Swanson railway station
Swanson railway station is a station on the North Auckland Line in Auckland, New Zealand. Western Line services of the Auckland rail network are operated between the station and Britomart in central Auckland by Transdev, on behalf of Auckland Transport; the station is the northernmost point of the city's electrified network. It became the terminus of the Western Line in July 2015, when urban train services to Waitakere station ceased because the Waitakere-Swanson section of track was not electrified. A bus shuttle service operates between Swanson stations; the current station building was relocated from Avondale railway station following an upgrade there. 1881: The station opened on 18 July. 1920: A signal box was built. 1925: Signal box destroyed by fire following a lightning strike. 1970: Signal box was removed. 1972: Closed to goods. 1972: Buildings replaced by a platform shelter. 1995: Avondale railway station building was relocated here, now Swanson Station Cafe. 2000: New platform on the east side of the tracks.
2008: New platform on the west side of the tracks. 2011: Electrification. 2014: Electrification works completed, station energised. List of Auckland railway stations Media related to Swanson Railway Station, Auckland at Wikimedia Commons
Auckland Transport is the council-controlled organisation of Auckland Council responsible for transport projects and services. It was established by section 38 of the Local Government Act 2009, operates under that act and the Local Government Act 2010. Auckland Transport began operating from 1 November 2010, at the inauguration of Auckland Council, it assumed the role of the Auckland Regional Transport Authority and the combined transport functions of Auckland's seven city and district councils, all of which were disestablished. AT is responsible for the Auckland Region's public transport, it designs and maintains roads, ferry wharves and walkways. It is the largest of the council's organisations, with over 1700 staff, controlling half of all council rates. Dr David Warburton was the inaugural chief executive of the organisation, his successor, Shane Ellison, joined the organisation in December 2017. Auckland Transport has a key enforcement role, employing over 120 Parking Officers. In 2017, it created the new position of Transport Officer, with up to 220 to be appointed.
These officers work on Auckland's public transport network and are empowered by law to remove passengers off trains and issue infringement notices of $150 to enforce fare payment. Directors are appointed by Auckland Council; the Board has overall responsibility for delivering transport, including managing and controlling public transport and local roads. From 2010 to 2016, two councillors sat on the board, unlike the other Auckland CCOs, which were not permitted to have councillors as directors. Following the 2016 Auckland council elections, elected mayor Phil Goff dumped the two councillors, citing improved accountability and minimising compromises and conflict; the directors appointed from October 2016 were: Dr Lester Levy Wayne Donnelly Rabin Rabindran Mark Gilbert Dame Paula Rebstock Ernst Zöllner AT's assets totalled $19.1 billion in 2018, up 0.5 billion since June 2017. AT owned or operated the following transport assets as of 2018: 57 electric train sets, consisting of AM class multiple units per set 41 railway station facilities on Auckland's four railway lines, but not the platforms or tracks, which are owned by KiwiRail 16 dedicated bus stations, including six on the Northern Busway 21 ferry facilities 7,452 km of arterial and local roads Also the following: 6,859 km of footpaths, which grew to 7,287 km by 2016 985 bridges and major culverts 99,912 street lights 127,666 road signs 1,554 bus shelters 14 multi-storey car park buildings 933 on-street pay-and-display machines 270 AIFS integrated ticketing devices Public transport in Auckland AT Metro AT HOP card Hinaki Eel Trap Bridge Auckland Transport website
25 kV AC railway electrification
Railway electrification systems using alternating current at 25 kilovolts are used worldwide for high-speed rail. This electrification is ideal for railways that carry heavy traffic. After some experimentation before World War II in Hungary and in the Black Forest in Germany, it came into widespread use in the 1950s. One of the reasons why it was not introduced earlier was the lack of suitable small and lightweight control and rectification equipment before the development of solid-state rectifiers and related technology. Another reason was the increased clearance distances required where it ran under bridges and in tunnels, which would have required major civil engineering in order to provide the increased clearance to live parts. Railways using older, lower-capacity direct current systems have introduced or are introducing 25 kV AC instead of 3 kV DC/1.5 kV DC for their new high-speed lines. The first successful operational and regular use of the 50 Hz system dates back to 1931, tests having run since 1922.
