Scopus is a bibliographic database containing abstracts and citations for academic journal articles. It covers nearly 22,000 titles from over 5,000 publishers, of which 20,000 are peer-reviewed journals in the scientific, medical and it is owned by Elsevier and is available online by subscription. Searches in Scopus incorporate searches of patent databases, the board consists of scientists and subject librarians. Evaluating ease of use and coverage of Scopus and the Web of Science, the ability to search both forward and backward from a particular citation would be very helpful to the researcher. However, Scopus and WOS complement each other as neither resource is all inclusive and it has alerting features that allows registered users to track changes to a profile and a facility to calculate authors h-index. Scopus IDs for individual authors can be integrated with the nonproprietary digital identifier ORCID, source Normalized Impact per Paper Web of Science Official website
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work. It constitutes a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field, peer review methods are employed to maintain standards of quality, improve performance, and provide credibility. In academia, scholarly peer review is used to determine an academic papers suitability for publication. Peer review can be categorized by the type of activity and by the field or profession in which the activity occurs, professional peer review focuses on the performance of professionals, with a view to improving quality, upholding standards, or providing certification. In academia, peer review is common in decisions related to faculty advancement, a prototype professional peer-review process was recommended in the Ethics of the Physician written by Ishāq ibn ʻAlī al-Ruhāwī. He stated that a physician had to make duplicate notes of a patients condition on every visit.
Professional peer review is common in the field of health care, since peer review activity is commonly segmented by clinical discipline, there is physician peer review, nursing peer review, dentistry peer review, etc. Many other professional fields have some level of peer review process, law, engineering and even forest fire management. Peer review is used in education to achieve certain learning objectives and this may take a variety of forms, including closely mimicking the scholarly peer review processes used in science and medicine. The peer review helps the publisher decide whether the work should be accepted, considered acceptable with revisions, peer review requires a community of experts in a given field, who are qualified and able to perform reasonably impartial review. Peer review is generally considered necessary to academic quality and is used in most major scientific journals, the European Union has been using peer review in the Open Method of Co-ordination of policies in the fields of active labour market policy since 1999.
In 2004, a program of peer reviews started in social inclusion and these usually meet over two days and include visits to local sites where the policy can be seen in operation. The meeting is preceded by the compilation of a report on which participating peer countries submit comments. The results are published on the web, the State of California is the only U. S. state to mandate scientific peer review. This requirement is incorporated into the California Health and Safety Code Section 57004, the terminology has poor standardization and specificity, particularly as a database search term
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis and prevention of disease. The word medicine is derived from Latin medicus, meaning a physician, Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Medicine has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher. In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science, most medicine has become a combination of art, while stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science. Prescientific forms of medicine are now known as medicine and folk medicine. They remain commonly used with or instead of medicine and are thus called alternative medicine.
For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture is variable and inconsistent for any condition, in contrast, treatments outside the bounds of safety and efficacy are termed quackery. Medical availability and clinical practice varies across the world due to differences in culture. In modern clinical practice, physicians personally assess patients in order to diagnose, the doctor-patient relationship typically begins an interaction with an examination of the patients medical history and medical record, followed by a medical interview and a physical examination. Basic diagnostic medical devices are typically used, after examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests, take a biopsy, or prescribe pharmaceutical drugs or other therapies. Differential diagnosis methods help to rule out conditions based on the information provided, during the encounter, properly informing the patient of all relevant facts is an important part of the relationship and the development of trust.
The medical encounter is documented in the record, which is a legal document in many jurisdictions. Follow-ups may be shorter but follow the general procedure. The diagnosis and treatment may take only a few minutes or a few weeks depending upon the complexity of the issue, the components of the medical interview and encounter are, Chief complaint, the reason for the current medical visit. They are in the patients own words and are recorded along with the duration of each one, called chief concern or presenting complaint. History of present illness, the order of events of symptoms. Distinguishable from history of illness, often called past medical history
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Gale is an educational publishing company based in Farmington Hills, the United States, in the western suburbs of Detroit. It was part of the Thomson Learning division of the Thomson Corporation, a Canadian company, the company, formerly known as Gale Research and the Gale Group, is active in research and educational publishing for public and academic libraries and businesses. Founded in Detroit, Michigan in 1954 by Frederick Gale Ruffner, in 1999, Thomson Gale acquired Macmillan Reference USA from Pearson. In 2000 it acquired the Munich-based K. G. Saur Verlag, Thomson has said that it expected this sale to generate approximately $5 billion. Sommers was president of Gale from October 22,2007, until he retired in 2010, Gale produces hundreds of products, such as Academic OneFile and Genealogy Master Index, General OneFile, General Reference Center, Sabin Americana, and World History Collection. Gale print imprints include the reference brands Primary Source Media, Scholarly Resources Inc, schirmer Reference, St.
