The Caribbean is a region of The Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, north of South America. Situated on the Caribbean Plate, the region comprises more than 700 islands, islets and cays; these islands form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean islands, consisting of the Greater Antilles on the north and the Lesser Antilles on the south and east, are part of the somewhat larger West Indies grouping, which includes the Lucayan Archipelago; the Lucayans and, less Bermuda, are sometimes considered Caribbean despite the fact that none of these islands border the Caribbean Sea. In a wider sense, the mainland countries and territories of Belize, the Caribbean region of Colombia, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, the Guyanas, are included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.
Geopolitically, the Caribbean islands are regarded as a subregion of North America and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies. From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were British dependencies; the West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations. The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Americas; the two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean are, with the primary stress on the third syllable, with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.
This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer while North American speakers more use, but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too. According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct"; the Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English stresses the first syllable instead. The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses, its principal ones are political. The Caribbean can be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.
The United Nations geoscheme for the Americas presents the Caribbean as a distinct region within the Americas. Physiographically, the Caribbean region is a chain of islands surrounding the Caribbean Sea. To the north, the region is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico, the Straits of Florida and the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which lies to the east and northeast. To the south lies the coastline of the continent of South America. Politically, the "Caribbean" may be centred on socio-economic groupings found in the region. For example, the bloc known as the Caribbean Community contains the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, the Republic of Suriname in South America and Belize in Central America as full members. Bermuda and the Turks and Caicos Islands, which are in the Atlantic Ocean, are associate members of the Caribbean Community; the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is in the Atlantic and is a full member of the Caribbean Community. Alternatively, the organisation called the Association of Caribbean States consists of every nation in the surrounding regions that lie on the Caribbean, plus El Salvador, which lies on the Pacific Ocean.
According to the ACS, the total population of its member states is 227 million people. The geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have flat terrain of non-volcanic origin; these islands include Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Dominica, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe and Trinidad and Tobago. Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles vary; the Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles; the waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish and coral reef
Wikidata is a collaboratively edited knowledge base hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is a common source of open data that Wikimedia projects such as Wikipedia can use, anyone else, under a public domain license; this is similar to the way Wikimedia Commons provides storage for media files and access to those files for all Wikimedia projects, which are freely available for reuse. Wikidata is powered by the software Wikibase. Wikidata is a document-oriented database, focused on items, which represent topics, concepts, or objects. Examples of items include 1988 Summer Olympics, Elvis Presley, Gorilla; each item is identified by a unique number, prefixed with the letter Q, known as a "QID". This enables the basic information required to identify the topic the item covers to be translated without favouring any language. Item labels need not be unique. For example, there are two items named "Elvis Presley": Elvis Presley represents the American singer and actor, Elvis Presley represents his self-titled album.
Fundamentally, an item consists of a label, a description, some number of statements. Statements are. Formally, they consist of key-value pairs. For example, the informal English statement "milk is white" would be encoded by a statement pairing the property color with the value white under the item milk. Statements may map a property to more than one value. For example, the "occupation" property for Marie Curie could be linked with the values "physicist" and "chemist", to reflect the fact that she engaged in both occupations. Values may take on many types including other Wikidata items, numbers, or media files. Properties prescribe. For example, the property official website may only be paired with values of type "URL". Properties may define more complex rules about their intended usage, termed constraints. For example, the capital property includes a "single value constraint", reflecting the reality that territories have only one capital city. Constraints are treated as hints rather than inviolable rules.
Optionally, qualifiers can be used to refine the meaning of a statement by providing additional information that applies to the scope of the statement. For example, the property "population" could be modified with a qualifier such as "as of 2011". Statements may be annotated with references, pointing to a source backing up the statement's content. In linguistics, a lexeme is a unit of lexical meaning. Wikidata's lexemes are items with a structure that makes them more suitable to store lexicographical data. Besides of storing the language to which the lexeme refers, they have a section for forms and a section for senses; the creation of the project was funded by donations from the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Google, Inc. totaling €1.3 million. The development of the project is driven by Wikimedia Deutschland and was split into three phases: Centralising interlanguage links – links between Wikipedia articles about the same topic in different languages Providing a central place for infobox data for all Wikipedias Creating and updating list articles based on data in Wikidata Wikidata was launched on 29 October 2012 and was the first new project of the Wikimedia Foundation since 2006.
