Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
A primate is a eutherian mammal constituting the taxonomic order Primates. Primates arose 85–55 million years ago from small terrestrial mammals, which adapted to living in the trees of tropical forests: many primate characteristics represent adaptations to life in this challenging environment, including large brains, visual acuity, color vision, altered shoulder girdle, dexterous hands. Primates range in size from Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, which weighs 30 g, to the eastern gorilla, weighing over 200 kg. There are 190 -- 448 species of living primates, depending on. New primate species continue to be discovered: over 25 species were described in the first decade of the 2000s, eleven since 2010. Primates are divided into two distinct suborders; the first is the strepsirrhines - lemurs and lorisids. The second is haplorhines - the "dry-nosed" primates - tarsier and ape clades, the last of these including humans. Simians are monkeys and apes, cladistically including: the catarrhines consisting of the Old World monkeys and apes.
Forty million years ago, simians from Africa migrated to South America by drifting on debris, gave rise to the New World monkeys. Twenty five million years ago the remaining Old World simians split into Old World monkeys. Common names for the simians are the baboons, macaques and great apes. Primates have large brains compared to other mammals, as well as an increased reliance on visual acuity at the expense of the sense of smell, the dominant sensory system in most mammals; these features are more developed in monkeys and apes, noticeably less so in lorises and lemurs. Some primates are trichromats, with three independent channels for conveying color information. Except for apes, primates have tails. Most primates have opposable thumbs. Many species are sexually dimorphic. Primates have slower rates of development than other sized mammals, reach maturity and have longer lifespans. Depending on the species, adults may live in solitude, in mated pairs, or in groups of up to hundreds of members; some primates, including gorillas and baboons, are terrestrial rather than arboreal, but all species have adaptations for climbing trees.
Arboreal locomotion techniques used include leaping from tree to tree and swinging between branches of trees. Primates are among the most social of animals, forming pairs or family groups, uni-male harems, multi-male/multi-female groups. Non-human primates have at four types of social systems, many defined by the amount of movement by adolescent females between groups. Most primate species remain at least arboreal: the exceptions are some great apes and humans, who left the trees for the ground and now inhabit every continent. Close interactions between humans and non-human primates can create opportunities for the transmission of zoonotic diseases virus diseases, including herpes, ebola and hepatitis. Thousands of non-human primates are used in research around the world because of their psychological and physiological similarity to humans. About 60% of primate species are threatened with extinction. Common threats include deforestation, forest fragmentation, monkey drives, primate hunting for use in medicines, as pets, for food.
Large-scale tropical forest clearing for agriculture most threatens primates. The English name "primates" is derived from Old French or French primat, from a noun use of Latin primat-, from primus; the name was given by Carl Linnaeus. The relationships among the different groups of primates were not understood until recently, so the used terms are somewhat confused. For example, "ape" has been used either as an alternative for "monkey" or for any tailless human-like primate. Sir Wilfrid Le Gros Clark was one of the primatologists who developed the idea of trends in primate evolution and the methodology of arranging the living members of an order into an "ascending series" leading to humans. Used names for groups of primates such as "prosimians", "monkeys", "lesser apes", "great apes" reflect this methodology. According to our current understanding of the evolutionary history of the primates, several of these groups are paraphyletic: a paraphyletic group is one which does not include all the descendants of the group's common ancestor.
In contrast with Clark's methodology, modern classifications identify only those groupings that are monophyletic. The cladogram below shows one possible classification sequence of the living primates: groups that use common names are shown on the right. All groups with scientific names are monophyletic, the sequence of scientific classification reflects the evolution
Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals; the largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, the Carnivora. In cladistics, which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes, they are the only living Synapsida. The early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period around 300 million years ago, this group diverged from the sauropsid line that led to today's reptiles and birds; the line following the stem group Sphenacodontia split off several diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids—sometimes referred to as mammal-like reptiles—before giving rise to the proto-mammals in the early Mesozoic era.
The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present. The basic body type is quadruped, most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale—the largest animal on the planet. Maximum lifespan varies from two years for the shrew to 211 years for the bowhead whale. All modern mammals give birth to live young, except the five species of monotremes, which are egg-laying mammals; the most species-rich group of mammals, the cohort called placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Most mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, tool use. Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation.
Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies—but can be solitary and territorial. Most mammals are polygynous. Domestication of many types of mammals by humans played a major role in the Neolithic revolution, resulted in farming replacing hunting and gathering as the primary source of food for humans; this led to a major restructuring of human societies from nomadic to sedentary, with more co-operation among larger and larger groups, the development of the first civilizations. Domesticated mammals provided, continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as food and leather. Mammals are hunted and raced for sport, are used as model organisms in science. Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, appear in literature, film and religion. Decline in numbers and extinction of many mammals is driven by human poaching and habitat destruction deforestation. Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus defined the class.
No classification system is universally accepted. George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" provides systematics of mammal origins and relationships that were universally taught until the end of the 20th century. Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work made Simpson's classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group; the three largest orders in numbers of species are Rodentia: mice, porcupines, beavers and other gnawing mammals. The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates including the apes and lemurs. According to Mammal Species of the World, 5,416 species were identified in 2006.
These were grouped into 153 families and 29 orders. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature completed a five-year Global Mammal Assessment for its IUCN Red List, which counted 5,488 species. According to a research published in the Journal of Mammalogy in 2018, the number of recognized mammal species is 6,495 species included 96 extinct; the word "mammal" is modern, from the scientific name Mammalia coined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, derived from the Latin mamma. In an influential 1988 paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group of mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes and therian m
The crowned sifaka is a sifaka endemic to western Madagascar. It is of comparable size to the Golden-crowned sifaka and up to a meter in length, of which 47-57 centimeters are tail; the species is an arboreal vertical climber and leaper whose diet consists of leaves and flowers. It is threatened by habitat destruction and classified as Endangered by the IUCN; the crowned sifaka was believed to be a subspecies of either Verreaux's sifaka or Von der Decken's sifaka, but is now considered a valid species following a 2007 analysis of the cranium. The Crowned sifaka is a medium-sized sifaka who has a total length of 87 to 102 centimeters, of which 47-57 centimeters are tail, 39.5 - 45.5 cm are the head and body. Males weigh 3.5-5.0 kg for females. It is a sifaka of comparable size to the Golden-crowned sifaka, Von der Decken's sifaka and Verreaux's sifaka; the crowned sifaka is characterized by a creamy white body with tinges of golden brown around the shoulder region, upper chest and back with a dark chocolate or black head with white ear tufts.
Their dark grey face is hairless and they have a white tail. A pale patch across the bridge of the nose may be present. Crown sifaka color variations occur more in the lower regions of the sifakas range between the Mahavavy and Manombolo rivers. Melanistic forms have been documented, with most occurrences observed where the southern limit of its range overlaps with that of P. deckenii. The crowned sifaka is found in the mangroves and dry deciduous and riparian forests of northwest Madagascar. Surveys have shown in the northern range of its habitat the crowned sifaka inhabits the forest between the Mahavavy River and Betsiboka River and extending south to the region of fragmented forests around the Tsiribihina River, Mahajilo River, Mania River. Total population size in 2014 was estimated as 4,000-36,000 individuals, at densities of 46-309 individuals/km2 in different-sized forest fragments, with an average group size of 2-8 individuals per group. Estimates remain uncertain. Total area of occupancy is thought to be 2,690-4,493 km2.
The crowned sifaka is a diurnal animal active during the day. It spends a majority of its time resting with the remainder devoted to feeding, it frequents the upper stories of large trees and is found in tree crowns. Depending on season, it feeds on young or mature leaves and unripe fruits and great quantities of flowers. Group size is between 2 and 8 individuals and contains a balanced number of females and males in each group. One dominant female is found in each group. Social behavior within groups entails allogrooming of other group members, agonistic behavior, play as well as scent marking and call-localization. Reproduction is seasonal, with gestation lasting 5 -- estrus lasting 4 months. Within the typical estrus period a female may have 3-5 estruses per reproductive season. Reproduction in the crowned sifaka has been observed, what little is known about it has been documented in the captive population at the Paris Zoological Park; the restricted range and fragmented populations of the crowned sifaka are major concerns for the continuation of this species.
Habitat destruction, forest fragmentation and burn agriculture, capture for illegal pet trade, illegal hunting constitute major threats. The species is listed by the IUCN Red List as Endangered, is listed as CITES Appendix I; some of the larger populations are found in protected areas, however much of its range remain unexplored as they are labeled as politically “dangerous” zones. The 2009 Malagasy political crisis led to lawlessness across Madagascar and led to increased poaching of the sifaka for food as a delicacy in restaurants; as of 2014 there is only one successful captive breeding population of crowned sifaka in the Paris Zoological Park in Paris, France
Madagascar the Republic of Madagascar, known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; the island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the growing human population and other environmental threats. The first archaeological evidence for human foraging on Madagascar may have occurred as much as 10,000 years ago. Human settlement of Madagascar occurred between 350 BC and 550 AD by Austronesian peoples, arriving on outrigger canoes from Borneo; these were joined around the 9th century AD by Bantu migrants crossing the Mozambique Channel from East Africa. Other groups continued to settle on Madagascar over time, each one making lasting contributions to Malagasy cultural life.
The Malagasy ethnic group is divided into 18 or more subgroups, of which the largest are the Merina of the central highlands. Until the late 18th century, the island of Madagascar was ruled by a fragmented assortment of shifting sociopolitical alliances. Beginning in the early 19th century, most of the island was united and ruled as the Kingdom of Madagascar by a series of Merina nobles; the monarchy ended in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. The autonomous state of Madagascar has since undergone four major constitutional periods, termed republics. Since 1992, the nation has been governed as a constitutional democracy from its capital at Antananarivo. However, in a popular uprising in 2009, president Marc Ravalomanana was made to resign and presidential power was transferred in March 2009 to Andry Rajoelina. Constitutional governance was restored in January 2014, when Hery Rajaonarimampianina was named president following a 2013 election deemed fair and transparent by the international community.
Madagascar is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Madagascar belongs according to the United Nations. Malagasy and French are both official languages of the state; the majority of the population adheres to traditional beliefs, Christianity, or an amalgamation of both. Ecotourism and agriculture, paired with greater investments in education and private enterprise, are key elements of Madagascar's development strategy. Under Ravalomanana, these investments produced substantial economic growth, but the benefits were not evenly spread throughout the population, producing tensions over the increasing cost of living and declining living standards among the poor and some segments of the middle class; as of 2017, the economy has been weakened by the 2009–2013 political crisis, quality of life remains low for the majority of the Malagasy population. In the Malagasy language, the island of Madagascar is called Madagasikara and its people are referred to as Malagasy.
The island's appellation "Madagascar" is not of local origin but rather was popularized in the Middle Ages by Europeans. The name Madageiscar was first recorded in the memoirs of 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco Polo as a corrupted transliteration of the name Mogadishu, the Somali port with which Polo had confused the island. On St. Laurence's Day in 1500, Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias landed on the island and named it São Lourenço. Polo's name popularized on Renaissance maps. No single Malagasy-language name predating Madagasikara appears to have been used by the local population to refer to the island, although some communities had their own name for part or all of the land they inhabited. At 592,800 square kilometres, Madagascar is the world's 47th largest country and the fourth-largest island; the country lies between latitudes 12°S and 26°S, longitudes 43°E and 51°E. Neighboring islands include the French territory of Réunion and the country of Mauritius to the east, as well as the state of Comoros and the French territory of Mayotte to the north west.
The nearest mainland state is Mozambique, located to the west. The prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana separated the Madagascar–Antarctica–India landmass from the Africa–South America landmass around 135 million years ago. Madagascar split from India about 88 million years ago during the late Cretaceous period allowing plants and animals on the island to evolve in relative isolation. Along the length of the eastern coast runs a narrow and steep escarpment containing much of the island's remaining tropical lowland forest. To the west of this ridge lies a plateau in the center of the island ranging in altitude from 750 to 1,500 m above sea level; these central highlands, traditionally the homeland of the Merina people and the location of their historic capital at Antananarivo, are the most densely populated part of the island and are characterized by terraced, rice-growing valleys lying between grassy hills and patches of the subhumid forests that covered the highland region. To the west of the highlands, the arid terrain slope
Verreaux's sifaka, or the white sifaka, is a medium-sized primate in one of the lemur families, the Indriidae. It lives in Madagascar and can be found in a variety of habitats from rainforest to western Madagascar dry deciduous forests and dry and spiny forests, its fur is thick and silky and white with brown on the sides, top of the head, on the arms. Like all sifakas, it has a long tail. However, its body is so adapted to an arboreal existence, on the ground its only means of locomotion is hopping; the species lives in small troops. Four subspecies of this lemur are described. Many things are unknown about Verreaux's sifaka, so their lifespan in the wild has not been approximated, but in captivity, they live to up to 18 years old. In adulthood, the full head and body length is between 45 cm; the tail of a grown Verreaux's sifaka grows to be between 56 and 60 cm long. In weight, adult females reach 3.4 kg on average, adult males 3.6 kg. Verreaux's sifaka has a low, flat braincase; the face is broader than that of most other indriids.
This species of sifaka is distinguished by its unique dentition. Its dental formula is 126.96.36.199.0.2.3. The upper incisors are small and are angled inward towards the gap between I1 and I2. In the mandible, Verreaux's sifaka displays the strepsirhine characteristic: the toothcomb. Formed by the procumbent lower incisor and canine, the toothcomb projects past the front margin of the mouth. P. verreauxi presents the high, shearing molar crests of a folivore, helping to shread the leaves and flowers that it eats. Postcranially, Verreaux's sifaka has a low intermembral index that ranges from 63-66, it has a broader ribcage than most other prosimians, has many lumbar vertebrae lending it considerable flexibility. The pelvis is high and narrow and the acetabulum is shallow allowing for greater flexibility. Like other indriids, P. verreauxi has a short calcaneus, pointed nails, webbed hands and feet. Verreaux's sifakas forage for food with their troop in the morning and late afternoon, so they can rest during the hottest part of the day.
They are herbivores. However, they are folivorous and they seem to choose food items based on quality rather than on availability. Verreaux's sifakas are diurnal and arboreal, engage in sunbathing with outstretched arms and legs, they move through the trees by leaping between vertical supports. They are capable of making remarkable leaps through the trees - distances of 9–10 m are not uncommon. On the ground, they hop bipedally, they live in family groups, or troops, of 2-12, which may consist of one male and female, or many males and females together. Group and population sex ratio can be less skewed toward males. Many groups seem to be harem groups with a single dominant male unrelated with resident female, they have a home range of 2.8 to 5.0 ha, although they are territorial, they defend food sources rather than territorial boundaries, as boundaries overlap. Females are dominant over males, forming a matriarchal society. Females use anogenital secretion for territory demarcation whereas males seem to use specialized secretions more for sexual "advertisement" than for territorial purposes.
Males show bimorphism, by showing either a clean or stained chest, derived from throat gland secretions and smeared on surfaces by rubbing the upper part of the chest. Stain-chested males engage in the most active marking, chest staining seems to be related to testosterone levels. Males and females were found to engage in a biological market, exchanging grooming for grooming during the non-mating period, grooming for reproductive opportunities during the mating period. A study found. On the other hand, clean-chested males, with a lower scent-releasing potential offer more grooming to females; this “grooming for sex” tactic allows males with a clean chest to get to copulate with females if at low rate. It has been discovered that sifaka dyads engage in post-conflict reunions after aggressive episodes: reconciliation occurs more when food is not involved and for low intensity aggressions. In this species play behavior persists into adulthood where it is used by stranger males during the mating period, as an ice-breaking mechanism to reduce xenophobia.
Females give birth to one infant after a gestation period between June and August. For the first 6–8 weeks, the infant clings to the mother's stomach, but for the following 19 weeks, it clings to her back; this species is considered to be Endangered by the IUCN, is listed in CITES Appendix I. In the small spiny forest fragments of South Madagascar, sifaka abundance appears to be influenced by the proportion of large trees and by the abundance of the plant species Allouadia procera, a key species of the spiny forest habitat. A long-term, large-scale demographic study of the species at Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve in southwest Madagascar found that the sifaka population there had a population growth rate of 0.98, suggesting that the population was not in danger of imminent extinction. However, both severe droughts and an increased an
Colin Peter Groves was Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. Born in England, Groves completed a Bachelor of Science at University College London in 1963, a Doctor of Philosophy at the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine in 1966. From 1966 to 1973, he was a Postdoctoral Researcher and Teaching Fellow at the University of California, Queen Elizabeth College and the University of Cambridge, he emigrated to Australia in 1973 and joined the Australian National University, where he was promoted to full Professor in 2000 and remained Emeritus Professor until his death. Professor Groves' research interests included human evolution, mammalian taxonomy, skeletal analysis, biological anthropology, ethnobiology and biogeography, he conducted extensive fieldwork in Kenya, Rwanda, Iran, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Along with the Czech biologist Professor Vratislav Mazák, Groves was the describer of Homo ergaster.
Groves wrote Primate Taxonomy published by the Smithsonian Institution Press in 2001, Ungulate Taxonomy, co-authored by Peter Grubb. He was an active member of the Australian Skeptics and had many published skeptical papers, as well as research papers covering his other research interests, he conducted regular debates with creationists and anti-evolutionists. Groves, C.. A theory of human and primate evolution. New York: Oxford Science Publications. Doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330810314. Groves, C.. Laycock, D, ed. Skeptical, a handbook on pseudoscience and the paranormal. Australian Skeptics. ISBN 0-7316-5794-2. Groves, C.. "From Ussher to Slusher. Archaeology in Oceania. 31: 145–151. Groves, C. P.. "Leopard-cats, Prionailurus bengalensis from Indonesia and the Philippines, with the description of two new subspecies". Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde. 62: 330–338. Groves, C.. Primate Taxonomy. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-872-X. Cameron, D. W.. Bones and Molecules. Boston: Elsevier. P. 402. ISBN 0-12-156933-0.
Groves, C.. Extended Family: Long Lost Cousins. A Personal Look at the History of Primatology. Arlington, Virginia: Conservation International. P. 227. ISBN 1-934151-25-4. Groves, C.. "Birth of a notion". The Skeptic. Australian Skeptics. 34: 39. Retrieved 2016-03-17; the Colin Groves Pages The Groves Collection at No Answers in Genesis ANU Faculty Homepage ANU Researcher Profile page