The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia, separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The range has many including the highest, Mount Everest; the Himalayas include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 m in elevation, including ten of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia is 6,961 m tall. Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs west-northwest to east-southeast in an arc 2,400 km long, its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River; the Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Hindu Kush ranges. To the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau by a 50–60 km wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture. Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya is ringed by the low Indo-Gangetic Plain.
The range varies in width from 350 km in the west to 150 km in the east. The Himalayas are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term'Himalaya' is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges; the Himalayas are inhabited by 52.7 million people, are spread across five countries: Nepal, Bhutan and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers – the Indus, the Ganges and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra – rise in the Himalayas, their combined drainage basin is home to 600 million people; the Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; the name of the range derives from himá and ā-laya. They are now known as the "Himalaya Mountains" shortened to the "Himalayas", they were described in the singular as the Himalaya. This was previously transcribed Himmaleh, as in Emily Dickinson's poetry and Henry David Thoreau's essays.
The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi, the Himalaya or'The Land of Snow' in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range in Urdu and the Ximalaya Mountain Range in Chinese. In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8,000 m peaks of Dhaulagiri and Annapurna in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge; the gorge splits the Himalayas into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest and K2. To the east of Annapurna are the 8,000 m peaks of Manaslu and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/Sun Kosi river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal and China – the Araniko Highway/China National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest and Makalu.
The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal, the Himalayas rise to the Kanchenjunga massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8,000 m summit and the highest point of India; the eastern side of Kanchenjunga is in the Indian state of Sikkim. An independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, which passes over the Nathu La pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan; the highest mountain in Bhutan is Gangkhar Puensum, a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas here are becoming rugged with forested steep valleys; the Himalayas continue, turning northeast, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river.
On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, are sometimes included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal; the Karnali River cuts through the center of the region. Further west, the border with India follows the Sarda River and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas and is revered in Hinduism, Sufism and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas rise again as the Garhwal Himalayas with the high peaks of Nanda Devi and Kamet; the state is an important pilgrimage destination, with
Kangri is an Indo-Aryan language variety spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Kangra and Una districts of Himachal Pradesh and in the Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur districts of Punjab. It is associated with the people of the Kangra Valley; the total number of speakers has been estimated at 1.7 million, while those who reported their first language as Kangri in the 2011 census were 1.17 million. Its precise position within Indo-Aryan is subject to debate; some scholars have classified as a dialect of the Dogri language spoken to the west, while others have seen its affinity to be closer with the Pahari dialects spoken to the east: Mandeali and Kullui. Eaton, Robert D.. Kangri in context: An areal perspective; the University of Texas at Arlington. Singh, Amitjit. "The Language Divide in Punjab." Sagar, Volume 4, Number 1, Spring 1997. Goldsmith, Parvin. "Scripture in Kangri recordings" 2007
The Indo-Aryan language spoken on the Pothohar Plateau in northern Punjab, in most of the Pakistani polity of Azad Kashmir, in western areas of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir is known by a variety of names, the most common of which are Pahari and Pothwari. It is transitional between Standard Punjabi, its speakers have a local linguistic, but not ethnic, identity, separate from that of Punjabi and there has been a nascent, if not yet coherent, language movement. There have been efforts at cultivation as a literary language, although a local standard has not been established yet, it has been classified as a Punjabi dialect. Grierson in his early 20th-century Linguistic Survey of India assigned it to a so-called "Northern cluster" of Lahnda, but this classification, as well as the validity of the Lahnda grouping in this case, have been called into question. There are at least three major dialects: Pothwari and Pahari, they are mutually intelligible, but the difference between the northernmost and the southernmost dialects is enough to cause difficulties in understanding.
Pothwari spelt Potwari and Pothohari, is spoken in the Pothohar Plateau of northern Punjab, an area that includes parts of the districts of Rawalpindi, Jhelum and Gujrat. Pothwari extends southwards up to the Salt Range, with the city of Jhelum marking the border with Punjabi. To the north, Pothwari transitions into the Pahari-speaking area, with Bharakao, near Islamabad regarded as the point where Pothwari ends and Pahari begins. Pothwari has been represented as a dialect of Punjabi by the Punjabi language movement, in census reports the Pothwari areas of Punjab have been shown as Punjabi-majority. East of the Pothwari areas, across the Jhelum River into Mirpur District in Azad Kashmir the language is more similar to Pothwari than to the Pahari spoken in the rest of Azad Kashmir. Locally it is known by a variety of names: Pahari, Mirpur Pahari and Pothwari, while some of its speakers call it Punjabi. Mirpuris possess a strong sense of Kashmiri identity that overrides linguistic identification with related groups outside Azad Kashmir.
