Auckland Libraries is the public library system for the Auckland Region of New Zealand. It was created when the seven separate councils in the Auckland region merged in 2010, it is the largest public-library network in the Southern Hemisphere with 55 branches from Wellsford to Waiuku. In November 2010, Auckland's local councils merged to create the Auckland Council; as a result of this process, the seven public library systems within the region were combined to form Auckland Libraries. The following library networks were amalgamated, forming Auckland Libraries: Auckland City Libraries Bookinopolis Manukau Libraries North Shore Libraries Papakura Library Services – The Sir Edmund Hillary Library Rodney Libraries Waitakere Libraries In the years leading up to the merger of the library systems within Auckland, the separate library systems combined to form a consortium in order to align their processes; this organisation was called eLGAR. This consortium settled on Millenium as their Library Management System, the libraries within this system all moved to this software.
The result was that the library systems were able to offer their customers a seamless transition to membership of the larger network, with immediate access to all 55 libraries from November 1, 2010. Prior to amalgamation, Auckland City Libraries was a network of 17 public libraries and a mobile library operated by Auckland City Council. In September 1880, Auckland City Council took responsibility for the library of the Auckland Mechanics' Institute which had come under financial difficulties; the Mechanics’ Institute was formed in 1842 and the items remaining in its library, along with items from the Library of the old Auckland Provincial Council, were included in the collection of the Auckland Free Public Library. In 1887, George Grey donated around 8,000 books, doubling the existing collection, a new building was erected for the library on the corner of Wellesley and Coburg streets. At the time, this building housed the entire collection for the Auckland public library, in addition to the city's art collection.
Additionally, from its inception in 1916 until it was closed in 1957, The Old Colonists’ Museum was in this building. This building is now the Auckland Art Gallery; the building on Lorne Street that houses the Central City library was opened in 1971. Before amalgamation, three public libraries—Pukekohe and Tuakau—made up a network known as "Bookinopolis". A municipal library had first been established at Pukekohe in 1913 and at Waiuku in 1946, in each case taking over an existing subscription library. Tuakau Public Library was opened in 1977. After local-body amalgamation in 1989, these three libraries formed the Franklin District library system. In 2000, this was taken over by the Franklin District Library Trust; the Trust renamed its library system "Bookinopolis". In 2010, the Pukekohe and Waiuku libraries became branches of Auckland Libraries, due to boundary changes, Tuakau was taken over by Waikato Dictrict Council; when Manukau City Council was formed by the amalgamation of Manukau County and Manurewa Borough in 1965, it took over responsibility for a small subscription library at Māngere East and volunteer-run community libraries in Alfriston, Clevedon, Kawakawa Bay, Orere Point and Weymouth.
The newly formed city opened its first full-service public library at Manurewa in 1967. This was followed by children’s libraries at both Otara and Māngere East in 1969, branch libraries at Pakuranga in 1973 and Manukau City Centre in 1976, a combined school and public library at Ngā Tapuwae College in 1978. Came Māngere Bridge in 1979, Māngere Town Centre in 1980 and Highland Park in 1987. Local-body amalgamation in 1989 saw two more libraries added to the system: Papatoetoe and Howick, where the municipal library services dated from 1945 and 1947 respectively. In 1958 Papatoetoe Library had earned the distinction of setting up the first municipal mobile library in New Zealand. Manukau Libraries’ last three branches were Clendon, the innovative Tupu-Dawson Road Youth Library, the Botany Idealibrary. Clendon Library was renamed Te Matariki Clendon when it was relocated in 2006. Throughout its life, Manukau Libraries operated as a dispersed rather than a centralised library system. However, in 2001 it opened a reference and reading room near Manukau City Centre that expanded into the Manukau Research Library.