At this time, only the centralization of language links was available. This enabled items to be created and filled with basic information: a label – a name or title, aliases – alternative terms for the label, a description, links to articles about the topic in all the various language editions of Wikipedia. A Wikipedia article would include a list of interlanguage links, being links to articles on the same topic in other editions of Wikipedia, if they existed. Wikidata was a self-contained repository of interlanguage links. Wikipedia language editions were still not able to access Wikidata, so they needed to continue to maintain their own lists of interlanguage links. On 14 January 2013, the Hungarian Wikipedia became the first to enable the provision of interlanguage links via Wikidata; this functionality was extended to the Hebrew and Italian Wikipedias on 30 January, to the English Wikipedia on 13 February and to all other Wikipedias on 6 March. After no consensus was reached over a proposal to restrict the removal of language links from the English Wikipedia, the power to delete them from the English Wikipedia was granted to automatic editors.
On 23 September 2013, interlanguage links went live on Wikimedia Commons. On 4 February 2013 statements were introduced to Wikidata entries; the possible values for properties were limited to two data types, with more data types to follow later. The first new type, was deployed on 6 March; the ability for the various language editions of Wikipedia to access data from Wikidata was rolled out progressively between 27 March and 25 April 2013. On 16 September 2015, Wikidata began allowing so-called arbitrary access, or access from a given Wikidata item to the properties of items not directly connected to it. For example, it became possible to read data about Germany from the Berlin article, not feasible before. On 27 April 2016 arbitrary access was activated on Wikimedia Commons. On 7 September 2015, the Wikimedia Foundation announced the release of the Wikidata Query Service, which lets users run queries on the data contained in Wikidata; the service uses SP
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma
Endangered Species Act of 1973
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation", the ESA was signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973; the law requires federal agencies to consult with the Fish and Wildlife Service &/or the NOAA Fisheries Service to ensure their actions are not to jeopardize the continued existence of any listed species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of designated critical habitat of such species. The U. S. Supreme Court found that "the plain intent of Congress in enacting" the ESA "was to halt and reverse the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost." The Act is administered by two federal agencies, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service.
Listing status and its abbreviations used in Federal Register and by federal agencies like the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service: E = endangered – any species, in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range other than a species of the Class Insecta determined by the Secretary to constitute a pest. T = threatened – any species, to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its rangeOther categories:C = candidate – a species under consideration for official listing E, T = endangered or threatened due to similarity of appearance – a species not endangered or threatened, but so resembles in appearance a species, listed as endangered or threatened, that enforcement personnel would have substantial difficulty in attempting to differentiate between the listed and unlisted species. XE, XN = experimental essential or non-essential population – any population of an endangered species or a threatened species released outside the current range under authorization of the Secretary.
Experimental, nonessential populations of endangered species are treated as threatened species on public land, for consultation purposes, as species proposed for listing on private land. The near-extinction of the bison and the disappearance of the passenger pigeon helped drive the call for wildlife conservation starting in the 1900s. Ornithologist George Bird Grinnell wrote articles on the subject in the magazine Forest and Stream, while Joel Asaph Allen, founder of the American Ornithologists' Union, hammered away in the popular press; the public was introduced to a new concept: extinction. Market hunting for the millinery trade and for the table was one aspect of the problem; the early naturalists killed birds and other wildlife for study, personal curio collections and museum pieces. While habitat losses continued as communities and farmland grew, the widespread use of pesticides and the introduction of non-native species affected wildlife. One species in particular received widespread attention—the whooping crane.