The Mirpur region has been the source of the greater part of Pakistani immigration to the UK, a process that started when thousands were displaced by the construction of the Mangla Dam in the 1960s and emigrated to fill labour shortages in England. The British Mirpuri diaspora now numbers several hundred thousand, Pahari has been argued to be the second most common mother tongue in the UK, yet the language is little known in the wider society there and its status has remained surrounded by confusion. Pahari is spoken to the north of Pothwari; the central cluster of Pahari dialects is found around Murree. This area is in the Galyat: the hill country of Murree Tehsil in the northeast of Rawalpindi District and the adjoining areas in southeastern Abbottabad District. One name found in the literature for this language is Dhundi-Kairali, a term first used by Grierson who based it on the names of the two major tribes of the area – the Kairal and the Dhund, its speakers call it Pahari in Murre tehsil, while in Abbotabad district it is known as either Hindko or Ḍhūṇḍī.
Hindko – properly the language of the rest of Abbottabad District and the neighbouring areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa – is regarded as a different language. It forms a dialect continuum with Pahari, the transition between the two is in northern Azad Kashmir and in the Galyat region. For example on the road from Murree northwest towards the city of Abbottabad, Pahari changes into Hindko between Ayubia and Nathiagali. A related dialect is spoken across the Jhelum River in Azad Kashmir, north of the Mirpuri areas. Names associated in the literature with this dialect are Pahari, Chibhālī, named after the Chibhal region or the Chibh ethnic group, Poonchi; the latter name has been variously applied to either the Chibhali variety specific to the district of Poonch, or to the dialect of the whole northern half of Azad Kashmir. This dialect has been seen either as a separate dialect from the one in Murree, or as belonging to the same central group of Pahari dialects; the dialect of the district of Bagh, for example, has more shared vocabulary with the core dialects from Murree than with the varieties of either Muzaffarabad or Mirpur.
In Muzaffarabad the dialect shows lexical similarity of 83–88% with the central group of Pahari dialects, high enough for the authors of the sociolinguistic survey to classify it is a central dialect itself, but low enough to warrant noting its borderline status. The speakers however tend to call their language Hindko and to identify more with the Hindko spoken to the west, despite the lower lexical similarity with the core Hindko dialects of Abbottabad and Mansehra. Further north into the Neelam Valley the dialect, now known locally as Parmi, becomes closer to Hindko. Pahari is spoken further east across the Line of Control into the Pir Panjal mountains in Indian Jammu and Kashmir; the population, estimated at 1 million, is found in the region between the Jhelum and Chenab rivers: most in the districts of Poonch and Rajouri, to a lesser extent in neighbouring Baramulla and Kupwara, – as a result of the influx of refugees during the Partition of 1947 – scattered throughout the rest of Jammu and Kashmir.
Pahari is among the regional languages listed in the sixth schedule of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir. - Use of S
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Himachal Pradesh is a state in the northern part of India. Situated in the Western Himalayas, it is bordered by states of Jammu and Kashmir on the north, Punjab on the west, Haryana on the southwest, Uttarakhand on the southeast, Tibet on the east. At its southernmost point, it touches the state of Uttar Pradesh; the state's name was coined by acharya Diwakar Datt Sharma, one of the state's eminent Sanskrit scholars. The predominantly mountainous region comprising the present day Himachal Pradesh has been inhabited since pre-historic times having witnessed multiple waves of migration from other areas. Through its history, the region was ruled by local kingdoms some of which accepted suzerainty of larger empires. Prior to India's independence from the British, Himachal comprised the hilly regions of Punjab Province of British India. After independence, many of the hilly territories were organized as the Chief Commissioner's province of Himachal Pradesh which became a union territory. In 1966, hilly areas of neighboring Punjab state were merged into Himachal and it was granted full statehood in 1972.