By 2010 Manukau Libraries operated 13 branch libraries, a research library, five volunteer-run'rural libraries', a mobile library. In 1989, the North Shore City Council was formed by combining the various boroughs that had existed on the North Shore, so that prior to the 2010 amalgamation of the council into the Auckland Council, North Shore Libraries was a network of six libraries and a mobile library. Membership of Auckland Libraries is free for residents and ratepayers of the Auckland Council region. Auckland Libraries has a small number of rental collections. Library members can request an item from any of the libraries in Auckland Libraries for free. Many of the libraries provide Internet access; the library system gives access to three specialised eBook suppliers: Overdrive, BorrowBox, Wheelers. There is a Digital Library which includes over 100 databases; the library system provides a number of free events: Wriggle and Rhyme: Active Movement for Early Learning for babies.
North Cape (New Zealand)
North Cape is located at the northern end of the Northland Peninsula in the North Island of New Zealand. It is the northeastern tip of the Aupouri Peninsula and lies 30 kilometres east and 3 kilometres north of Cape Reinga; the name is sometimes used to refer just to the cape, known in Māori as Otou and which overlooks Murimotu Island, sometimes just to the eastern point of Murimotu Island. It is used to refer to the whole larger headland stretching about five km from Murimotu Island westwards to Kerr Point and including the Surville Cliffs; this wider North Cape, the Surville Cliffs, is the northernmost point of mainland New Zealand, being about three km further north than Cape Reinga. This article covers the wider North Cape. North Cape is one of the four New Zealand Cardinal Capes, it was named by Commander of the Endeavour in the 1769-70 voyage. The other Cardinal Capes being named at the time Cape East, West Cape & Cape South. North Cape was once an island formed by a marine volcano. Sand deposited by ocean currents formed a tombolo known as Waikuku Flat which joined the island to the rest of the Aupouri Peninsula.
The headland and flat combined now form the North Cape Peninsula. A large part of North Cape is enclosed in the North Cape Scientific Reserve; the reserve’s purpose is to protect the unique flora and fauna of the area, some of it endemic to a small area on Surville Cliffs. An electrified fence was erected in 2000 to create a mainland island by excluding the possums, feral pigs and semi-wild horses of the area; the reserve is managed by the Department of Conservation. Much of Waikuku Flat is in another DoC reserve, the Mokaikai Scenic Reserve which stretches south to Parengarenga Harbour; this reserve is open to the public but land access is via an area in Māori tribal ownership and a permit is required from the controlling Māori body to cross the land. Another strip of Māori land lies between the North Cape reserve; this strip includes the northern edge of Waikuku Flat. It stretches from Kerr Point and the north end of Tom Bowling Bay on the north coast across to Tokatoka Point on the west coast.
The Surville Cliffs are the northernmost point of the mainland of New Zealand, located at the tip of North Cape. In the past the cliffs have sometimes been referred to as Kerr Point but true Kerr Point lies a short distance away at the western end of North Cape; the first European discovery of the cliffs was made by Jean-François-Marie de Surville in December 1769, when he sailed his ship'St Jean Baptiste' to New Zealand to find a safe anchorage to care for sick crew. He found them; the cliffs expose 1.2 square kilometres of serpentinised peridotite mafic rocks. They form a unique environment that supports a number of threatened and endangered plants endemic to the area, including: Pittosporum ellipticum subsp. Serpentinum Hebe brevifolia Hebe ligustrifolia Helichrysum aggregatum Leucopogon xerampelinus Pimelea tomentosa Phyllocladus trichomanoides Pseudopanax lessonii Uncinia perplexa
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered, most to provide food for humans. Slaughterhouses supply meat, which becomes the responsibility of a packaging facility. Slaughterhouses that produce meat, not intended to be eaten by humans are sometimes referred to as knacker's yards or knackeries; this is where animals are slaughtered that are not fit for human consumption or that can no longer work on a farm, such as retired work horses. Slaughtering animals on a large scale poses significant problems in terms of logistics, animal welfare, the environment, the process must meet public health requirements. Due to public aversion in many cultures, determining where to build slaughterhouses is a matter of some consideration. Groups representing animal welfare and rights raise concerns about the methods of transport to and from slaughterhouses, preparation prior to slaughter, animal herding, the killing itself; until modern times, the slaughter of animals took place in a haphazard and unregulated manner in diverse places.
