The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Tampa Bay Times
The Tampa Bay Times named the St. Petersburg Times through 2011, is an American newspaper published in St. Petersburg, United States, it has won twelve Pulitzer Prizes since 1964, in 2009, won two in a single year for the first time in its history, one of, for its PolitiFact project. It is published by the Times Publishing Company, owned by The Poynter Institute for Media Studies, a nonprofit journalism school directly adjacent to the University of South Florida St. Petersburg campus. Many issues are available through Google News Archive. A daily electronic version is available for the Amazon Kindle and iPad; the newspaper traces its origins to the West Hillsborough Times, a weekly newspaper established in Dunedin, Florida on the Pinellas peninsula in 1884. At the time, neither St. Petersburg nor Pinellas County existed; the paper was published weekly in the back of a pharmacy and had a circulation of 480. It subsequently changed ownership six times in seventeen years. In December 1884 it was bought by A. C.
Turner, who moved it to Clear Water Harbor. In 1892 it moved to St. Petersburg, by 1898 it was renamed the St. Petersburg Times; the Times became bi-weekly in 1907, began publication six days a week in 1912. Paul Poynter, a publisher from Indiana, bought the paper in September 1912 and converted to a seven-day paper, though it was financially stable. Paul's son, Nelson Poynter, became editor in 1939 and took majority control of the paper in 1947, set about improving the paper's finances and prestige. Nelson Poynter controlled the paper until his death in 1978, when he willed the majority of the stock to the non-profit Poynter Institute. In November 1986, the Evening Independent was merged into the Times. Poynter was succeeded by Andrew Barnes, Paul Tash and Neil Brown. On January 1, 2012, the St. Petersburg Times was renamed the Tampa Bay Times; as the newly rechristened Tampa Bay Times, the paper's weekday tabloid tbt*, a free daily publication and which used "" as its subtitle, became just tbt when the name change took place.
The St. Pete Times name lives on as the name for the Times' neighborhood news sections in southern Pinellas County, serving communities from Largo southward; the Times has done significant investigative reporting on the Church of Scientology, since the church's acquisition of the Fort Harrison Hotel in 1975 and other holdings in Clearwater. The Times has published special reports and series critical of the church and its current leader, David Miscavige. In 2010, the Times published an investigative report questioning the validity of the United States Navy Veterans Association, leading to significant reaction and official investigations into the group nationwide. On May 3, 2016, the Times acquired its longtime competitor The Tampa Tribune, with the latter publication ceasing publishing and Tribune features and some writers expected to be merged into the Times; as reported by other local media outlets in the Tampa Bay area at the time of this acquisition, for many years the Tampa Tribune was considered to be the more conservative newspaper in the region, while the Tampa Bay Times was thought of as more liberal.
The Times' purchase of The Tribune allowed its circulation area to be expanded into Polk County, placing it in competition with other newspapers such as The Lakeland Ledger and The Polk County Democrat, as well as into the south central region of the state known as the Florida Heartland. In the case of the latter, the Times published Highlands Today, a daily news supplement of The Tribune for readers in Highlands County; the Times sold the paper in 2016 to Sun Coast Media Group. The newspaper created PolitiFact.com, a project in which its reporters and editors "fact-check statements by members of Congress, the White House and interest groups…" They publish original statements and their evaluations on the PolitiFact.com website, assign each a "Truth-O-Meter" rating, with ratings ranging from "True" for true statements to "Pants on Fire" for false and ridiculous statements. The site includes an "Obameter", tracking U. S. President Barack Obama's performance with regard to his campaign promises.