Himachal Pradesh is spread across valleys with many perennial rivers flowing through them. 90% of the state's population lives in rural areas. Agriculture, horticulture and tourism are important constituents of the state's economy; the hilly state is universally electrified with 99.5% of the households having electricity as of 2016. The state was declared India's second open-defecation free state in 2016. According to a survey of CMS - India Corruption Study 2017, Himachal Pradesh is India's least corrupt state. Tribes such as the Koli, Dagi, Dasa, Khasa and Kirat inhabited the region from the prehistoric era; the foothills of the modern state of Himachal Pradesh were inhabited by people from the Indus valley civilization which flourished between 2250 and 1750 B. C; the Kols or Mundas are believed to be the original migrants to the hills of present day Himachal Pradesh followed by the Bhotas and Kiratas. During the Vedic period, several small republics known as Janapada existed which were conquered by the Gupta Empire.
After a brief period of supremacy by King Harshavardhana, the region was divided into several local powers headed by chieftains, including some Rajput principalities. These kingdoms enjoyed a large degree of independence and were invaded by Delhi Sultanate a number of times. Mahmud Ghaznavi conquered Kangra at the beginning of the 10th century. Timur and Sikander Lodi marched through the lower hills of the state and captured a number of forts and fought many battles. Several hill states paid regular tribute to the Mughals; the Kingdom of Gorkha conquered many kingdoms and came to power in Nepal in 1768. They began to expand their territory; the Kingdom of Nepal annexed Sirmour and Shimla. Under the leadership of Amar Singh Thapa, the Nepali army laid siege to Kangra, they managed to defeat Sansar Chand Katoch, the ruler of Kangra, in 1806 with the help of many provincial chiefs. However, the Nepali army could not capture Kangra fort which came under Maharaja Ranjeet Singh in 1809. After the defeat, they began to expand towards the south of the state.
However, Raja Ram Singh, Raja of Siba State, captured the fort of Siba from the remnants of Lahore Darbar in Samvat 1846, during the First Anglo-Sikh War. They came into direct conflict with the British along the tarai belt after which the British expelled them from the provinces of the Satluj; the British emerged as the paramount power in the region. In the revolt of 1857, or first Indian war of independence, arising from a number of grievances against the British, the people of the hill states were not as politically active as were those in other parts of the country, they and their rulers, with the exception of Bushahr, remained less inactive. Some, including the rulers of Chamba, Bilaspur and Dhami, rendered help to the British government during the revolt; the British territories came under the British Crown after Queen Victoria's proclamation of 1858. The states of Chamba and Bilaspur made good progress in many fields during the British rule. During World War I all rulers of the hill states remained loyal and contributed to the British war effort, both in the form of men and materials.
Among these were the states of Kangra, Datarpur, Rajgarh, Chamba, Suket and Bilaspur. After independence, the Chief Commissioner's Province of Himachal Pradesh was organized on 15 April 1948 as a result of the integration of 28 petty princely states in the promontories of the western Himalayas; these were known as the Simla Hills States and four Punjab southern hill states under the Himachal Pradesh Order, 1948 under Sections 3 and 4 of the Extra-Provincial Jurisdiction Act, 1947. The State of Bilaspur was merged into Himachal Pradesh on 1 July 1954 by the Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur Act, 1954. Himachal became a Part'C' state on 26 January 1950 with the implementation of the Constitution of India and the Lieutenant Governor was appointed; the Legislative Assembly was elected in 1952. Himachal Pradesh became a union territory on 1 November 1956; some areas of Punjab State— namely Simla, Kangra and Lahul and Spiti Districts, Nalagarh tehsil of Ambala District, Lohara and Una kanungo circles, some area of Santokhgarh kanungo circle and some other specified area of Una tehsil of Hoshiarpur District, besides some parts of Dhar Kalan Kanungo circle of Pathankot tehsil of Gurdaspur District—were merge
George Abraham Grierson
Sir George Abraham Grierson was an Irish administrator and linguist in British India. He worked in the Indian Civil Services but an interest in philology and linguistics led him to pursue studies in the languages and folklore of India during his postings in Bengal and Bihar, he published numerous studies in the journals of learned societies and wrote several books during his administrative career but proposed a formal linguistic survey at the Oriental Congress in 1886 at Vienna. The Congress recommended the idea to the British Government and he was appointed superintendent of the newly created Linguistic Survey of India in 1898, he continued the work until 1928, surveying people across the British Indian territory, documenting spoken languages, recording voices, written forms and was responsible in documenting information on 179 languages, defined by him through a test of mutual unintelligibility, 544 dialects which he placed in five language families. He published the findings of the Linguistic Survey in a series.