The species' historical range extended from central Canada south to Mexico, from Utah to the Atlantic coast. Unregulated hunting and habitat loss contributed to a steady decline in the whooping crane population until, by 1890, it had disappeared from its primary breeding range in the north central United States, it would be another eight years before the first national law regulating wildlife commerce was signed, another two years before the first version of the endangered species act was passed. The whooping crane population by 1941 was estimated at about only 16 birds still in the wild; the Lacey Act of 1900 was the first federal law. It prohibited interstate commerce of animals killed in violation of state game laws, covered all fish and wildlife and their parts or products, as well as plants. Other legislation followed, including the Migratory Bird Conservation Act of 1929, a 1937 treaty prohibiting the hunting of right and gray whales, the Bald Eagle Protection Act of 1940; these laws had a low cost to society–the species were rare–and little opposition was raised.
Whereas the Lacey Act dealt with game animal management and market commerce species, a major shift in focus occurred by 1963 to habitat preservation instead of take regulations. A provision was added by Congress in the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 that provided money for the "acquisition of land, waters...for the preservation of species of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction." The predecessor of the ESA was the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966. Passed by Congress, this act permitted the listing of native U. S. animal species as endangered and for limited protections upon those animals. It authorized the Secretary of the Interior to list endangered domestic fish and wildlife and allowed the United States Fish and Wildlife Service to spend up to $15 million per year to buy habitats for listed species, it directed federal land agencies to preserve habitat on their lands. The Act consolidated and expanded authority for the Secretary of the Interior to manage and administer the National Wildlife Refuge System.
Other public agencies were encouraged, but not required. The act did not address the commerce in endangered parts. In March, 1967 the first list of endangered species was issued under the act, it included 36 birds, 6 reptiles and amphibians and 22 fish. This first list is referred to as the "
Birds known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are less developed depending on the species. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites and diverse endemic island species of birds; the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming; the fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier feathered dinosaurs within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs.
The closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Many of these early "stem-birds", such as Archaeopteryx, were not yet capable of powered flight, many retained primitive characteristics like toothy jaws in place of beaks, long bony tails. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages, but birds those in the southern continents, survived this event and migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. This makes them the sole surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics; some birds corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals. Many species annually migrate great distances. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals and bird songs, participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting and mobbing of predators.
The vast majority of bird species are monogamous for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or polyandrous. Birds produce offspring by laying eggs, they are laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching; some birds, such as hens, lay eggs when not fertilised, though unfertilised eggs do not produce offspring. Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs and feathers. Songbirds and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.
Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry. The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system in use. Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria. During the late 1990s, Aves was most defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica. However, an earlier definition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century, is used by many scientists including adherents of the Phylocode system. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds; this was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, assigning them, instead, to the Avialae, in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs.
Gauthier identified four different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", a problem. Gauthier proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below, he assigned other names to the other groups. Aves can mean all archosaurs closer to birds than to crocodiles Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the living birds and all of its descendants (a "c
Integrated Taxonomic Information System
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ITIS was formed in 1996 as an interagency group within the US federal government, involving several US federal agencies, has now become an international body, with Canadian and Mexican government agencies participating; the database draws from a large community of taxonomic experts. Primary content staff are housed at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History and IT services are provided by a US Geological Survey facility in Denver; the primary focus of ITIS is North American species, but many biological groups exist worldwide and ITIS collaborates with other agencies to increase its global coverage. ITIS provides an automated reference database of common names for species; as of May 2016, it contains over 839,000 scientific names and common names for terrestrial and freshwater taxa from all biological kingdoms.
While the system does focus on North American species at minimum, it includes many species not found in North America among birds, amphibians, bacteria, many reptiles, several plant groups, many invertebrate animal groups. Data presented in ITIS are considered public information, may be distributed and copied, though appropriate citation is requested. ITIS is used as the de facto source of taxonomic data in biodiversity informatics projects. ITIS couples each scientific name with a stable and unique taxonomic serial number as the "common denominator" for accessing information on such issues as invasive species, declining amphibians, migratory birds, fishery stocks, agricultural pests, emerging diseases, it presents the names in a standard classification that contains author, date and bibliographic information related to the names. In addition, common names are available through ITIS in the major official languages of the Americas. ITIS and its international partner, Species 2000, cooperate to annually produce the Catalogue of Life, a checklist and index of the world's species.
The Catalogue of Life's goal was to complete the global checklist of 1.9 million species by 2011. As of May 2012, the Catalogue of Life has reached 1.4 million species—a major milestone in its quest to complete the first up-to-date comprehensive catalogue of all living organisms. ITIS and the Catalogue of Life are core to the Encyclopedia of Life initiative announced May 2007. EOL will be built on various Creative Commons licenses. Of the ~714,000 scientific names in the current database 210,000 were inherited from the database maintained by the National Oceanographic Data Center of the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; the newer material has been checked to higher standards of taxonomic credibility, over half of the original material has been checked and improved to the same standard. Biological taxonomy is not fixed, opinions about the correct status of taxa at all levels, their correct placement, are revised as a result of new research. Many aspects of classification remain a matter of scientific judgment.
The ITIS database is updated to take account of new research. Records within ITIS include information about how far it has been possible to verify them, its information should be checked against other sources where these are available, against the primary research scientific literature where possible. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Park Service NatureServe Smithsonian Institution United States Department of Agriculture United States Environmental Protection Agency United States Geological Survey United States Fish and Wildlife Service Encyclopedia of Life PlantList Wikispecies World Register of Marine Species Integrated Taxonomic Information System Canada Interface: Integrated Taxonomic Information System Mexico Interface: Sistema Integrado de Información Taxonómica Brasil Interface: Sistema Integrado de Informação Taxonômica –
Threatened species are any species which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future. Species that are threatened are sometimes characterised by the population dynamics measure of critical depensation, a mathematical measure of biomass related to population growth rate; this quantitative metric is one method of evaluating the degree of endangerment. The International Union for Conservation of Nature is the foremost authority on threatened species, treats threatened species not as a single category, but as a group of three categories, depending on the degree to which they are threatened: Vulnerable species Endangered species Critically endangered speciesLess-than-threatened categories are near threatened, least concern, the no longer assigned category of conservation dependent. Species which have not been evaluated, or do not have sufficient data are not considered "threatened" by the IUCN. Although threatened and vulnerable may be used interchangeably when discussing IUCN categories, the term threatened is used to refer to the three categories, while vulnerable is used to refer to the least at risk of those three categories.
They may be used interchangeably in most contexts however, as all vulnerable species are threatened species. Threatened species are referred to as a red-listed species, as they are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Subspecies and stocks may be classified as threatened. Under the Endangered Species Act in the United States, "threatened" is defined as "any species, to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range", it is the less protected of the two protected categories. The Bay checkerspot butterfly is an example of a threatened subspecies protected under the ESA. Within the U. S. state wildlife agencies have the authority under the ESA to manage species which are considered endangered or threatened within their state but not within all states, which therefore are not included on the national list of endangered and threatened species. For example, the trumpeter swan is threatened in the state of Minnesota, while large populations still remain in Canada and Alaska.
The Commonwealth of Australia has legislation for categorising and protecting endangered species, namely the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, known in short as the EPBC Act. This act has six categories; the EPBC Act recognises and protects threatened ecosystems such as plant communities, Ramsar Convention wetlands used by migratory birds. Individual states and territories of Australia are bound under the EPBC Act, but may have legislation which gives further protection to certain species, for example Western Australia's Wildlife Conservation Act 1950; some species, such as Lewin's rail, are not listed as threatened species under the EPBC Act, but they may be recognised as threatened by individual states or territories. Pests and weeds, climate change and habitat loss are some of the key threatening processes facing native plants and animals listed by the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage. Biodiversity Action Plan IUCN Red List Illegal logging Rare species Red and blue-listed Slash-and-burn Threatened fauna of Australia Sharrock, S. and Jones, M. 2009.
Conserving Europe's threatened plants Botanic Gardens Conservation International