Early maps of London show numerous stockyards in the periphery of the city, where slaughter occurred in the open air. A term for such open-air slaughterhouses was shambles, there are streets named "The Shambles" in some English and Irish towns which got their name from having been the site on which butchers killed and prepared animals for consumption. Fishamble Street, Dublin was a fish-shambles; the slaughterhouse emerged as a coherent institution in the nineteenth century. A combination of health and social concerns, exacerbated by the rapid urbanisation experienced during the Industrial Revolution, led social reformers to call for the isolation and regulation of animal slaughter; as well as the concerns raised regarding hygiene and disease, there were criticisms of the practice on the grounds that the effect that killing had, both on the butchers and the observers, "educate the men in the practice of violence and cruelty, so that they seem to have no restraint on the use of it." An additional motivation for eliminating private slaughter was to impose a careful system of regulation for the "morally dangerous" task of putting animals to death.
As a result of this tension, meat markets within the city were closed and abattoirs built outside city limits. An early framework for the establishment of public slaughterhouses was put in place in Paris in 1810, under the reign of the Emperor Napoleon. Five areas were set aside on the outskirts of the city and the feudal privileges of the guilds were curtailed; as the meat requirements of the growing number of residents in London expanded, the meat markets both within the city and beyond attracted increasing levels of public disapproval. Meat had been traded at Smithfield Market as early as the 10th century. By 1726, it was regarded as "by Daniel Defoe. By the middle of the 19th century, in the course of a single year 220,000 head of cattle and 1,500,000 sheep would be "violently forced into an area of five acres, in the heart of London, through its narrowest and most crowded thoroughfares". By the early 19th century, pamphlets were being circulated arguing in favour of the removal of the livestock market and its relocation outside of the city due to the poor hygienic conditions as well as the brutal treatment of the cattle.
In 1843, the Farmer's Magazine published a petition signed by bankers, aldermen and local residents against the expansion of the livestock market. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1852. Under its provisions, a new cattle-market was constructed in Islington; the new Metropolitan Cattle Market was opened in 1855, West Smithfield was left as waste ground for about a decade, until the construction of the new market began in the 1860s under the authority of the 1860 Metropolitan Meat and Poultry Market Act. The market was designed by architect Sir Horace Jones and was completed in 1868. A cut and cover railway tunnel was constructed beneath the market to create a triangular junction with the railway between Blackfriars and Kings Cross; this allowed animals to be transported into the slaughterhouse by train and the subsequent transfer of animal carcasses to the Cold Store building, or direct to the meat market via lifts. At the same time, the first large and centralized slaughterhouse in Paris was constructed in 1867 under the orders of Napoleon III at the Parc de la Villette and influenced the subsequent development of the institution throughout Europe.
These slaughterhouses were regulated by law to ensure good standards of hygiene, the prevention of the spread of disease and the minimization of needless animal cruelty. The slaughterhouse had to be equipped with a specialized water supply system to clean the operating area of blood and offal. Veterinary scientists, notably George Fleming and John Gamgee, campaigned for stringent levels of inspection to ensure that epizootics such as rinderpest would not be able to spread. By 1874, three meat inspectors were appointed for the London area, the Public Health Act 1875 required local authorities to provide central slaughterhouses, yet the appointment of slaughterhouse inspectors and the establishment of centralised abattoirs took place much earlier in the British colonies, such as the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria. In Victoria, for example, the Melbourne Abattoirs Act 1850 "confined the slaughtering of animals to prescribed public abattoirs, while at the same t
The Tasman Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean, situated between Australia and New Zealand. It measures about 2,800 kilometres from north to south; the sea was named after the Dutch explorer Abel Janszoon Tasman, the first recorded European to encounter New Zealand and Tasmania. The British explorer Captain James Cook extensively navigated the Tasman Sea in the 1770s as part of his first voyage of exploration; the Tasman Sea is informally referred to in New Zealand English as The Ditch. The diminutive term "The Ditch" used for the Tasman Sea is comparable to referring to the North Atlantic Ocean as "The Pond"; the south of the sea is passed over by depressions going from west to east. The northern limit of these westerly winds is near to 40°S. During the southern winter, from April to October, the northern branch of these winds from the west changes its direction toward the north and goes up against trade winds. Hence, the sea receives frequent winds from the southwest during this period.
In the Australian summer the southern branch of the trade winds goes up against west winds and produces further wind activity in the area. The sea circumscribes a water body of 2,300,000 kilometres in area; the depth of the sea is 5,493 metres. The base of the sea is made up of globigerina ooze. A small zone of pteropod ooze is found to the south of New Caledonia and to the southern extent of 30°S, siliceous ooze can be found; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Tasman Sea as follows: On the West. A line from Gabo Island to the Northeast point of East Sister Island thence along the 148th meridian to Flinders Island. On the North; the parallel of 30°S from the Australian coast Eastward as far as a line joining the East extremities of Elizabeth Reef and South East Rock to the Southward along this line to the South East Rock. On the Northeast. From the South East Rock to the North point of Three Kings Islands thence to North Cape in New Zealand. On the East. In Cook Strait.
A line joining the South extreme of the foul ground off Cape Palliser and the Lighthouse on Cape Campbell. In Foveaux Strait. A line joining the Light on Waipapapa Point with East Head of Stewart Island. On the Southeast. A line running from South West Cape, Stewart Island, through The Snares to North West Cape, Auckland Island, through this island to its Southern point. On the South. A line joining the Southern point of Auckland Island to South East Cape, the Southern point of Tasmania; the Tasman Sea's mid-ocean ridge developed between 85 and 55 million years ago as Australia and Zealandia broke apart during the breakup of supercontinent Gondwana. It lies midway between the continental margins of Australia and Zealandia. Much of Zealandia is submerged, so the ridge runs much closer to the Australian coast than New Zealand's; the Tasman Sea features a number of mid-sea island groups, quite apart from coastal islands located near the Australian and New Zealand mainlands: Lord Howe Island Ball's Pyramid Norfolk Island, in the extreme north of the Tasman Sea, on the border with the Coral Sea Middleton Reef Elizabeth Reef North: Coral Sea Northeast and East: Pacific Ocean East: Cook Strait South and Southeast: Southern Ocean West: Bass Strait A deep-sea research ship, the RV Tangaroa, explored the sea and found 500 species of fish and 1300 species of invertebrates.
The tooth of a Megalodon, an extinct shark, was found by researchers. Moncrieff and Hood were the first to attempt a Trans-Tasman crossing by plane in 1928; the first successful flight over the sea was accomplished by Charles Kingsford Smith that year. The first person to row solo across the sea was Colin Quincey in 1977; the next successful solo crossing was completed by his son, Shaun Quincey, in 2010. Axis naval activity in New Zealand waters Crossing the Ditch List of seas Coral sea Rotschi, H..
The Auckland Region is one of the sixteen regions of New Zealand, named for the city of Auckland, the country's largest urban area. The region encompasses the Auckland metropolitan area, smaller towns, rural areas, the islands of the Hauraki Gulf. Containing 35 percent of the nation's residents, it has by far the largest population and economy of any region of New Zealand, but the second-smallest land area. On 1 November 2010, the Auckland Region became a unitary authority controlled by the Auckland Council, replacing the previous regional council and seven local councils. In the process, an area in its southeastern corner was transferred to the neighbouring Waikato Region; the name "Auckland Region" remains present in casual usage. On the mainland, the region extends from the mouth of the Kaipara Harbour in the north across the southern stretches of the Northland Peninsula, past the Waitakere Ranges and the isthmus of Auckland and across the low-lying land surrounding the Manukau Harbour; the region ends within a few kilometres of the mouth of the Waikato River.