Grierson was born in County Dublin. His father and grandfather were well-known Dublin publishers, his mother Isabella was the daughter of Henry Ruxton of Ardee. He was educated at St. Bees School from the age of 13 at Shrewsbury, he went up to Trinity College, where he was a student of mathematics. Grierson qualified for the Indian Civil Service in 1871 ranking twenty-eighth for the year, he continued studies at Trinity College for two probationary years where he was influenced by Robert Atkinson, professor of oriental languages. He took a deep interest in languages, won prizes for studies in Sanskrit and Hindustani before leaving for the Bengal Presidency in 1873. First posted to Bankipore in Bihar, he became Magistrate and Collector at Patna and still in 1896, Opium Agent for Bihar, he married Lucy Elizabeth Jean, daughter of Maurice Henry Fitzgerald Collis, a Dublin surgeon, in 1880 but they had no children. Grierson attended the Oriental Congress in 1886 at Vienna and proposed the idea of a formal linguistic in India.
Grierson was a delegate of the Royal Asiatic Society along with Dr Theodor Duka, Albert Terrien de Lacouperie, Cecil Bendall, R. N. Cust. At the Congress it was noted that the number of Indian languages was unknown with estimates varying from twenty to 250. A resolution was passed urging the Government to undertake a'deliberate systematic survey of the languages of India.' The signatories included Max Müller, Monier Williams and Grierson. The recommendation was made to the British Government and in 1898 he was appointed Superintendent of the newly formed Linguistic Survey of India. For the survey a standard set of materials were sought, he had government officials collect material for every language and subdialect, going from village to village and sampling across the classes and sexes. He provided instructional material to his correspondents, he sought a version of the parable of the prodigal son, oral narratives and a predefined list of 241 words and phrases. The parable was chosen because'it contains the three personal pronouns, most of the cases found in the declension of nouns, the present and future tenses of the verb'.
The survey classified the languages of 290,000,000 people. In 1900 he moved to England "for convenience of consulting European libraries and scholars". By 1903 most of the data had come in and he retired from the Indian Civil Service, he spent the following thirty years editing the enormous amount of material gathered and worked in collaboration with the Norwegian linguist Sten Konow. On 8 May 1928 the completion of the Linguistic Survey of India was celebrated at the Criterion Restaurant by the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland with Lord Birkenhead proposing the toast. Grierson published scholarly works throughout his career: on the dialects and peasant life of Bihar, on Hindi literature, on bhakti, on linguistics, his contemporaries noted both his lack of sympathy for Advaita Vedanta, which he regarded as "pandit religion," and his "warm appreciation of the monotheistic devotion of the country folk". Most of Grierson's work deals with linguistics. In a celebratory account of his life, F. W. Thomas and R. L. Turner refer to the extensive publications of the Linguistic Survey of India as "a great Imperial museum and systematically classifying the linguistic botany of India".
Grierson died in Camberley, England at Rathfarnham, the house he built and named after his grandfather's castle in Dublin. Grierson received an honorary Doctorate of Letters from the University of Dublin in June 1902. In 1928 Grierson was appointed to the Order of Merit and was a Sir William Jones Gold Medallist in 1929, he was appointed CIE in 1894 and knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire in 1912. A literary award of India, the Dr. George Grierson Award, was named in his honour, he received several other honorary degrees from the universities of Halle, Cambridge and Bihar. He was an honorary member of the Nagari Pracharini Sabha at Benares. Grierson was prodigious in his writing. On his 85th birthday, an article was contributed in his honour and published by the School of Oriental Studies which included a list of Grierson's publications occupying 22 pages; the following are papers: Grierson, George Abraham. Linguistic Survey of India. Calcutta: Government Press. Grierson, Georg
Bilaspuri, or Kahluri is a language spoken in northern India, predominantly in the Bilaspur district of Himachal Pradesh and in the Rupnagar district of the Punjab state. It is associated with the people of the former princely state of Bilaspur in the Punjab Hills. Bilaspuri is classified as one of the varieties of the Western Pahari language group; the dialect of the hilly part of Hoshiarpur district is known as Pahāṛī. Singh, Amitjit. "The Language Divide in Punjab." Sagar, Volume 4, Number 1, Spring 1997