Super Rugby is a professional men's rugby union competition involving teams from Argentina, New Zealand, South Africa and Japan. Building on various Southern Hemisphere competitions dating back to the South Pacific Championship in 1986, with teams from a number of southern nations, Super Rugby started as the Super 12 in the 1996 season with 12 teams from Australia, New Zealand and South Africa; the Super 12 was established by SANZAR after the sport became professional in 1995. The name was changed to Super 14 with the addition of two teams for the 2006 season, with expansion to 15 teams in the three countries for the 2011 season, the competition was rebranded as Super Rugby. In 2016 two new teams, the Jaguares from Argentina and Sunwolves from Japan, joined the competition, playing in two newly separated African groups. In 2018, the competition underwent another change in format, this time dropping two teams from the South African conference, one from the Australian conference; this left the competition with 15 teams.
The competition has been dominated by New Zealand teams. The Crusaders have won most with nine titles. SANZAAR is the body that administers Super Rugby, has the Australian, New Zealand, South African and Argentine rugby unions as its sole members. SANZAAR runs the Rugby Championship tournament, contested by Argentina, New Zealand, South Africa following the conclusion of the Super Rugby tournament; the organisation was formed in 1996 to establish and run the Super 12, Tri-Nations Tournament. Prior to 2011, Super Rugby was a round-robin competition where each team played with every other team once; the winner received four competition points. The Rugby union bonus points system was used, where any team scoring four or more tries, and/or losing by seven points or less, receives an extra competition point. In 2016, the try bonus changed. A team now has to score three more tries than their opponents; the top four teams at the end of the round-robin phase played semi-finals – the first placed team hosting the fourth placed team, the second placed team hosting the third placed team.
The two winners played the final at the home ground of the top surviving seed. There were 91 regular season games in total. Games were held over 14 weekends with each team receiving one bye. From 2011 – 2015 the format changed, with each country forming its own conference; each team within a conference played each of the other teams in its conference twice, once at home and once away. Each team played four out of the five teams from each of the other conferences once. Competition points were awarded on a similar basis as before; the format of the finals changed. The four lower ranking teams were paired in two sudden death games; those winners played for the championship. For the 2016 and 2017 seasons the format changed again, with three more teams joining, one each from Argentina and South Africa. There were four conferences, with Africa getting two conferences; the finals had eight teams with each conference winner getting a home quarter final. They were joined by four wild card teams, three from the Australasian group and one from the South African group.
From 2018 season the format has changed again, with two South African teams and an Australian team being dropped. There are three conferences, one of the five New Zealand teams, a South African one to include Argentina's team and an Australasian one including Japan's team. Before 1996, a number of transnational competitions involving regional and provincial rugby union teams had taken shape in the southern hemisphere; the earliest of these was the South Pacific Championship, launched in 1986 and continued until 1990. After the demise of the South Pacific Championship, with no tournament played in 1991, the competition was relaunched as the Super 6 in 1992; the original Super 6 competition consisted of three provincial teams from New Zealand: Auckland, Wellington. In 1993, the Super Six competition was expanded into the Super 10 tournament. With South Africa being readmitted into international sport following the dismantling of apartheid, there was an opportunity to launch an expanded competition which would feature South Africa's top provincial teams.
The inaugural competition featured the following teams: Waikato, Auckland and North Harbour. The Super 10 was won by Transvaal in 1993, by Queensland in 1994 and 1995; the official declaration of professionalism in rugby union in August 1995 led to a restructuring of the Super 10 competition. Following the success of the 1995 World Cup, the rugby boards of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa formed SANZAR to administer an annual 12-team provincial/franchise based competition pitting regional teams from the three nations against each other. In addition it was decided to hold an annual Tri-Nations Test Series between the three co
This competition was a knock-out competition. The Lion Cup was a premier domestic rugby union knock-out competition in South Africa; the first Lion cup was held in 1983 where the Free State took the first title facing Transvaal at Ellis Park. The last season was held in 1994 Finals results in the Lion Cup Rugby union in South Africa Vodacom Cup Currie Cup / Central Series
For the cricket competition known as the Currie Cup, see Sunfoil Series. The Currie Cup tournament is South Africa's premier domestic rugby union competition, played each winter and spring, featuring teams representing either entire provinces or substantial regions within provinces. Although it is the premier domestic competition, South African teams compete in the international Super Rugby and Pro14 competitions. Steeped in history and tradition, the Currie Cup dates back to 1891; the tournament is regarded as the cornerstone of South Africa's rugby heritage, the coveted gold trophy remains the most prestigious prize in South African domestic rugby. The Currie Cup is one of the oldest rugby competitions, with the first games played in 1889 but it was only in 1892 that it became known as the Currie Cup; the competition had its humble beginnings as an inter-province competition in 1884, but when the South African Rugby Board was founded in 1889 it decided to organize a national competition that would involve representative teams from all the major unions.
The original participating unions were Western Province, Griqualand West and Eastern Province. The first tournament was won by Western Province. For a prize they received a silver cup donated by the South African Rugby Board, now displayed at the SA Rugby Museum in Cape Town; the story of how the Currie Cup came to be comes from the first overseas rugby team to tour South Africa in 1891, The British Isles, who carried with them a precious bit of cargo. Among the bags and balls was a golden cup given to them by Sir Donald Currie, owner of Union-Castle Lines, the shipping company that transported them to the southern tip of Africa. Sir Donald was clear with his instructions – hand this trophy over to the team in South Africa that gives you the best game, they handed the trophy over to the South African rugby board and it became the floating trophy for the Currie Cup competition. The inaugural Currie Cup tournament was thus held in 1892 with Western Province earning the honour of holding it aloft as the first official winners.
The competition missed a few years here and there for reasons such as war and the like, but in 1968 it became a fledged annual showpiece. Western Province dominated the competition's early years, by 1920 the team from Cape Town had secured the trophy 10 times. Only Griqualand West could halt the rampant WP side and win the trophy in 1899 and 1911. In 1922 the Transvaal won the competition for the first time, however Western Province would continue to dominate the Currie Cup throughout the 1920s and 1930s, winning the trophy a further 4 times and sharing it twice with Border. In 1939 the trophy returned to Johannesburg for only the second time after Transvaal defeated Western Province in Cape Town; this was the first time. The Currie Cup went into hiatus during the Second World War but resumed in 1946 when Northern Transvaal claimed their first trophy by beating Western Province 11-9 in the final at Loftus Versfeld in Pretoria; the late 1940s and early 1950s were dominated by Transvaal who would win the trophy in 1950 and 1952, however in 1954 the Currie Cup would return south following Western Province's narrow 11-8 victory over Northern Transvaal in the final at Newlands in Cape Town.
At the end of the 1980s, South African rugby supporters were treated to two of the most memorable Currie Cup finals. In 1989 winger Carel du Plessis scored a last-minute try as WP managed to draw with Northern Transvaal 16-all, Riaan Gouws missed the conversion which would have given WP its 6th title of the decade a feat which has never been achieved; the following year the Blue Bulls slipped up, Natal sneaked home 18-12, inspired by fly-half Joel Stransky. The 1990s saw further improvement by the rise of Francois Pienaar's Transvaal. Since the age of professionalism in rugby union in the early 1990s, the Currie Cup has become much more competitive with no team able to carve out an era of dominance like that of WP in the early years or Northern Transvaal in the 1970s and 1980s. All five of the so-called'big unions' have won the Currie Cup on at least one occasion in the last 20 years. In 2006 the trophy was shared by the Free State Cheetahs and Blue Bulls following their 28-28 all draw in a tense final in Bloemfontein.
Whilst these days the competition lags behind Super Rugby and The Rugby Championship in the order of importance, the Currie Cup still holds a special place amongst South African rugby supporters and players, with the trophy much still the holy grail of the South African domestic rugby scene. From 1996 to 2015, the following 14 provincial unions participated in the Currie Cup: In 2016, the Currie Cup added Welwitschias, a team from Namibia and in 2019, the Jaguares XV from Argentina. Between 1892 and 1920, the competition was held as a centralised tournament, with the team with the best record crowned as the winner. Between 1922 and 1936, the winner was the team with the best record following a round-robin competition. In all the other seasons, a f
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
The Stormers are a South African professional rugby union team based in Cape Town competing in the Super Rugby competition. They have never won a tournament, but their home stadium, Newlands draws the highest average attendance figures of any ground in Super Rugby.. They are centred on the Western Province Currie Cup side, but draw players from the Boland Cavaliers. Through 2005, they drew players from the SWD Eagles, which meant that they drew players from all three unions in the Western Cape Province. However, the general realignment of franchise areas resulting from the expansion of the competition resulted in the Eagles being moved to the area of the Southern Spears. Prior to 1998, South Africa did not use a franchise system for the Super 12, instead sending the top four unions from its domestic competition, the Currie Cup, into the Super 12. In 1996, the Stormers competed in the Super 12 as Western Province. In 1997, they did not qualify; the Stormers played their first final, against the Bulls in front of 36,000 fans in Johannesburg, in 2010 after beating the Waratahs in the semi-final stage but lost to the Bulls.
In the two previous years in which they reached the semi-finals, 1999 and 2004, they were eliminated by the Highlanders and Crusaders. They made consecutive home semifinals in 2011 and 2012, but lost both at Newlands to the Crusaders and the Sharks respectively. In 2015 they won the South African conference for a third time, before losing their home quarterfinal against the Brumbies. With the launch of the Super 12 in 1996, both Australia and New Zealand adopted franchise-based models for their provincial teams that were to compete in the new competition. However, the South Africa teams were to be determined by the results of the previous season's Currie Cup, with the top four sides gaining entry in the Super 12. Newlands did see Super 12 competition during the era when this model of competition was used, with the Western Province gaining promotion for the inaugural season of 1996. However, the team did not perform that well, winning only three matches from 11 fixtures, finishing second last on the table, though Transvaal and the Wellington Hurricanes both won the same number of games as the Western Province, they finished higher, due to a superior for and against.
The following season, in 1997, the Western Province did not gain promotion to the Super 12, the Cape Town area was not represented that season, as the South Africa teams in competition were instead the Sharks, Gauteng Lions, Free State and Northern Transvaal. The next season, South Africa adopted a similar system to that of New Zealand's and Australia's, creating four new provincial sides, abolishing qualification through the Currie Cup. One of the sides created was the Western Stormers; the Stormers' first season was similar to that of the Western Province's in 1996, winning just the three games out of 11 fixtures, though they finished in ninth place overall on the table. The 1999 Super 12 season was far more successful for the Stormers, as they lost only three matches during the regular season; the Stormers thus qualified for the semi-finals for the first time and, due to their log position, hosted their semi-final in Cape Town. However, they were defeated by the Otago Highlanders, 33 points to 18.
In 2000, the Stormers fell just short of making the finals again, as they finished in fifth position, with a total of 31 points, just one point behind the Cats and Highlanders who both made it to the semi-finals, on 32 points. The following season - 2001 - saw the Stormers move further away from a place in the finals, as they won only five of their 11 fixtures and finished in seventh place on the log; the following season was not any better for the Stormers, despite starting the season with an optimistic 40 to 18 win over the Sharks, the Stormers ended up finishing in ninth place on the log. The 2004 season saw the Stormers return to the success of 1999, as they qualified for the play-offs again; the team finished in third place overall, with seven wins, on 34 points, one point more than the fourth placed Chiefs. The Stormers travelled to Jade Stadium in Christchurch, where they met the Crusaders in the semi-final; the home team won, defeating the Stormers 27 points to 16. The following season the Stormers fell to ninth place on the table come the end of the regular season, far from finals contention.
For the 2006 season, the Super 12 became the Super 14, with the addition of two new teams. The Stormers won four of the now 13 regular rounds; the year 2008 was one of revival for the Stormers after Kobus van der Merwe was fired and ex-Cheetahs coach, Rassie Erasmus, was brought in as head coach and WP Director of Rugby. Rassie Erasmus was hoping for a top half of the table finish, however the Stormers exceeded expectations and after losing their first 3 games of the season fought back to finish tied for 4th place on the log, missing out on an away semi final due to an inferior points difference to the Hurricanes. After a poor 2009, the Stormers reshuffled their s
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland spoken by the Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, was referred to as "Cape Dutch" or "kitchen Dutch". However, it is variously described as a creole or as a creolised language; the term is derived from Dutch Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin. Therefore, differences with Dutch lie in the more analytic-type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch. There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.