PolitiFact.com was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting in 2009 for "its fact-checking initiative during the 2008 presidential campaign that used probing reporters and the power of the World Wide Web to examine more than 750 political claims, separating rhetoric from truth to enlighten voters." The Times sold PolitiFact.com to its parent company, the Poynter Institute, in 2018. List of newspapers in Florida Media in the Tampa Bay Area James F. Tracy. "Strikebusting in St. Petersburg: Nelson Poynter's Postwar Assault on Union Printers". American Journalism. 25. T. R. Goldman. "What will happen to the Tampa Bay Times?". Columbia Journalism Review. 53. Official website Today's Tampa Bay Times front page at the Newseum websitePolitiFact.com website
The Office (U.S. TV series)
The Office is an American television sitcom that aired on NBC from March 24, 2005, to May 16, 2013, lasting nine seasons. It is an adaptation of the original BBC series of the same name and was adapted for American television by Greg Daniels, a veteran writer for Saturday Night Live, King of the Hill, The Simpsons, it was co-produced by Daniels' Deedle-Dee Productions, Reveille Productions, in association with Universal Television. The original executive producers were Greg Daniels, Howard Klein, Ben Silverman, Ricky Gervais, Stephen Merchant, with numerous others being promoted in seasons; the series depicts the everyday lives of office employees in the Scranton, Pennsylvania branch of the fictional Dunder Mifflin Paper Company. To simulate the look of an actual documentary, it was filmed in a single-camera setup, without a studio audience or a laugh track; the series debuted on NBC as a midseason replacement and aired 201 episodes over the course of its run. The Office featured Steve Carell, Rainn Wilson, John Krasinski, Jenna Fischer, B. J. Novak as the main cast.
Notable stars outside the original main cast include Ed Helms, Mindy Kaling, Craig Robinson, James Spader, Ellie Kemper. The Office was met with mixed reviews during its abbreviated first season, but the following four seasons received widespread acclaim from television critics; these seasons were included on several critics' year-end top TV series lists, winning several awards such as a Peabody Award in 2006, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, a Golden Globe Award for Carell's performance, four Primetime Emmy Awards, including one for Outstanding Comedy Series in 2006. Seasons were criticized for a decline in quality, with many seeing Carell's departure in season seven as a contributing factor. However, earlier writers oversaw the final season and ended the series' run with a positive reception; the series finale was viewed by an estimated 5.69 million viewers, preceded by an hour-long series retrospective. Greg Daniels served as the senior series showrunner for the first four seasons of the series and developed the British Office series for American television.
He left the position when he co-created the comedy series Parks and Recreation with fellow Office writer Michael Schur and divided his time between the two series. Paul Lieberstein and Jennifer Celotta were named the series showrunners for the fifth season. Celotta left the series after the sixth season and Lieberstein stayed on as showrunner for the following two seasons, he left the showrunner spot after the eighth season for the potential Dwight Schrute spin-off, The Farm, passed up by NBC. Daniels returned to the showrunner position for the final season. Other executive producers include cast members B. J. Novak and Mindy Kaling. Kaling, Daniels and Schur made up the original team of writers. Kaling and Lieberstein serve multiple roles on the series, as they play regular characters on the show, as well as write and produce episodes. Credited with twenty-four episodes, Kaling is the most prolific writer among the staff. Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant, who created the original British series, are credited as executive producer and wrote the pilot and the third-season episode, "The Convict."
Merchant directed the episode "Customer Survey" while Gervais appeared in the episodes "The Seminar" and "Search Committee."Randall Einhorn is the most frequent director of the series, with 15 credited episodes. The series had several guest directors, including Lost co-creator J. J. Abrams, Buffy the Vampire Slayer creator Joss Whedon, both of whom are fans of the series, filmmakers Jon Favreau, Harold Ramis, Jason Reitman, Marc Webb. Episodes have been directed by several of the actors on the show including Steve Carell, John Krasinski, Rainn Wilson, Ed Helms, Brian Baumgartner. Prior to the second episode airing, the writers spent time conducting research in offices; this process was used for Recreation. The pilot is a direct adaptation of the first episode of the original British series. Daniels chose to go this route because "completely starting from scratch would be a risky thing to do" owing to the show being an adaptation, he had considered using the idea for "The Dundies" as the pilot episode.
After the writers knew who the cast was, they were allowed to write for the actors, which allowed the show to be more original for the following episode, "Diversity Day". Following the mixed reaction toward the first season, the writers attempted to make the series more "optimistic" and to make Michael Scott more likable, they established the supporting characters of the series more, giving them actual personalities. They made the lights in the office brighter, which allowed the series to differentiate itself from the British series. A common problem with the scripts, according to Novak, is that they tended to run too long for the regular 22-minute time slot, leading to several cuts. For example, the script for the episode "Search Committee" was 75 pages, 10 pages too long. A complete script was written for each episode. Fischer said, "Our shows are 100 percent scripted, they put everything down on paper. But we get to play around a little bit, too. Steve and Rainn are brilliant improvisers." These improvisations lead to a large number of deleted scenes with every episode of The Office, all of which are considered part of the show's canon and storyline by Daniels.
