923, produced distinctive ceramics now known and collected as Martinware. A branch railway line from Southall railway station to the Brentford Dock on the Thames was built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1856, it features one of the Three Bridges. Where Windmill Lane, the railway and the Grand Union Canal all intersect – the canal being carried over the railway line cutting below in a cast-iron trough and a new cast-iron road-bridge going over both. Brunel died shortly after its completion. Sections of his bell-section rail can still be seen on the southern side being used as both fencing posts and a rope rail directly under the road bridge itself.
It is listed as a Scheduled Ancient Monument. The other notable local construction by Brunel is the Wharncliffe Viaduct which carries the Great Western Railway across the River Brent towards London and, Brunel's first major structural design. Otto Monsted, a Danish margarine manufacturer, built a large factory at Southall in 1894; the factory was called the Maypole Dairy, grew to become one of the largest margarine manufacturing plants in the world, occupying a 28 hectares site at its peak. The factory had its own railway sidings and branch canal; the Maypole Dairy Company was acquired by Lever Brothers who, as part of the multinational Unilever company, converted the site to a Wall's Sausages factory which produced sausages and other meat products through until the late 1980s. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the old parish church of Southall, St John's, rebuilt in 1837-8, was found to be too small for its congregation and, as a result, emigrated to a new building in Church Avenue, completed in 1910.
The original church building, in Western Road, is now a youth centre. The Quak
The M4, a motorway in the United Kingdom running from west London to southwest Wales, was referred to as the London-South Wales Motorway. The English section to the Severn Bridge was constructed between 1961 and 1971; the Second Severn Crossing renamed the Prince of Wales Bridge, was inaugurated on 5 June 1996 by HRH The Prince of Wales and the M4 was rerouted. Apart from its two spurs—the A48 and the M48—the M4 is the only motorway in Wales; the line of the motorway from London to Bristol runs in parallel with the A4. After crossing the River Severn, toll-free since 17 December 2018, the motorway follows the A48, to terminate at the Pont Abraham services in Carmarthenshire; the major towns and cities along the route—a distance of 189 miles —include Slough, Swindon, Newport, Bridgend, Port Talbot and Swansea. A new road from London to South Wales was first proposed in the 1930s. In 1956, the Ministry of Transport announced plans for the first major post-war road improvement projects; the Chiswick flyover, a short section of elevated dual-carriageway, not classed as a motorway, opened in 1959 to reduce the impact of traffic travelling between central London and the west.
The Maidenhead bypass opened in 1961 whilst J1-J5 opened in 1965. The stretch from J18 to the west of Newport was opened including the Severn Bridge; the Port Talbot by-pass built in the 1960s and now part of the M4, was the A48 motorway, a number now allocated to a short section of motorway near Cardiff. The Ministry of Transport intended that the M4 would terminate at Tredegar Park west of Newport, following the creation of the Welsh Office that the Government became committed to a high-standard dual carriageway to Carmarthenshire; the English section of the motorway was completed on 22 December 1971 when the 50-mile stretch between junctions 9 and 15 was opened to traffic. The Welsh section was completed in 1993; the Second Severn Crossing opened in 1996, together with new link motorways on either side of the estuary to divert the M4 over the new crossing. The existing route over the Severn Bridge was redesignated the M48, the new M49 was opened to connect the new crossing to the M5. In April 2005, speed checks carried out by police camera vans between junction 14 and junction 18 led to a public protest, involving a "go-slow" of several hundred vehicles along the affected sections of the motorway.
Between 2007 and January 2010, the section from Castleton to Coryton was widened to six lanes. The scheme was formally opened on 25 January 2010 by Ieuan Wyn Jones the Deputy First Minister for Wales. During 2009, the Newport section of the motorway between junctions 23a and 29 was upgraded with a new concrete central barrier. In February 2010 it was proposed that the M4 in South Wales would become the first hydrogen highway with hydrogen stations provided along the route, with an aspiration for further stations to be provided along the M4 into South West England over time. Between 2008 and 2010, junction 11 was extensively remodelled with a new four-lane junction, two new road bridges and other works; the £65m scheme included work on the Mereoak roundabout and part of the A33 Swallowfield Bypass near Shinfield, the conversion of the two existing bridges, one of, available only to pedestrians and cyclists and the other to buses. It involved the movement of the local Highways Agency and Fire Service offices, the construction of a long footbridge network, a new bus-lane and a new gyratory.
Sound barriers for nearby residential areas were installed. In April 2008, the decision to preserve a rare Vickers machine gun pillbox and turn it into a bat roost was announced by the developers; the M4 crosses the River Severn on the Second Severn Crossing, toll free from 17 December 2018. Maintenance of the 123 miles section of the motorway in England is the responsibility of the Highways Agency; the 76 miles section in Wales is the responsibility of the Welsh Government. For the majority of its length, the national speed limit applies. Exceptions include the following: 40 miles per hour on the Chiswick Flyover within London in both directions. 60 miles per hour between junction 4 and the Chiswick Flyover eastbound only. 50 miles per hour when approaching the toll plaza after the Severn Crossing. 50 miles per hour on the Port Talbot elevated section between junction 40 and junction 41. The fixed speed camera was removed in 2006. In July 2014, an average speed camera system was installed; the M4 has two sections of smart motorway.