It is bordered in the north by the Northland Region, in the south by the Waikato Region. It includes the islands of the Hauraki Gulf; the Hunua Ranges and the adjacent coastline along the Firth of Thames were part of the region until the Auckland Council was formed in late 2010, when they were transferred to the neighbouring Waikato Region. In land area it is smaller than unitary authorities except Nelson, its highest point is the summit of at 722 metres. Auckland Province Media related to Auckland Region at Wikimedia Commons Auckland Region travel guide from Wikivoyage Geographic data related to Auckland Region at OpenStreetMap
Mangere Inlet is an arm of the Manukau Harbour, the southwestern of the two harbours of Auckland, New Zealand and itself an arm of the Tasman Sea. The inlet lies between the two cities of Auckland City and Manukau City and has a size of 6.6 km2 and a catchment of 34.5 km2, being considered to extend to just west of Onehunga. It is an environment modified by land reclamation and human uses, with the northern shoreline affected. However, the inlet acts as a natural sedimentation sink, thus being at risk of contamination, it is surrounded by the suburbs of Te Papapa, Westfield, Mangere East and Mangere Bridge. The narrowest point on the Auckland isthmus is at Otahuhu, where the coast of the Mangere Inlet is a mere 1200 m from the Otahuhu Creek, which feeds into the Hauraki Gulf; the Mangere Bridge crosses the western end of the inlet where it joins the main body of the Manukau Harbour. At this point the inlet is about 750 m wide; the Waikaraka Cycleway travels along the northern shoreline of the inlet.
Ngarango Otainui Island is situated in the inlet at the eastern end near Otahuhu. Portage Road is the location of one of the overland routes between the two harbours, where the Maori would beach their waka and drag them overland to the other coast, thus avoiding having to paddle around Cape Reinga; this made the area of immense strategic importance in both pre-European times and during the early years of European occupation. In the 1850s, after settlement by Europeans, the areas around the inlet had become the agricultural centre of Auckland. Industrial expansion westwards from the new railway line at Westfield led to increasing discharges of contaminants into the inlet; the inlet is man-modified, with three embayments at the inlets of historic streams having been lost along the northern shore, to a significant degree for use as landfills, a loss of tidal inundation to the Hopua volcanic crater forming the Onehunga Basin further west. Ann’s Creek in the north-east still has a short section of open stream remaining in the north-east.
Land reclamation in the 1960s for the Westfield Rail Yards reduced the inlet in the east, while the southern shore is less modified. The area is known for muddy, sedimented waters, which seem to predate human occupation of the area. Mangrove swamp fringes are present around most of the shoreline, becoming less common west of Mangere Bridge. For many years the many industries, from meatworks and abattoirs, to phosphate fertiliser works and other factories located here were discharging large amounts of untreated waste into the Manukau Harbour; this had a detrimential effect on the ecology of the harbour which at the turn of the 20th century had been a popular and attractive place to swim, sail and gather shellfish. During the 1950s, the decomposition of organic wastes (including from residential areas and facilities like Middlemore Hospital into the mud flats led to sulphate reduction under anaerobic conditions - leading to complaints about hydrogen sulphide smells, blackening of lead paint in the areas around the inlet.
From 1962, the Mangere sewage works removed many of the household and industrial wastes that were discharged and led to significant improvements. As of 2008, a number of coastal protection zones had been established around the shores of the inlet. However, industrial sewage mixed with stormwater overflows, other contamination still leads to above-average traces of toxins like pesticides, insecticides, PCBs and copper in the mussels and oysters sampled by testing. In the discussions around Stadium New Zealand, constructing the new venue over the eastern shoreline of the inlet was mooted by several architects as a potential alternative to the Auckland CBD location, they considered that the site would be far enough away from residential areas to suit the need for a large and busy multi-use stadium, but would be able to be accessed by public transport and cars, more so than the CBD location. However, the idea failed to get public traction