Deleted scenes have sometimes been restored in repeats to make episodes longer or draw back peop
Macy's West was a longtime division of Macy's, Inc. representing one of the New York-based department store chain's earliest notable acquisitions and westward expansions. Headquartered in San Francisco, this particular group of Macy's store locations included 258 sites by February 2, 2009, when the company announced plans to consolidate all Macy's divisions into a single division based in New York; the consolidation became effective during the second quarter of 2009. The division contained locations in Arizona, Colorado, Hawaii, Montana, New Mexico, western Texas, Utah and Wyoming, incorporating a mix of acquired chains and newly built stores; when it was consolidated, Macy's West was headed by Chairman Jeffrey Gennette, President Robert B. Harrison, Vice Chairman and Director of Stores Rudolph J. Borneo; as of February 2, 2009, the total gross square feet of the Macy's West stores totaled 40.331 million, employing 46,700 individuals. Macy's West was established in San Francisco, California in 1866 as O'Connor, Kean Co. at Second & Market Streets moving into several buildings on south Post Street, between Grant Avenue and Kearny Street, where it rebuilt after surviving the 1906 San Francisco earthquake.
In 1928, the company, by known as O'Connor, Moffat & Co. commissioned a new location at 101 Stockton Street. R. H. Macy & Company, New York, New York acquired O'Connor Moffat in 1945 and on October 16, 1947 renamed the store Macy's San Francisco. Macy's followed up with a major expansion of the store at 170 O'Farrell Street in 1948, using the original architect of the 1928 building, Louis Parson Hobart. Macy's Northern California expansion began in 1952 when it purchased a small San Rafael based department store named Albert's. Albert's had a location on Fourth street in downtown San Rafael, another in Richmond. Both of these were small in size and did not carry a full line of merchandise. In 1954 Macy's built its first full-line Northern California branch at Hillsdale Shopping Center in San Mateo, California. After that, the company expanded throughout Northern California the San Francisco Bay Area, but opening stores in Sacramento, Fresno and Modesto in the 1960s and 1970s. Along the way, the newly renamed Macy's California ventured into shopping center development with Valley Fair in San Jose and Bayfair in San Leandro.
In 1971, the San Francisco store pioneered the cellar as the marketing concept for its housewares department, in the basement. The brand has spread to all housewares departments at all Macy's stores, although not all such stores have a basement in which the department can be physically sited. In 1978, Macy's expanded into Nevada with a new store in Nevada. In 1984, four complementary locations were acquired from Liberty House, including Liberty House's own O'Farrell & Stockton flagship built in 1974, which became Macy's Men's Store. In 1986 R. H. Macy's management team led a buyout of the company. Concurrently, Macy's California began to seek locations in Southern California; these plans were put on hold after Macy's purchased the Bullock's, Bullocks Wilshire and I. Magnin organizations from Campeau Corp. in 1988. Campeau had bested Macy's own attempted acquisition of Federated Department Stores and sold these California divisions to Macy's as part of their settlement. I. Magnin, whose San Francisco flagship adjoined Macy's, was consolidated with Bullocks Wilshire to form an autonomous specialty-department store subdivision under Macy's California.
Many of I. Magnin's smaller, dated locations were shuttered and in 1989 the Bullocks Wilshire stores assumed the I. Magnin name. In a test case, the I. Magnin at South Coast Plaza in Costa Mesa, California was converted to a stand-alone Bullock's Men's store in 1991; the traditional Bullock's department stores were operated as part of the new Macy's South/Bullock's division based in Atlanta, but in late 1991 R. H. Macy announced plans to re-aligned its divisional structure and create a new Macy's West/Bullock's in 1992. On January 27, 1992 R. H. Macy & Co. declared bankruptcy. During the next two years, as Macy's reorganized, the Macy's West division continued to expand, opening a location at Mall of America in late 1992, in addition to assuming the management of the Bullock's stores and the Macy's locations in Texas. Bullock's closed locations in Lakewood, La Mesa and Santa Ana, California at this time, while the I. Magnin group shuttered eleven more stores of its dwindling franchise; the historic Bullocks Wilshire store closed in early 1993.
