American Refrigerator Transit Company
The American Refrigerator Transit Company was a St. Louis, Missouri-based private refrigerator car line established in 1881 by the Missouri Pacific and Wabash railroads, it is now a subsidiary of the Union Pacific Corporation. American Refrigerator Transit Company, 1900–1970: *estimated. Source: The Great Yellow Fleet, p. 16. Green, Gene "Refrigerator Car Color Guide", Morning Sun Books, Scotch Plains, NJ. ISBN 1-58248-165-2. White, John W.. The Great Yellow Fleet. Golden West Books, San Marino, CA. ISBN 0-87095-091-6. White, John H. Jr.. The American Railroad Freight Car: From the Wood-Car Era to the Coming of Steel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4404-5. OCLC 26130632
A refrigerator car is a refrigerated boxcar, a piece of railroad rolling stock designed to carry perishable freight at specific temperatures. Refrigerator cars differ from simple insulated boxcars and ventilated boxcars, neither of which are fitted with cooling apparatus. Reefers can be ice-cooled, come equipped with any one of a variety of mechanical refrigeration systems, or utilize carbon dioxide as a cooling agent. Milk cars may or may not include a cooling system, but are equipped with high-speed trucks and other modifications that allow them to travel with passenger trains. After the end of the American Civil War, Illinois emerged as a major railway center for the distribution of livestock raised on the Great Plains to Eastern markets. Transporting the animals to market required herds to be driven up to 1,200 miles to railheads in Kansas City, Missouri or other locations in the midwest, such as Abilene and Dodge City, where they were loaded into specialized stock cars and transported live to regional processing centers.
Driving cattle across the plains caused tremendous weight loss, with some animals dying in transit. Upon arrival at the local processing facility, livestock were either slaughtered by wholesalers and delivered fresh to nearby butcher shops for retail sale, smoked, or packed for shipment in barrels of salt. Costly inefficiencies were inherent in transporting live animals by rail the fact that about sixty percent of the animal's mass is inedible; the death of animals weakened by the long drive further increased the per-unit shipping cost. Meat processors sought a way to ship dressed meats from their Chicago packing plants to eastern markets. During the mid-19th century, attempts were made to ship agricultural products by rail; as early as 1842, the Western Railroad of Massachusetts was reported in the June 15 edition of the Boston Traveler to be experimenting with innovative freight car designs capable of carrying all types of perishable goods without spoilage. The first refrigerated boxcar entered service on the Northern Railroad.
This "icebox on wheels" was a limited success. That same year, the Ogdensburg and Lake Champlain Railroad began shipping butter to Boston in purpose-built freight cars, utilizing ice for cooling; the first consignment of dressed beef left the Chicago stock yards in 1857 in ordinary boxcars retrofitted with bins filled with ice. Placing meat directly against ice resulted in discoloration and affected the taste, proving to be impractical. During the same period Gustavas Swift experimented by moving cut meat using a string of ten boxcars with their doors removed, made a few test shipments to New York during the winter months over the Grand Trunk Railway; the method proved too limited to be practical. Detroit's William Davis patented a refrigerator car that employed metal racks to suspend the carcasses above a frozen mixture of ice and salt. In 1868, he sold the design to George H. Hammond, a Detroit meat packer, who built a set of cars to transport his products to Boston using ice from the Great Lakes for cooling.
The load had the tendency of swinging to one side when the car entered a curve at high speed, use of the units was discontinued after several derailments. In 1878 Swift hired engineer Andrew Chase to design a ventilated car, well insulated, positioned the ice in a compartment at the top of the car, allowing the chilled air to flow downward; the meat was packed at the bottom of the car to keep the center of gravity low and to prevent the cargo from shifting. Chase's design proved to be a practical solution, providing temperature-controlled carriage of dressed meats, This allowed Swift and Company to ship their products across the United States and internationally. Swift's attempts to sell Chase's design to major railroads were rebuffed, as the companies feared that they would jeopardize their considerable investments in stock cars, animal pens, feedlots if refrigerated meat transport gained wide acceptance. In response, Swift financed the initial production run on his own — when the American roads refused his business — he contracted with the GTR to haul the cars into Michigan and eastward through Canada.