With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country. It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, is spoken and understood as a second or third language, it is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans, 60.8% of White South Africans. In addition, many native speakers of Bantu languages and English speak Afrikaans as a second language, it is taught with about 10.3 million second-language students. One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, several translations of the Bible have been published since the first one was completed in 1933. In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans is spoken as a second language and used as a lingua franca, while as a native language it is spoken in 10.4% of households concentrated in the capital Windhoek, Walvis Bay and the southern regions of Hardap and ǁKaras.
It, along with German, was among the official languages of Namibia until the country became independent in 1990, 25% of the population of Windhoek spoke Afrikaans at home. Both Afrikaans and German are recognised regional languages in Namibia, although only English has official status within the government. Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 23 million; the term is derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". An estimated 90 to 95% of the Afrikaans lexicon is of Dutch origin, there are few lexical differences between the two languages. Afrikaans has a more regular morphology and spelling. There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages in written form. Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan languages and Bantu languages, Afrikaans has been influenced by South African English. Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round.
Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch. In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian or between Danish and Swedish; the South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach, attempting to visualize the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation and Southern American English. The Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century; as early as the mid-18th century and as as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language", lacking the prestige accorded, for example by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt and onbeschaafd Hollands, as well as verkeerd Nederlands.
Den Besten theorizes that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources: Cape Dutch, a direct transplantation of European Dutch to southern Africa, and'Hottentot Dutch', a pidgin that descended from'Foreigner Talk' and from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole. Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways. A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces, though up to one-sixth of the community was of French Huguenot origin, a seventh from Germany. African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans; the slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India and the Dutch East Indies. A number were indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as i
Newlands, Cape Town
Newlands is an upmarket suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. It is located at the foot of Table Mountain in the Southern Suburbs of Cape Town, is the wettest suburb in South Africa due to its high winter rainfall, it is home to a number of schools, including the oldest school in the country, South African College Schools Junior and High Schools, as well as the Newlands Forest. It is best known for a rugby union and football venue, it is the original home of Ohlsson's Cape Breweries, still located next to the rugby grounds. The original Ohlsson's Anneberg Brewery site is now location of the SACS schoolgrounds; the only remainder of the original brewery is the Josephine Mill, which used a water wheel to grind the grain for the brewery. This is now a historic monument; the pipeline from the Table Mountain spring which supplies the Newlands Brewery runs under the historic Cardiff Castle Building, located in Newlands Village. The Liesbeek River runs through Newlands, past the Vineyard Hotel, was the original water source used to make the first European-style beer in southern Africa.
Friends of The Liesbeek maintain a walk along past landmarks in the area. The distinctive southern half of Newlands, bordering the suburb Bishopscourt, is known as Fernwood, after a farm estate which used to occupy this area; the original manor house of this estate still exists, but is now used as a parliamentary sports club. The fresh water springs in Newlands have played an important role in the development and history of the area; the springs are locally renowned for the high quality of the water. It is still a popular practice for Capetonians to collect water at the springs; the main spring is located at the South African Breweries brewery on the corner of Main and Letterstead Road. A second popular spring was located on Kildare Road but was closed during the Cape Town water crisis in 2018 following a physical altercation between water collectors. Other reasons given for its closure by the municipality was that the council found water collection difficult to regulate at the site and due to complaints from locals about noise and traffic congestion.
The water at the springs have played an important role in the brewing industry with South Africa's first licensed brewery being setup in the area at Papenboom in 1694. Water from the springs were used to power water mills from the mid-1800s on wards. Newlands Forest is incorporated within the Table Mountain National Park; the forest is a popular outdoor recreation area which includes surviving remnants of indigenous afro-temperate forest and endangered Granite Fynbos, as well as extensive pine plantations. There are historic sites including the Woodcutter's Cottage and Lady Anne Barnard's Path. Newlands is home to the indigenous frog species Rose's ghost frog and sandellia, a tiny frog that lives in the waters of the Liesbeek river