The one between junctions 19 and 20 north of Bristol has variable speed limits and a part-time hard-shoulder. Completion was in summer 2014; the section between junctions 24 and 29 in Newport has variable speed limits. In 2010 it was announced that a smart motorway would be constructed between junctions 3 and 12, with work starting in Autumn 2018; this will be the longest smart motorway scheme in the United Kingdom, with a length of 51km. Work is expected to be completed in March 2022 at a cost of £848 million; the Brynglas Tunnels carry the M4 under Brynglas Hill in Wales. The 404 yards-long tunnels are only twin -- bored tunnels in the UK motorway network. In July 2011, a lorry fire in one tunnel closed the motorway. Although there were no injuries and no deaths, the tunnel remained closed and a contraflow system was in place in the remaining tunnel for about one month, causing major tr
Kew Bridge is a Grade II listed bridge over the River Thames in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames and the London Borough of Hounslow. The present bridge, opened in 1903 as King Edward VII Bridge by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra, was designed by John Wolfe-Barry and Cuthbert A Brereton, it was given Grade II listed structure protection in 1983. Kew Bridge crosses the River Thames between Kew Green in Kew on the south bank and Brentford on the north bank, it is adjacent to the Royal Botanic Gardens on the Kew side of the river and the former Grand Junction Waterworks Company buildings on the north. The bridge forms a primary route destination joining the South Circular and North Circular roads to the west of London, is nearly always congested. Beside the bridge on the downstream Kew bank is Kew Pier, which serves tourist ferries operating under licence from London River Services; the Museum of Richmond has an engraving by John Barnard, architect of the design for the first Kew Bridge, dedicated to George, Prince of Wales and his mother Augusta and dated 1759.
Bernard describes it as the Bridge over the River of Thames from Kew in the County of Surry to the opposite shore in the County of Middlesex. Kew and the area around the bridge was significant to George as his father Frederick took a lease on Kew House, now part of the Royal Botanic Gardens from 1731 and rebuilt the house to designs by William Kent. George's mother Augusta created many of the garden buildings; the first bridge was built by Robert Tunstall of Brentford who owned the ferry on the site. The bridge was inaugurated on 1 June 1759 by the Prince of Wales driving over it with his mother and a number of other royals, was opened to the public three days later; such was the excitement. Tolls ranged from 1 penny for each pedestrian to one shilling and six pence for a coach and four horses; the first bridge was constructed with two stone arches at each end and seven timber arches in between, which proved costly to maintain and as a consequence the bridge only lasted 30 years. In 1782 Robert Tunstall, son of the builder of the first bridge, obtained consent to replace the bridge and work began on 4 June 1783, the anniversary date of the first bridge opening to the public.
The new bridge was designed by James Paine, responsible for Richmond Bridge. The cost was £16,500, raised by means of a tontine; the second bridge was built alongside the first, to avoid hindrance to traffic during construction work, this time was built of stone. It was again opened, on 22 September 1789, by George, who by this time had become King George III, crossing with a great concourse of carriages; the tolls were 6 pence for each horse. The bridge was sold by auction to a Mr Robinson for £23,000 in 1819 and again in 1873, when it was purchased by a joint committee of the City of London Corporation and the Metropolitan Board of Works for £57,300; the exhibition included a copy of a J. M. W. Turner sketch of the second bridge from Brentford Ait circa 1805/6 with barges on the left; the tollbooths were at the Brentford end of the bridge and were planned as pavilions with Doric porticos. To save on the cost rather simpler Italianate booths were built instead of brick and stucco. Tolls were abolished on 8 February 1873 and a triumphal arch was built at the Brentford entrance to the bridge.
The gates were paraded on a brewer's dray through Brentford and around Kew Green. By the 1890s it was clear that the second bridge could not cope with the weight of traffic and in any case the approach was too narrow and steep on the Brentford side; the engineer Sir John Wolfe Barry was invited to assess the bridge in 1892 and recommended building a new bridge rather than modifications to the second one. The Kew Bridge Act of 1898 paved the way and the third bridge was commissioned jointly by the Middlesex and Surrey County Councils at a cost of £250,000; the engineers were Barry and Brereton and the building contractors were Easton Gibbs and Son. The third bridge is 1,182 feet long, the largest of its three arches has a span of 133 feet; the roadway is 56 feet wide, the pavements 9 feet 6 inches compared to 3 feet 3 inches. It was built of granite from Cornwall. A temporary wooden bridge was put in place upstream of the second bridge before demolition during October to December 1899; the third bridge was completed for an official opening on 20 May 1903 by King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra who processed through Kensington, Hammersmith and Brentford on the way to the ceremony, returning via Mortlake and Barnes and re-crossing the Thames at Putney Bridge.