In 1880 the Peninsular Car Company delivered the first of these units to Swift, the Swift Refrigerator Line was created. Within a year, the Line's roster had risen to nearly 200 units, Swift was transporting an average of 3,000 carcasses a week to Boston, Massachusetts. Competing firms such as Armour and Company followed suit. By 1920, the SRL operated 7,000 of the ice-cooled rail cars; the General American Transportation Corporation would assume ownership of the line in 1930. In the 1870s, the lack of a practical means to refrigerate peaches limited the markets open to Samuel Rumph, a Georgia peach grower. In 1875, he invented a refrigerated railcar and crates that allowed him to grow peaches on a large scale and ship them to distant markets, he was the first to achieve this. His innovations created Georgia's fame for peaches, a crop now eclipsed economically by blueberries. Edwin Tobias Earl was born on a fruit ranch near Red Bluff, California on May 30, 1858, his father was his mother, Adelia Chaffee.
His brother was Guy Chaffee Earl. Career, he started his career in the shipping of fruits. By 1886, he was President of the Earl Fruit Company. In 1890, he invented the refrigerator car to
Western Pacific Railroad
The Western Pacific Railroad was a Class I railroad in the United States. It was formed in 1903 as an attempt to break the near-monopoly the Southern Pacific Railroad had on rail service into northern California. WP's Feather River Route directly competed with SP's portion of the Overland Route for rail traffic between Salt Lake City/Ogden and Oakland, for nearly 80 years. In 1983, the Western Pacific was acquired by the Union Pacific Corporation and it was soon merged into their Union Pacific Railroad; the Western Pacific was one of the original operators of the California Zephyr. The original Western Pacific Railroad was established in 1865 to build the westernmost portion of the Transcontinental Railroad between San Jose and Sacramento, California; this company was absorbed into the Central Pacific Railroad in 1870. The second company to use the name Western Pacific Railroad was founded in 1903. Under the direction of George Jay Gould I, the Western Pacific was founded to provide a standard gauge track connection to the Pacific Coast for his aspiring Gould transcontinental system.
The construction was financed by the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad, a company in the Gould system, which lost access to California due to the attempted acquisition of the Southern Pacific Railroad by the Rio Grande's main rival, the Union Pacific Railroad. The Western Pacific Railroad acquired the Alameda and San Joaquin Railroad and began construction on what would become the Feather River Route. In 1909 it became the last major railroad completed into California, it used 85-lb rail on untreated ties, with no tie plates except on curves over one degree. In 1931 Western Pacific opened a main line north from the Feather River Canyon to the Great Northern Railway in northern California; this route, the "Highline", joined the Oakland – Salt Lake City main line at the Keddie Wye, a unique combination of two steel trestles and a tunnel forming a triangle of intersecting track. In 1935, the railroad went bankrupt because of decreased freight and passenger traffic caused by the Depression and had to be reorganized.
WP attracted rail enthusiasts from around the world. It operated the California Zephyr passenger train with the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad and the Chicago and Quincy Railroad; the WP handled the "Silver Lady" from Oakland, California, to Salt Lake City, Utah from 1949–1970. The Western Pacific owned several connecting short-line railroads; the largest was the Sacramento Northern Railway, which once reached from San Francisco to Chico, California. Others included the Tidewater Southern Railway, the Central California Traction, the Indian Valley Railroad and the Deep Creek Railroad. At the end of 1970 WP operated 1,187 miles of road and 1,980 miles of track, not including its Sacramento Northern and Tidewater Southern subsidiaries. In 1983, the Union Pacific Corporation purchased the Western Pacific and the WP became part of a combined Union Pacific rail system: the Union Pacific Railroad, the Missouri Pacific Railroad, the WP; the Western Pacific and the Missouri Pacific was merged into the Union Pacific Railroad by the Union Pacific Corporation.
In 1996, Union Pacific purchased the WP's long-time rival, the Southern Pacific Transportation Company. In July 2005 Union Pacific unveiled a brand new EMD SD70ACe locomotive, Union Pacific 1983, painted as an homage to the Western Pacific; the California Zephyr was the famous Western Pacific passenger train but the railroad had a few others: Exposition Flyer Royal Gorge Scenic Limited Zephyrette Many special charter passenger trains have used parts of the WP route: Feather River Express, Special charter train for Portola Railroad Days Northern California Explorer There were twelve presidents of this railroad: Walter J. Bartnett Edward T. Jeffery Benjamin F. Bush Charles M. Levey Harry M. Adams Charles Elsey Harry A. Mitchell Frederic B. Whitman Myron M. Christy Alfred E. Perlman Robert G. "Mike" Flannery Robert C. Marquis Hercules – steam powered tugboat operated by the Western Pacific Western Pacific Railroad Museum Western Refrigerator Line – Subsidiary of the Western Pacific Western Pacific Railroad Museum in Portola California Western Pacific Railroad Historical Society Livermore History – Railroads 1 WP Subsidiary Tidewater Southern Website WP Subsidiary Central California Traction Website
A builder's photo called an official photo, is a specific type of photograph, made by rail transport rolling stock manufacturers to show a vehicle, newly built or rebuilt. The builder's photo is meant to show an overview of the basic exterior form of a unit of rolling stock. Photographs made by railfans that show similar features to builder's photos are sometimes informally referred to as roster shots. Builder's photos were made by some automobile manufacturers to show a representative sample of new models they produced. Prints of builder's photos were often made for executives of the manufacturers and railroad companies to hang in their offices. Builder's photos were reproduced as post cards as well as reprinted in advertisements to promote the railroad companies or manufacturers depicted therein. In the United Kingdom, steam locomotives were temporarily painted in photographic grey color schemes so they would photograph well in black and white images; some details in darker-colored areas of the subject were sometimes painted in a high-contrast bright color to ensure that they would be visible in the photograph.
Historians and preservationists use builder's photos as official references to show the equipment as-built. Builder's photos are shot from an angle that shows one end the designated front end, a full side of the car or locomotive; the rolling stock is positioned on a section of track with no other rolling stock coupled to it for the photograph. Sometimes the photograph was further processed to reduce the contrast of or entirely remove the background to further highlight the rolling stock, photographed
Roseville is the largest city in Placer County, United States, in the Sacramento metropolitan area. As of 2016, the US Census Bureau estimated the city's population to be 132,683. Interstate 80 runs through Roseville and State Route 65 runs through part of the northern edge of the city; the settlement was a stage coach station called Griders. According to the Roseville Historical Society, in 1864 the Central Pacific Railroad tracks were constructed northeastward from Sacramento; the point where the tracks met the California Central Railroad line was named "Junction". Junction became known as Roseville. In 1909, three years after the Southern Pacific Railroad moved its facilities from Rocklin to Roseville, the town became an incorporated city. What followed was a period of expansion, with the community building more than 100 structures, including what was the largest ice manufacturing plant in the world; the city was a railroad town for decades, with the railroad employing up to 1,225 people by 1929, out of a population of only 6,425 people.
With the onset of World War II, the rail yards became busier than and the post-war building boom brought continued prosperity. However, the nature of the city changed in the 1950s. During the 1950s the railroad continued to expand and upgrade, converting its steam engine fleet to all diesel engines by the end of the decade. However, the railroads began falling in the shadow of air travel and the development of the national Interstate Highway System. Thus, although the railroad remained a major employer, the expansion of the city began branching out into other employment sectors. Another important change during this period was the Washington Boulevard railroad underpass construction in 1950. While this improved the ability of people to travel from one side of the tracks to the other, it meant that people were no longer traveling through the Roseville business district north of the tracks; the completion of Interstate 80 in 1956 shifted the population from downtown to what would become known as East Roseville.
The old downtown area slid into a gradual decline. The Roseville Yard of the Southern Pacific was the site of a major explosion and fire on 28 April 1973; the city saw steady population growth throughout the ensuing decades, as shopping centers, major retailers, homes were constructed throughout the city. The growth rate was modest until 1985. Between 1929 when the population was 6,425 people and 1985, the population grew by only 22,563 people. In 1985 the population stood at 28,988 people. Five years it was 44,685 people, by the year 2000 it was 74,234 people; some of this growth was fueled by the location of major employers, such as Hewlett Packard and NEC. The population as of 2014 was 126,956 people. In 1988, the city embarked on a multi-million dollar plan to redevelop 207 acres of land in the downtown core, revitalize historic areas, in decline. Projects included the Vernon Streetscape Project, Atlantic Street Beautification, Civic Plaza Complex, Downtown Vernon Street and Historic Old Town, Historic Old Town Streetscape project, Riverside Avenue Streetscape project, Oak Street Improvement Project, Washington Boulevard pedestrian underpass.