James Press, The TAFT Group and Twayne Publishers, among others. Five Star Publishing is Gales fiction imprint, with hundreds of books in print in the Western, Mystery, Gale sells into the K–12 market with several imprints, including U·X·L, Greenhaven Press, KidHaven Press, Lucent Books, and others. Gale owns large print publishers Christian Large Print and Wheeler Publishing
EBSCO Information Services
EBSCO offers library resources to customers in academic, medical, K–12, public library, law and government markets. In 2010, EBSCO introduced its EBSCO Discovery Service to institutions, EBSCO Information Services is a division of EBSCO Industries Inc. a family owned company since 1944. EBSCO is an acronym for Elton B. Stephens Co, according to Forbes Magazine, EBSCO is one of the largest privately held companies in Alabama and one of the top 200 in the United States, based on revenues and employee numbers. Sales surpassed $1 billion in 1997 and exceeded $2 billion in 2006, EBSCO Industries is a diverse company which includes over 40 businesses. EBSCO Publishing was established in 1984 as a print publication called Popular Magazine Review, in 1987 the company was purchased by EBSCO Industries and its name was changed to EBSCO Publishing. It employed around 750 people by 2007, in 2003 it acquired Whitston Publishing, another database provider. In 2010 EBSCO purchased NetLibrary and in 2011, EBSCO Publishing took over H. W.
Wilson Company and it merged with EBSCO Information Services on July 1,2013. The merged business operates as EBSCO Information Services, as of 2016, the President and CEO is Tim Collins. Databases, EBSCO provides a range of library database services, many of the databases, such as MEDLINE and EconLit, are licensed from content vendors. Discovery, This product is used to create a unified, customized index of an institutions information resources, the system works by harvesting metadata from both internal and external sources, and creating a preindexed service. EBooks, EBSCO provides ebooks and audiobooks across a range of subject matter. DynaMed is a reference tool for physicians and other health care professionals for use at the point-of-care. It provides DRM-protected audio and DRM-protected audiobooks through its subsidiary NetLibrary and it competes in this market with OverDrive’s Digital Library Reserve. In 2012, the Stephens were recognized for their philanthropic work, interview with Sam Brooks, Senior VP for Sales and Marketing with EBSCO Publishing, About H. W.
ProQuest LLC is an Ann Arbor, Michigan-based global information-content and technology company founded in 1938 as University Microfilms by Eugene B. ProQuest provides solutions and products for libraries and its resources and tools support research and learning and dissemination, and the acquisition and discovery of library collections. From its founding as a producer of products and as an electronic publisher. Today, the company provides tools for discovery and citation management and platforms that allow users to discover, use. Content is accessed most commonly through library Internet gateways, the current chief executive officer is Kurt P. Sanford. ProQuest is part of Cambridge Information Group, ProQuest was founded as a microfilm publisher. These are made available through a variety of Web-based interfaces, a recent offering, ProQuest Video Preservation and Discovery Service, allows libraries to preserve and provide access to their proprietary audio and video collections. Ebrary offers access to collections, by subscription or a perpetual archive model, in subject packages tailored for academic, government, public.
Serials Solutions delivers discovery and e-resource access and management services, using a Software-as-a-Service model, Eugene Power, a 1930 M. B. A. graduate of the University of Michigan, founded the company as University Microfilms in 1938, preserving works from the British Museum on microfilm. By June 1938, Power worked in two rented rooms from a downtown Ann Arbor funeral parlor, specializing in microphotography to preserve library collections. In his autobiography Edition of One, Power details the development of the company and this work mainly involved filming maps and European newspapers so they could be shipped back and forth overseas more cheaply and discreetly. Power noticed a market in dissertations publishing. Students were often forced to publish their own works in order to finish their doctoral degree, Dissertations could be published more cheaply as microfilm than as books. ProQuest still publishes so many dissertations that its Dissertations and Theses collection has been declared the official U. S.
off-site repository of the Library of Congress, vaughn Davis Bornet seized on the idea and published Doctoral Dissertations and the Stream of Scholarship and Microfilm Publication of Doctoral Dissertations. As the dissertations market grew, the company expanded into filming newspapers, the companys main newspaper database is ProQuest NewsStand. In 1985 it was purchased from Xerox by Bell & Howell, in the 1980s, UMI began producing CD-ROMs that stored databases of periodicals abstracts and indexes. At a time when modem connections were slow and expensive, it was efficient to mail database CD-ROMs regularly to subscribing libraries. The ProQuest brand name was first used for databases on CD-ROM, an online service called ProQuest Direct was launched in 1995, its name was shortened to just ProQuest
United States National Library of Medicine
The United States National Library of Medicine, operated by the United States federal government, is the worlds largest medical library. Located in Bethesda, the NLM is an institute within the National Institutes of Health, the current director of the NLM is Patricia Flatley Brennan. Since 1879, the National Library of Medicine has published the Index Medicus and these resources are accessible without charge on the internet. S. and international consultants. The Extramural Division provides grants to research in medical information science and to support planning and development of computer. Research and exhibitions on the history of medicine, in April 2008 the current exhibition Against the Odds, Making a Difference in Global Health was launched. For details of the history of the Library, see Library of the Surgeon Generals Office. The precursor of the National Library of Medicine, established in 1836, was the Library of the Surgeon Generals Office, the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and its Medical Museum were founded in 1862 as the Army Medical Museum.
Throughout their history the Library of the Surgeon Generals Office and the Army Medical Museum often shared quarters, from 1866 to 1887, they were housed in Fords Theatre after production there was stopped, following the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. In 1956, the collection was transferred from the control of the U. S. The library moved to its current quarters in Bethesda, Maryland, on the campus of the National Institutes of Health, journalReview. org National Library of Medicine classification system PubMed Miles, Wyndham D. A History of the National Library of Medicine, The Nations Treasury of Medical Knowledge
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial