The Australian pound was the currency of Australia from 1910 until 14 February 1966, when it was replaced by the Australian dollar. As with other £ sd currencies, it was subdivided into each of 12 pence; the first European settlement of Australia took place on 26 January 1788 at Port Jackson. The colony of New South Wales survived its first years and was neglected for much of the following quarter-century while the British government was preoccupied until 1815 with the Napoleonic Wars. One important British oversight during this period was the provision of adequate coinage for the new colony and, because of the shortage of any sort of money, the real means of exchange during the first 25 years of settlement was rum, the access to, controlled by the officers of the New South Wales Corps, who benefited most from access to land and imported goods. Though it did not solve the problem arising from the lack of coins, but in an attempt to put some order into the economy, in 1800, Governor Philip Gidley King issued a proclamation setting the value of a variety of foreign coins in the colony.
During this period, to protect the lucrative access to the imported rum, as well as other grievances, the officers, who came to be known as the "Rum Corps", deposed the governor in a standoff in 1808, referred to as the "Rum Rebellion". The New South Wales Corps was recalled soon after. Otherwise, the shortage of coinage persisted; the first coinage issued by the colony took place in 1813, was effected by punching the middle out of Spanish dollars. This process created two parts: a small coin, called the dump, a ring, called a holey dollar. One holey dollar was worth five shillings, one dump was worth one shilling and three pence; this was done in order to keep the coins in New South Wales. From 1817, when the first bank, the Bank of New South Wales, was established, private banks issued paper money denominated in pounds. Acceptance of private bank notes was not made compulsory by legal tender laws but they were used and accepted. In 1825, an Imperial order-in-council was issued with the purpose of introducing sterling coinage to all the British colonies.
This was due to the introduction of the gold standard in the UK in 1816, a decline in the supply of Spanish dollars, due to the revolutions taking place in Spanish South American colonies. Most of the dollars used had been minted in Lima, Mexico City, Potosí, which had become part of new Latin American republics, independent from Spain. In 1852, the Government Assay Office in Adelaide issued gold pound coins; these weighed more than sovereigns. From 1855, the Sydney mint issued half sovereigns and sovereigns, with the Melbourne mint beginning production in 1872. Many of the sovereigns minted in Australia were for use in India as part of a plan that the gold sovereign should become the imperial coin; as it turned out, India was too entrenched in the Rupee system, the gold sovereigns obtained by the treasury in India never left the vaults. Thus, in the lead-up to Federation, the currency used in the Australian colonies consisted of British silver and copper coins, Australian minted gold sovereigns and half sovereigns, locally minted copper trade tokens and private bank notes.
In addition, the Queensland government issued treasury notes and banknotes which were legal tender in Queensland. After Federation in 1901, the Australian government assumed power over currency matters and began overprinting the private issues that were in circulation, in preparation for the issue of a domestic currency. In 1910 the federal government passed the "Australian Notes Act" which prohibited the circulation of State notes and gave control over the issue of Australian notes to the Commonwealth Treasury. Passed in that year was the "Bank Notes Tax Act" which imposed a tax of 10% per annum on "all bank notes issued or re-issued by any bank in the Commonwealth after the commencement of this Act, not redeemed". In September 1910, the Labor Government of Prime Minister Andrew Fisher introduced a national currency, the Australian pound, with the passing of the Australian Notes Act 1910; the Act gave control over the issue of Australian notes to the Commonwealth Treasury and prohibited the circulation of state notes and withdrew their status as legal tender.
For the next three years, some of the earlier private banknotes were overprinted by the Treasury as a temporary measure and circulated as Australian banknotes until new designs were ready for Australia's first federal government-issued banknotes, which commenced in 1913. Blank note forms of 16 banks were supplied to the Australian Government in 1911 to be overprinted as redeemable in gold and issued as the first Commonwealth notes; the Commonwealth Bank Act 1920 gave note issuing authority to the Commonwealth Bank. In 1960, responsibility for note printing passed to the Reserve Bank of Australia; the new national currency was called the Australian pound, consisting of 20 shillings, each consisting of 12 pence. Monetary policy ensured; as such Australia was on the gold standard so long as Britain was. In 1914, the pound sterling was removed from the gold standard; when it was returned to the gold standard in 1925, the sudden increase in its value unleashed crushing deflationary pressures. Both the initial 1914 inflation and the subsequent 1926 deflation had far-reaching economic effect
The Sudanese pound (Arabic: جنيه سوداني is the basic unit of the Sudanese currency. The pound consists of 100 piasters; the pound is issued by the Central Bank of Sudan. Its value is linked to gold and convertible into foreign currencies. There are no restrictions on money transfers to and from Sudan; the Sudanese pound is equivalent to $0.021. It has been pegged to the United States dollar since around 1984; the pound fell for the first time since 1997 after the United States imposed economic sanctions on Sudan. The Sudanese pound continued its decline to an unprecedented number, falling to 53 pounds against the dollar; this situation, which drained all economic measures, led to heavy losses in the external repercussions of the Sudan as a whole, in the light of the government cut, interrupted by some of the failed actions announced by the Central Bank of Sudan, a severe shortage of liquidity. The Sudanese pound fell against the US dollar after the Central Bank of Sudan announced the lifting of the cash reserve to counter inflation.
Since the Secession of South Sudan in 2011, Sudan has suffered from a scarcity of foreign exchange for the loss of three quarters of its oil resources and 80% of foreign exchange resources. The Sudanese government quoted the official price of the dollar from 6.09 pounds to 18.07 pounds in the budget of 2018. The first pound to circulate in Sudan was the Egyptian pound; the late 19th century rebels Muhammad ibn Abdalla and Abdallahi ibn Muhammad both issued coins which circulated alongside the Egyptian currency. When Anglo-Egyptian rule in Sudan ceased on January 1, 1956 and Sudan became an independent country, a distinct Sudanese currency was created, replacing the Egyptian pound at par; the Egyptian pound was subdivided into 100 qirush. The qirsh used to be subdivided into 40 para, but decimalisation following the 1886 Egyptian currency reform established a 1/10 qirsh, which came to be known as a millim. Due to this legacy, the post 1956 Sudanese pound was divided into 100 qirush, subdivided into 10 millims.
During 1958-1978 the pound was pegged to the U. S. dollar at a rate of $2.87156 per Sudanese pound. Thereafter, the pound underwent successive devaluations; the pound was replaced in 1992 by the dinar at a rate of 1 dinar. While the dinar circulated in northern Sudan, in Southern Sudan, prices were still negotiated in pounds, whilst in Rumbek and Yei, the Kenyan shilling was used and accepted more within the transport sectors as well as for hotels/accommodation. According to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement, the Central Bank of Sudan shall adopt a program to issue a new currency as soon as is practical during the Interim Period; the design of the new currency shall reflect the cultural diversity of Sudan. Until a new currency has been issued with the approval of the Parties on the recommendations of the CBOS, the circulating currencies in Southern Sudan shall be recognised; the second pound began introduction on 9 or 10 January 2007, became the only legal tender as of July 1, 2007.
It replaced the dinar at a rate of 1 pound = 1000 pounds. The third edition of the Sudanese pound was established on 24 July 2011 following the secession of South Sudan from the Republic of Sudan. For a wider history surrounding currency in the region, see The History of British Currency in the Middle East. In 1885, the Mahdi issued 20 qirush and gold 100 qirush; these were followed by issues of the Khalifa in denominations of 10 para, 1, 2, 2½, 4, 5, 10 and 20 qirush. These coins were minted in silver in 1885. Over the following eleven years, severe debasement occurred, leading to billon silver-washed copper and copper coins being issued; the coinage ceased in 1897. During 1908-1914, a local coinage was issued in Darfur in western Sudan; these were issued under the authority of resembled contemporary Egyptian coins. In 1956, coins were introduced in denominations of 2, 5 and 10 millim, 2, 5 and 10 qirush; the millim denominations were struck in bronze, whilst the qirush denominations were in cupro-nickel.
The 2, 5 and 10 millim were scallop shaped, although a round 5 millim was introduced in 1971. The 1 and 2 millim were last struck in 1969, the last 5 millim in 1978. In 1983, brass 1, 2 and 5 qirush, a reduced size 10 qirush and a cupro-nickel 20 qirush were introduced. In 1987, aluminium-bronze 1, 5, 10, 20, 25 and 50 qirush and 1 pound were introduced, with the 25 and 50 qirush square and octagonal in shape, respectively. In 1989, stainless-steel 25 and 50 qirush and 1 pound were issued; this is the general pattern, in addition to these coins there are collector-oriented issues and various oddities. See popular coin catalogues for details. See Sudanese dinar. Coins in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 qirush were introduced alongside the circulating dinar coins; the Central Bank of Sudan states that the 5 qirush coins are yellow coloured and the 10 qirush is silver coloured. The 20 and 50 qirush coins are bi-metallic, with the 20 qirush yellow ringed with a silver coloured centre and the 50 qirush the opposite.
This is thought to be in development. In April 1957, the Sudan Currency Board introduced notes for 1, 5 and 10 pounds. Note production was taken over by the Bank of Sudan in 1961. 20-pound notes were introduced in 1981, followed by 50 pounds in 1984 and 100 pounds in 1988.. When introduced on 8 June 1992, the Sudanese dinar replaced the first Sudanese pound at a rate of 1:10. In 2005, the National Public Rad
German gold mark
The Goldmark was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914. The Papiermark refers to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Mark and gold was abandoned. Before unification, the different German states issued a variety of different currencies, though most were linked to the Vereinsthaler, a silver coin containing 16 2⁄3 grams of pure silver. Although the mark was based on gold rather than silver, a fixed exchange rate between the Vereinsthaler and the mark of 3 marks = 1 Vereinsthaler was used for the conversion. Southern Germany had used the Gulden as the standard unit of account, worth 4⁄7 of a Vereinsthaler and, became worth 1.71 marks in the new currency. Bremen had used a gold based Thaler, converted directly to the mark at a rate of 1 gold Thaler = 3.32 marks. Hamburg had used its own mark prior to 1873; this was replaced by the gold mark at a rate of 1 Hamburg mark = 1.2 gold mark. From 1 January 1876 onwards, the mark became the only legal tender.
The name Goldmark was created to distinguish it from the Papiermark which suffered a serious loss of value through hyperinflation following World War I. The gold mark was on a gold standard with 2790 marks equal to 1 kilogram of pure gold. From 1900 to 1933, the United States adhered to a gold standard as well, with the value of the dollar being fixed at a price of 1⁄20 troy ounce of gold; the gold mark therefore had a value of US$0.25. The monetary hegemon of the time when the gold mark was in use, was the pound sterling, with £1 being valued at 20.43 gold marks. World War I reparations owed by Germany were stated in gold marks in 1921, 1929 and 1931; the actual amount of reparations that Germany was obliged to pay out was not the 132 billion marks cited in the London Schedule of 1921 but rather the 50 billion marks stipulated in the A and B Bonds. The actual total payout from 1920 to 1931 was 20 billion German gold marks, worth about US$5 billion or GB£1 billion. Most of that money came from loans from New York bankers.
Following the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, payments of reparations were abandoned. West Germany after World War II did not resume payment of reparations as such, but did resume the payment of debt that Germany had acquired in the inter-war period to finance its reparation payments, paying off the principal on those debts by 1980; the interest on those debts was paid off on 3 October 2010, the 20th anniversary of German reunification. Coins of denominations between 1 Pfennig and 1 Mark were issued in standard designs for the whole Empire, whilst those above 1 Mark were issued by the individual states, using a standard design for the reverses with a design specific to the state on the obverse a portrait of the monarch of the kingdom or duchy. Commemorative coins were minted, in which cases the obverse and the reverse designs might depart from the usual pictorial standards. Many of the smaller states issued coins in small numbers. In general all states' coinage became limited after the First World War began.
Well preserved examples of such low mintage coins can be valuable. The Principality of Lippe was the only state not to issue any gold coins in this period. 1 Pfennig 2 Pfennig 5 Pfennig 10 Pfennig 20 Pfennig 25 Pfennig Silver coins were minted in.900 fineness to a standard of 5 grams silver per Mark. Production of 2 and 5 Mark coins ceased in 1915 while 1 Mark coins continued to be issued until 1916. A few 3 Mark coins were minted until 1918, ½ Mark coins continued to be issued in silver until 1919. 20 Pfennig, 1.1111 g, only until 1878 ½ Mark or 50 Pfennig, 2.7778 g 1 Mark, 5.5555 g 2 Mark, 11.1111 g 3 Mark, 16.6667 g, from 1908 onwards 5 Mark, 27.7778 g The 3 Mark coin was introduced as a replacement for the Vereinsthaler coins of the previous currency, whose silver content was more than that of the 3 Mark coin. The 5 Mark coin, was closer in value to older Thalers. Gold coins were minted in.900 fineness to a standard of 2790 Mark of gold. Gold coin production ceased in 1915. 5 Mark gold coins were minted only in 1877 and 1878.
5 Mark, 1.9912 g 10 Mark, 3.9825 g 20 Mark, 7.965 g Banknotes were issued by the Imperial Treasury and the Reichsbank, as well as by the banks of some of the states. Imperial Treasury notes were issued in denominations of 5, 10, 20 and 50 Mark, whilst Reichsbank notes were produced in denominations of 20, 50, 100 and 1000 Mark; the notes issued after 1914 are referred to as Papiermark. In Unicode, the Mark sign is U+2133 ℳ SCRIPT CAPITAL M; the Pfennig is U+20B0 ₰ GERMAN PENNY SIGN
The Israeli pound or Israeli lira was the currency of the State of Israel from 9 June 1952 until 23 February 1980, when it was replaced with the shekel on 24 February 1980, again replaced with the New Shekel in 1985. Until 1952, the name used on the notes of the Anglo-Palestine Bank was Palestine pound, in Hebrew לירה א"י. In Arabic, the name was given as junayh filisţīnī. On 1 May 1951, all the assets and liabilities of the Anglo Palestine Bank were transferred to a new company called Bank Leumi Le-Yisrael and the currency name became: lira yisraelit in Hebrew, junayh isrāīlī in Arabic, Israel pound in English; the new currency was issued in 1952, entered circulation on June 9. From 1955, after the Bank of Israel was established and took over the duty of issuing banknotes, only the Hebrew name was used, along with the symbol "I£"; the British Mandate of Palestine, which administered the territory now known as Israel, the West Bank and Gaza prior to May 15, 1948, issued the Palestine pound, a currency equal in value and pegged to the British pound, divided into 1000 mils.
Banknotes in circulation were issued by the Palestine Currency Board, subject to the British Secretary of State for the Colonies. Israel inherited the Palestine pound, but shortly after the establishment of the state, new banknotes were issued by the London-based Anglo-Palestine bank of the Zionist movement; the new coins were the first to bear the new state's name, the banknotes had "The Anglo-Palestine Bank Limited" written on them. While the first coins minted by Israel still bore the name "mil", the next ones bore the Hebrew name prutah. A second series of banknotes was issued after the Anglo-Palestine Bank moved its headquarters to Tel Aviv and became the Bank Leumi; the pegging to the UK Pound was abolished on January 1, 1954, in 1960, the subdivision of the pound was changed from 1000 prutot to 100 agorot. During the 1960s, a debate over the non-Hebrew name of the Israeli currency resulted in a law ordering the Minister of Finance to change the name pound into a Hebrew name, shekel; the law allowed the minister to decide on a proper date for the change.
The law did not come into effect until February 1980, when the Israeli government decided to change the monetary system and introduce the Israeli old shekel, at a rate of 1 shekel = 10 pounds. Israel's first coins were aluminium 25 mil pieces, dated 1948 and 1949, which were issued in 1949 before the adoption of the pruta. In 1949, coins were issued in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 250 prutah; the coins were conceived, by Israeli graphic designer Otte Wallish. All coins and banknotes issued in Israel before June 1952 were part of the Palestine pound. In 1960, coins were issued denominated in agora. There were 5, 10 and 25 agorot pieces. In 1963, 1/2 and 1 pound coins were introduced, followed by 5 lirot coins in 1978. In 1948, the government issued fractional notes for 100 mils; the Anglo-Palestine Bank issued banknotes for 500 mils, 1, 5, 10 and 50 lirot between 1948 and 1951. In 1952, the government issued a second series of fractional notes for 50 and 100 prutah with 250 prutah notes added in 1953.
In 1952, the "Bank Leumi Le-Israel" took over paper money production and issued the same denominations as the Anglo-Palestine Bank except that the 500 mils was replaced by a 500 prutah note. The Bank of Israel began note production in 1955 issuing notes for 500 pruta, 1, 5, 10 and 50 lirot. In 1968, 100 lirot notes were introduced, followed by 500 lirot notes in 1975. In the third banknote issue, released between 1973 and 1975, a feature was added to assist vision-impaired and blind people in identifying the denomination of a note. A tactile set of dots was used, with three on the five pound note, two on the 10 pound note, one on the 50 pound note, none on the 100 pound note, a large bar the length of three dots on the 500 pound note. Bank of Israel Economy of Israel Paul Kor Bank of Israel catalogue of Israeli currency since 1948 Israeli Lirah coins with pictures
A penny is a coin or a unit of currency in various countries. Borrowed from the Carolingian denarius, it is the smallest denomination within a currency system. Presently, it is the formal name of the British penny and the informal name of one American cent as well as the informal Irish designation of 1 cent euro coin, it is the informal name of the cent unit of account in Canada, although one cent coins are no longer minted there. The name is used in reference to various historical currencies derived from the Carolingian system, such as the French denier and the German pfennig, it may be informally used to refer to any similar smallest-denomination coin, such as the euro cent or Chinese fen. The Carolingian penny was a.940-fine silver coin weighing 1/240 pound. It was adopted by Offa of Mercia and other English kings and remained the principal currency in Europe over the next few centuries until repeated debasements necessitated the development of more valuable coins; the British penny remained a silver coin until the expense of the Napoleonic Wars prompted the use of base metals in 1797.
Despite the decimalization of currencies in the United States and throughout the British Commonwealth, the name remains in informal use. No penny is formally subdivided, although farthings and half cents have been minted and the mill remains in use as a unit of account in some contexts. Penny is first attested in a 1394 Scots text, a variant of Old English peni, a development of numerous variations including pennig and pending; the etymology of the term "penny" is uncertain, although cognates are common across all Germanic languages and suggest a base *pan-, *pann-, or *pand- with the individualizing suffix -ing. Common suggestions include that it was *panding as a Low Franconian form of Old High German pfant "pawn", it has been proposed that it may represent an early borrowing of Punic pn, as the face of Carthaginian goddess Tanit was represented on nearly all Carthaginian currency. Following decimalization, the British and Irish coins were marked "new penny" until 1982 and 1985, respectively.
The regular plural pennies fell out of use in England from the 16th century, except in reference to coins considered individually. It remains common in Scottish English and is standard for all senses in American English, however, the informal "penny" is only used of the coins in any case, values being expressed in "cents"; the informal name for the American cent seems to have spread from New York State. In British English, prior to decimalization, values from two to eleven pence and of twenty pence are written and spoken as a single word, as twopence or tuppence, threepence or thruppence, &c. Where a single coin represented a number of pence, it was treated as a single noun, as a sixpence or two eightpences. Thus, "a threepence" would be single coin of that value whereas "three pence" would be its value and "three pennies" would be three penny coins. In British English, divisions of a penny were added to such combinations without a conjunction, as sixpence-farthing, such constructions were treated as single nouns.
Adjectival use of such coins used the ending -penny, as sixpenny. The British abbreviation d. derived from the Latin denarius. It followed the amount after a space, it has been replaced since decimalization by p written without a space or period. From this abbreviation, it is common to speak of pennies and values in pence as "p". In North America, it is common to abbreviate cents with the currency symbol ¢. Elsewhere, it is written with a simple c; the medieval silver penny was modeled on similar coins in antiquity, such as the Greek drachma, the Carthaginian shekel, the Roman denarius. Forms of these seem to have reached as far as Sweden; the use of Roman currency in Britain seems to have fallen off after the Roman withdrawal and subsequent Saxon invasions. Charlemagne's father Pepin the Short instituted a major currency reform around AD 755, aiming to reorganise Francia's previous silver standard with a standardized.940-fine denier weighing 1⁄240 pound. Around 790, Charlemagne introduced a new.950 or.960-fine penny with a smaller diameter.
Surviving specimens have an average weight of 1.70 grams, although some estimate the original ideal mass at 1.76 grams. Despite the purity and quality of these pennies, they were rejected by traders throughout the Carolingian period in favor of the gold coins used elsewhere, a situation that led to repeated legislation against such refusal to accept the king's currency; some of the Anglo-Saxons kingdoms copied the solidus, the late Roman gold coin. Around AD 641–670, there seems to have been a movement to use coins with a lower gold content; this decreased their value and may have increased the number that could be minted, but these paler coins do not seem to have solved the problem of the value and scarcity of the currency
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
British West African pound
The British West African Pound was the currency of British West Africa, a group of British colonies and mandate territories. It was equal to the pound sterling and was subdivided into 20 shillings, each of 12 pence. In the 19th century, the pound sterling became the currency of the British West African territories and standard issue United Kingdom coinage circulated; the West African territories in question were the Gold Coast, Sierra Leone and The Gambia. In 1912, the authorities in London set up the West African Currency Board and issued a distinctive set of sterling coinage for use in British West Africa; the circumstance prompting this move was a tendency for existing UK coins used in the West African territories to leave the region and return to the UK, hence causing a local dearth of coinage. A unique British West African variety of the sterling coinage would not be accepted in the shops of Britain and so would remain in circulation locally. There was a precedent for this move: in 1910, Australia had commenced issuing its own distinctive varieties of sterling coinage, but the reasons for doing so were quite different from those relating to British West Africa.
Australian authorities issued local coinage as a step towards full nationhood. With the exception of Jamaica where special low denomination coins were issued in place of the United Kingdom copper coins, due to local superstitions surrounding the use of copper coinage for church collections, authorities in London did not replace any UK sterling coins with local issues for any other British colony; the British West African pound was adopted by Liberia in 1907, replacing the Liberian dollar, although it was not served by the West African Currency Board. Liberia changed to the U. S. dollar in 1943. Togo and Cameroon adopted the West African currency in 1914 and 1916 when British and French troops took over those colonies from Germany as part of World War I. Beginning in 1958, the British West African pound was replaced by local currencies in the individual territories; the replacements were: In 1907, aluminium 1⁄10 penny and cupro-nickel 1 penny coins were introduced. Both coins were holed. In 1908, cupro-nickel replaced aluminium in the 1⁄10 penny and, in 1911, cupro-nickel ½ penny coins were introduced.
In 1913, silver 3 and 6 pence, 1 and 2 shillings were introduced. In 1920, brass replaced silver in these denominations. In 1938, cupro-nickel 3 pence coins were introduced, with nickel-brass replacing brass in the higher denominations. In 1952, bronze replaced cupro-nickel in the 1/2 and 1 penny coins; the last coins of British West Africa were struck in 1958. In 1916, the West African Currency Board introduced notes for 2, 10 and 20 shillings, followed by 1 shilling notes in 1918. Only the 10 and 20 shillings notes were issued after 1918, until 100 shillings notes were introduced in 1953; the last notes were produced in 1962. Biafran pound Gambian pound Ghanaian pound Gold Coast ackey Nigerian pound West African Monetary Zone Economic Community of West African States References Sources Coins from British West Africa