The centre of the bridge was provided with a tented pavilion 60 yards long and spanning its whole width. A special temporary balcony, projecting from this, was installed so that the crowds on the banks and on the water could see the royal visitors; the King declared the bridge open. He and the Queen were given a number of gifts including bouquets, a bound history of the bridge and various other commemorative items including a silver mounted prehistoric flint axe found during construction work, another axe with part of its haft remaining and a fine silver spirit level made in the shape of the bridge itself; the Mayor of Richmond presented a chair with the ladders in its back carved in the shape of the three bridges. The inhabitants of Brentford and Chiswick presented. After the dep
Heathrow Airport known as London Heathrow, is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom. Heathrow is the second busiest airport in the world by international passenger traffic, as well as the busiest airport in Europe by passenger traffic, the seventh busiest airport in the world by total passenger traffic, it is one of six international airports serving Greater London. In 2018, it handled a record 80.1 million passengers, a 2.7% increase from 2017 as well as 480,339 aircraft movements, a 4,715 increase from 2017. Heathrow lies 14 miles west of Central London, has two parallel east–west runways along with four operational terminals on a site that covers 12.27 square kilometres. The airport is owned and operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings, which itself is owned by FGP TopCo Limited, an international consortium led by Ferrovial that includes Qatar Holding LLC, Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, GIC Private Limited, Alinda Capital Partners, China Investment Corporation and Universities Superannuation Scheme.
London Heathrow is the primary hub for British Airways and the primary operating base for Virgin Atlantic. In September 2012, the Government of the United Kingdom established the Airports Commission, an independent commission chaired by Sir Howard Davies to examine various options for increasing capacity at UK airports. In July 2015, the commission backed a third runway at Heathrow, which the government approved in October 2016. Heathrow is 14 mi west of central London, near the south end of the London Borough of Hillingdon on a parcel of land, designated part of the Metropolitan Green Belt; the airport is surrounded by the villages of Harlington, Harmondsworth and Cranford to the north and by Hounslow and Hatton to the east. To the south lie Bedfont and Stanwell while to the west Heathrow is separated from Slough in Berkshire by the M25 motorway. Heathrow falls under the Twickenham postcode area, with the postcode TW6; as the airport is located west of London and as its runways run east–west, an airliner's landing approach is directly over the conurbation of London when the wind is from the west, most of the time.
Along with Gatwick, Luton and London City, Heathrow is one of six airports with scheduled services serving the London area. Heathrow Airport originated in 1929 as a small airfield on land south-east of the hamlet of Heathrow from which the airport takes its name. At that time there were farms, market gardens and orchards there: there was a "Heathrow Farm" about where the old Terminal 1 was and where Terminal 2 is, a "Heathrow Hall" and a "Heathrow House"; this hamlet was along a country lane which ran along the east and south edges of the present central terminals area. Development of the whole Heathrow area as a much larger airport began in 1944: it was stated to be for long-distance military aircraft bound for the Far East, but by the time the airfield was nearing completion, World War II had ended. The government continued to develop the airport as a civil airport; the airport was opened on 25 March 1946 as London Airport and was renamed Heathrow Airport in 1966. The masterplan for the airport was designed by Sir Frederick Gibberd, who designed the original terminals and central area buildings, including the original control tower and the multi-faith chapel of St George's.
Heathrow Airport is used by over 80 airlines flying to 185 destinations in 84 countries. The airport is a base for Virgin Atlantic, it has a cargo terminal. Of Heathrow's 78 million passengers in 2017, 94% were international travellers; the busiest single destination in passenger numbers is New York, with over 3 million passengers flying between Heathrow and JFK Airport in 2013. In the 1950s, Heathrow had six runways, arranged in three pairs at different angles in the shape of a hexagram with the permanent passenger terminal in the middle and the older terminal along the north edge of the field; as the required length for runways has grown, Heathrow now has only two parallel runways running east–west. These are extended versions of the two east–west runways from the original hexagram. From the air all of the original runways can still be seen, incorporated into the present system of taxiways. North of the northern runway and the former taxiway and aprons, now the site of extensive car parks, is the entrance to the access tunnel and the site of Heathrow's unofficial "gate guardian".
For many years the home of a 40% scale model of a British Airways Concorde, G-CONC, the site has been occupied by a model of an Emirates Airbus A380 since 2008. Heathrow Airport has Anglican, Free Church, Jewish and Sikh chaplains. There is a multi-faith prayer room and counselling room in each terminal, in addition to St. George's Interdenominational Chapel in an underground vault adjacent to the old control tower, where Christian services take place; the chaplains lead prayers at certain times in the prayer room. The airport has its own resident press corps, consisting of six photographers and one TV crew, serving all the major newspapers and television stations around the world. Most of Heathrow's internal roads are initial letter coded by area: N in the north, E in the east, S in the south, W in the west, C in the centre. Aircraft destined for Heathrow are routed to one of four holding points. Air tra