A new parking garage opened in 2007, the Roseville Arts! Blueline Gallery opened in 2008, a new Civic Center opened in 2013, the Vernon Street Town Square now features a small raised stage, a water spray for children, a venue for community events. According to the Roseville Civic Center, the city has a total area of 42.26 square miles, of which, 42.24 square miles of it is land and 0.002 square miles of it is water. Several streams flow through Roseville, including Dry Creek, Linda Creek, Secret Ravine and Cirby Creek. Roseville has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, characterized by cool, wet snowless winters and hot, dry summers; the wet season is October through April. Because Roseville is east of Sacramento and at a higher elevation, it receives more rainfall. Average daily high temperatures range from 53 °F in January to 92 °F in August. Daily low temperatures range from 39 °F in winter to 61 °F in summer. On March 27, 2014, an EF-0 tornado touched down in Roseville; the 2010 United States Census reported that Roseville had a population of 118,788.
The population density was 3,279.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Roseville was 94,199 White, 2,329 African American, 885 Native American, 10,026 Asian, 346 Pacific Islander, 5,087 from other races, 5,916 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17,359 persons; the Census reported that 117,941 people lived in households, 478 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 369 were institutionalized. There were 45,059 households, out of which 16,885 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 24,050 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4,901 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,088 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,518 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 286 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 11,042 households were made up of individuals and 4,502 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62. T
The Merchants Despatch Transportation Company was established in 1857 or 1858 by the American Express Company of New York. The entity was reformed as a joint stock trading company on June 1, 1869, with ownership divided among the Cleveland, Columbus and Indianapolis Railway, the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway, the New York Central Railroad, all part of the Cornelius Vanderbilt rail empire; the MDT entered the refrigerated transit business around 1880, within five years had 1,900 reefers in service, making it one of the largest such concerns in the United States. Historian and author John H. White describes MDT as "the oldest corporate name connected with refrigerated transit to survive into modern times." The company began manufacturing cars on a small scale in 1883, in spring of 1887 constructed a large manufacturing facility near Rochester, New York in a town they named Despatch. MDT embarked on an aggressive car building program; the East Rochester plant would grow in time to encompass some 64 acres, would produce on the order of 36 cars per day.
The installation became the main car plant within the New York Central system. MDT adopted the Wickes Patent into its refrigerator car design. With its own substantial manufacturing capacity, MDT at times purchased rolling stock from outside companies such as Pullman in order to meet the demands imposed by its expanding shipping service; the company incorporated in the State of New York in May, 1911. 3,400 reefers were sold to the NYC in December 1912, 2,988 to the Lake Shore line, though all of the units were in turn leased back to the MDT. The firm was reincorporated as a Delaware corporation in 1923. Circa 1925, the NYC established a new subsidiary, the Eastern Refrigerator Despatch. Operation of the ERD, along with its 2,100 reefers, was absorbed by Merchants Despatch. In November, 1928 the MDT purchased its 1,800 cars. A holding company, Merchants Despatch, Inc. merged with the MDT in 1936. In 1962 the NRC was combined with Merchants Despatch. At the same time, greater emphasis was placed on auto carrier business.
MDT entered the Intermodal freight transport business, purchased 572 Flexi-Van container flats between 1958 and 1965. As part of the consolidation of facilities planned for the Penn Central merger, the car shop was closed down on April 1, 1970, the 72-acre property was sold off. In July, 1985 the MDT assumed the responsibility for car weighing and inspection under the purview of the Eastern Weighing and Inspection Bureau. After ceasing construction, MDT would continue as a repair shop, a car lessor to both railroad and private companies; as an independent lessor, it was able to outlast NYCs merger into Penn Central, their collapse into Conrail. However, after the 1998 purchase of Conrail, MDT's assets were merged and the company dissolved in 2000. Merchants Despatch Transportation Company Roster, 1900–1970: Northern Refrigerator Car Line Roster, 1930–1960: Source: The Great Yellow Fleet, p. 16. White, John H.. The Great Yellow Fleet. Golden West Books, San Marino, CA. ISBN 0-87095-091-6. White, John H. Jr..
The American Railroad Freight Car: From the Wood-Car Era to the Coming of Steel. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-4404-5. OCLC 26130632. Hinman, Roger C.. Merchant's Despatch. Signature Press, Wilton, CA. ISBN 1-93001-329-9. Rochester Images — contains images of the MDT car shops along with the Foster-Armstrong Company
Green Bay, Wisconsin
Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the U. S. state of Wisconsin, at the head of Green Bay, a sub-basin of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Fox River. It is 581 feet above sea level and 112 miles north of Milwaukee; the population was 104,057 at the 2010 census. Green Bay is the third-largest city in the state of Wisconsin, after Milwaukee and Madison, the third-largest city on Lake Michigan's west shore, after Chicago and Milwaukee. Green Bay is home to the National Football League's Green Bay Packers. Green Bay is the principal city of the Green Bay Metropolitan Statistical Area, which covers Brown and Oconto counties. Green Bay is an industrial city with several meatpacking plants, paper mills, a port on Green Bay, an arm of Lake Michigan known locally as "the Bay of Green Bay". Green Bay hosts the Neville Public Museum, with exhibitions of art and science. Samuel de Champlain, the founder of New France, commissioned Jean Nicolet to form a peaceful alliance with Native Americans in the western areas, whose unrest interfered with French fur trade, to search for a shorter trade route to China through Canada.
Nicolet and others had learned from other First Nations of the Ho-Chunk people, who identified as "People of the Sea", believed they must reside on or near the Pacific Ocean. Champlain had heard about natural resources in the area, including fertile soil and animals. Nicolet began his journey for this new land shortly before winter in 1634. In what became a French fur-trading route, he sailed up the Ottawa River, through Lake Nipissing and down the French River to Lake Huron through the straits of Michilimackinac into Lake Michigan, he is believed to have landed at Red Banks, near the site of the modern-day city of Green Bay, Wisconsin. Nicolet founded a small trading post here in 1634 named La Baye or La Baie des Puants. Nicolet's settlement was one of the oldest European permanent settlements in America; when Nicolet arrived in the Green Bay area, he encountered the Menominee, as this was their territory. He met the Ho-Chunk known as the Winnebago, a people who spoke a Sioux language; the Winnebago hunted and cultivated corn, bean and tobacco.
Wild rice, which they had incorporated as a dietary staple, grew in abundance along the riverbanks. They harvested and cooked this, along with a wide variety of nuts and edible roots of the woods; the tribe had distinguished gender roles. The men hunted and fished for food, the women processed game and other foods in cooking, they prepared and made clothing from the furs as well as using other parts of animals for tools, etc. Women had a role in the political process, as no action could be taken without agreement of half of the women. Nicolet stayed with this tribe for about a year, he helped open up opportunities for commerce with them before returning to Quebec. A few months after Nicolet returned to Quebec, Champlain died, his death halted other journeys to La Baie Verte. Père Claude Allouez sent Nicolas Perrot to La Baie. After this, the French avoided the area for some decades, because of the intensity of First Nations and European conflicts in the east. In 1671, a Jesuit Mission was set up in the area.
A fort was added in 1717 and associated development took place. The town was incorporated in 1754; as Great Britain took control of French areas during the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War in some areas of North America, this town came under British control in 1761. The French ceded their North American lands East of the Mississippi River to the British following defeat in 1763; the first permanent French settlers were Charles de Langlade and his family from Canada, who moved to Green Bay in 1765, becoming the first European-American settlers in today's Wisconsin. Langlade, called the "Founder and Father of Wisconsin", was an Ottawa war chief with a French father, he is credited with planning the ambush of British General Braddock and George Washington in the French and Indian War. The Grignons and Lawes, who followed, brought Canadian-French culture with them. Colorful "jack-knife Judge" Reaume dispensed British justice in the territory; these early French settlers set the tone for many.
The British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control. Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the town as "La Bey", however British fur traders referred to it as "Green Bay", because the water and the shore assumed green tints in early spring. The old French title was dropped, the British name of "Green Bay" stuck.
The region coming under British rule had no adverse effect on the French residents as the British needed the cooperation of the French fur traders and the Fr