It was developed by Kálmán Kandó in Hungary, who used 16 kV AC at 50 Hz, asynchronous traction, an adjustable number of poles. The first electrified line for testing was Budapest–Dunakeszi–Alag; the first electrified line was Budapest–Győr–Hegyeshalom. Although Kandó's solution showed a way for the future, railway operators outside of Hungary showed a lack of interest in the design; the first railway to use this system was completed in 1936 by the Deutsche Reichsbahn who electrified part of the Höllentalbahn between Freiburg and Neustadt installing a 20 kV, 50 Hz AC system. This part of Germany was in the French zone of occupation after 1945; as a result of examining the German system in 1951 the SNCF electrified the line between Aix-les-Bains and La Roche-sur-Foron in southern France at using the same 20 kV but converted to 25 kV in 1953. The 25 kV system was adopted as standard in France, but since substantial amounts of mileage south of Paris had been electrified at 1,500 V DC, SNCF continued some major new DC electrification projects, until dual-voltage locomotives were developed in the 1960s.
The main reason why electrification at this voltage had not been used before was the lack of reliability of mercury-arc-type rectifiers that could fit on the train. This in turn related to the requirement to use DC series motors, which required the current to be converted from AC to DC and for that a rectifier is needed; until the early 1950s, mercury-arc rectifiers were difficult to operate in ideal conditions and were therefore unsuitable for use in railway locomotives. It was possible to use AC motors, but they have less than ideal characteristics for traction purposes; this is because control of speed is difficult without varying the frequency and reliance on voltage to control speed gives a torque at any given speed, not ideal. This is why DC series motors are the best choice for traction purposes, as they can be controlled by voltage, have an ideal torque vs speed characteristic. In the 1990s, high-speed trains began to use lighter, lower-maintenance three-phase AC induction motors; the N700 Shinkansen uses a three-level converter to convert 25 kV single-phase AC to 1,520 V AC to 3,000 V DC to a maximum 2,300 V three-phase AC to run the motors.
The system works in reverse for regenerative braking. The choice of 25 kV was related to the efficiency of power transmission as a function of voltage and cost, not based on a neat and tidy ratio of the supply voltage. For a given power level, a higher voltage allows for a lower current and better efficiency at the greater cost for high-voltage equipment, it was found that 25 kV was an optimal point, where a higher voltage would still improve efficiency but not by a significant amount in relation to the higher costs incurred by the need for larger insulators and greater clearance from structures. To avoid short circuits, the high voltage must be protected from moisture. Weather events, such as "the wrong type of snow", have caused failures in the past. An example of atmospheric causes occurred in December 2009, when four Eurostar trains broke down inside the Channel Tunnel. Electric power from a generating station is transmitted to grid substations using a three-phase distribution system. At the grid substation, a step-down transformer is connected across two of the three phases of the high-voltage supply.
The transformer lowers the voltage to 25 kV, supplied to a railway feeder station located beside the tracks. SVCs are used for voltage control. In some cases dedicated single-phase AC power lines were built to substations with single phase AC transformers; such lines were built to supply the French TGV. Railway electrification using 25 kV, 50 Hz AC has become an international standard. There are two main standards that define the voltages of the system: EN 50163:2004+A1:2007 - "Railway applications. Supply voltages of traction systems" IEC 60850 - "Railway Applications. Supply voltages of traction systems"The permissible range of voltages allowed are as stated in the above standards and take into account the number of trains drawing current and their distance from the substation; this system is now part of the European Union's Trans-European railway interoperability standards. Systems based on this standard but with some variations have been used. In countries where 60 Hz is the normal gr
Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba
Transdev Auckland Veolia Transport Auckland, Ltd. and before that Connex Auckland, Ltd. is a Transdev Australasia company. It runs Auckland's urban passenger trains under contract from Auckland Transport on infrastructure owned and managed by KiwiRail. Auckland Transport receives funding to subsidise these services from the NZ Transport Agency, which receives funding from road user taxes and Crown appropriations, from the Auckland Council through rates. Since July 2016 Wellington's commuter rail services are operated by Transdev, as Transdev Wellington; the previous operator of the train network in Auckland was Tranz Metro. When the Auckland Regional Council called for tenders for the new contract, Tranz Metro did not tender and Connex won the tender. Since 2004 patronage has increased by 30% annually and on-time performance has increased from 50% to 85%. On 8 December 2017 Transdev Auckland were unable to run any train services in Auckland for 24 hours due to industrial strike action by members of the RMTU who were protesting the decision of Transdev Auckland's proposed introduction of DDO.
Transdev operates services on the following lines from Britomart: Eastern Line services run along the North Island Main Trunk via Glen Innes to Puhinui diverge onto the Manukau Branch to the Manukau terminus. Southern Line services run out of the Britomart tunnel on the NIMT the Newmarket Line to Newmarket the North Auckland Line to Westfield Junction, the NIMT to Papakura, with a diesel train shuttle service between Papakura and Pukekohe. Western Line services run out of the Britomart tunnel on the NIMT the Newmarket Line to Newmarket the North Auckland Line via Henderson to Swanson. Onehunga Line services run out of the Britomart tunnel on the NIMT the Newmarket Line to Newmarket the North Auckland Line to Penrose where they diverge onto the Onehunga Branch to the terminus at Onehunga. Transdev operates the following rolling stock: 57 AM three-car EMUs running on all lines since full electrification in July 2015 10 ADL/ADC two-car DMUs owned by Auckland TransportThe AM class wear the Auckland Transport livery, the ADL class wear the MAXX livery.
Transdev operated the following rolling stock until full electrification in July 2015: 20 DC locomotives owned by KiwiRail, operating in push-pull mode with 20 sets of three or four SA cars and an SD driving car with driving cab and remote controls, owned by Auckland Transport. The carriages are stored at Taumarunui and the locomotives have returned to KiwiRail. 4 DFT/DFB locomotives owned by KiwiRail, operating in push-pull mode with six-car sets, now back with KiwiRail 9 ADK/ADB two-car DMUs, in storageAll diesel rolling stock and locomotive-hauled carriage stock is in MAXX Blue livery, except four locomotives which were in KiwiRail livery. Transdev Wellington List of Auckland railway stations List of rapid transit systems Public transport in Auckland Rail transport in New Zealand Official website
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
Grafton railway station, Auckland
Grafton Railway Station is a station serving the inner-city suburb of Grafton in Auckland, New Zealand. It is located on the Western Line of Auckland's passenger rail network and consists of an island platform located in a trench near the intersection of Khyber Pass Road and Park Road; the station opened on 11 April 2010. The station serves as a direct interchange with a large number of bus routes, including the InnerLink and buses travelling along the Central Connector, is located in close proximity to Auckland Hospital, Auckland Domain and the University of Auckland's Grafton and Newmarket campuses; the station has four entrances, as its platform extends under both Khyber Pass Road and Park Road, with stairs connecting the station to both sides of each road. Both of the Park Road stairs connect directly to bus stops. There is a lift on the western side of Park Road; the entrance on the southern side of Khyber Pass Road is adjacent to St Peter's College and students have direct access to the platform without having to cross any roads.
Up to a third of the school's students use Grafton station in the mornings and afternoons on school days. Transdev Auckland, on behalf of Auckland Transport, operates Western Line services to Britomart and Swanson; the off-peak weekday frequencies are: 3 trains per hour to Britomart 3 tph to SwansonBus routes 30, 70, 75, 295, 309, 321 and the Inner Link serve Grafton station. When the City Rail Link opens in 2023, rail services at Grafton Station will change significantly; the Western Line will no longer serve the station, as it will be rerouted through the new tunnels between Mount Eden and Britomart. Instead, the Southern Line will be rerouted through Grafton on its way between Newmarket and the City Centre, a new Crosstown Line will serve the station as part of its route between Henderson and Otahuhu. Grafton Station replaced Boston Road station, is located 300m north-east of the site of the former station; the station was re-sited at a cost of $3 million to make it closer to major destinations such as the hospital and to allow more direct interchange to bus routes than the previous site.
The line through the station was electrified in 2014, AM class EMUs replaced diesel powered trains on the Western Line in 2015. List of Auckland railway stations Public transport in Auckland