In 1994 Federated Department Stores reached agreement with R. H. Macy's creditors to buy the company out of bankruptcy court, completing the acquisition in December 1994 and making Macy's West/Bullock's a division of Federated. Before the acquisition closed, Federated announced the closure of the remaining I. Magnin stores selling four stores to Saks Fifth Avenue and converting six former I. Magnin locations in Palo Alto, Walnut Creek, Woodland Hills, Palm Desert, Newport Beach and Palos Verdes to specialty Macy's or Bullock's locations; the upper floors of the former I. Magnin store on Union Square were converted to an expansion of Macy's West own adjoining flagship. Federated shuttered the sole remaining Arizona Bullock's store in Scottsdale at Camelview Shopping Center in early 1995. In late summer 1995, Federated reached an agreement with Broadway Stores, Inc.'s controlling-shareholder, Chicago-based financier Sam Zell, to buy that company. Broadway Stores was the post-bankruptcy successor of Carter Hawley Hale Stores, a Los Angeles-headquartered company that at one time ow
The Metreon is a shopping center located in downtown San Francisco at the corner of 4th Street and Mission Street. It is a four-story 350,000 square foot building built over the corner of the underground Moscone Center convention center. Metreon opened on June 16, 1999, as the first of a proposed chain of Sony "urban entertainment centers", aggregating dining, music, exhibitions and movies. Sony intended the ambitious 85 million dollar project to be not only a theme park and gallery for Sony products but a way to reinforce a sophisticated image for the Sony brand. In 2006 Metreon was sold to Westfield, a mall developer, it was refashioned as a food-oriented mall. In 2011, with few exceptions, remaining businesses in the mall were closed. Westfield began a major renovation with an emphasis on dining, including Target creating a large downtown department store that now takes up the second floor. In April, 2012, the Westfield sold the Metreon to Starwood Capital Group. Westfield continues to be responsible for management.
The Metreon's original attractions included a movie theater including both standard and IMAX screens, a multimedia edutainment presentation involving audio-animatronics and 3-D film based on the famous book The Way Things Work by David Macaulay, a play area for young children based on Maurice Sendak's popular children's book Where the Wild Things Are, an arcade and bar, the Airtight Garage, based on French comic artist and graphic designer Jean "Moebius" Giraud's graphic novel of the same name and featuring all original games. In October 2001 Metreon, in partnership with Sony's anime television network, was host to an anime festival, in which numerous anime titles were broadcast across its Action Theatre; as a hub for Sony products, the Metreon hosted special events for the public when new products were released. Consumers flocked to the Metreon for high-demand items such as the PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable and PlayStation 3. Although Sony opened two additional centers in Tokyo and Berlin in 1999, the original center failed to turn the expected profit.
Despite promising first-year foot traffic of six million, one million ahead of pre-launch projections, by the summer of 2001 "The Way Things Work" was closed. The other major exhibit, "Where the Wild Things Are," closed sometime after July 2004; the Airtight Garage's games proved unpopular, with the exception of HyperBowl, a 3D obstacle course bowling game featuring air-supported bowling balls used as trackballs, they were replaced by other, better-known games, until the arcade was closed reopened as "Portal One," which preserved the decor, full bar, Hyperbowl but was otherwise a more typical arcade. Sunday May 13, 2007 was Portal One arcade's last day of operation; the arcade was relaunched again as a Tilt. The 16-screen Loews theater was a success, becoming one of the most profitable theaters in the country and claiming much of the Metreon foot traffic. By 2002, there were persistent rumors. In February 2006, Metreon was sold to The Westfield Group, the owner of the nearby Westfield San Francisco Centre shopping mall, Forest City Enterprises, a real estate development company.
In early 2009, Sony announced that it would be closing the Sony and PlayStation stores, the last flagship stores located in the mall. Following the announcement, on March 3, 2009, the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency approved plans from owners Westfield Group and Forest City Enterprises to renovate Metreon into a "restaurant-centric" mall. Expected modifications include relocation of the Fourth and Mission street entrance to the center of the block and the installation of a food terrace facing Yerba Buena Gardens; the San Francisco Filipino Cultural Center and the "Tavern on the Green" restaurant were projected tenants. Tavern on the Green, entered bankruptcy on September 11, 2009, "throwing into doubt" the plans for the Metreon location. A seven-day-a-week farmers' market operated as an interim tenant in the former Discovery Channel Store space between May and November 2009, it closed in November 2009. The Metreon building has been redeveloped as a Target store, opened in October 2012. Target is leasing 99,677 square feet.
Other tenants are the AMC theater, now with its own entrance, a food court, Chronicle Books, Massage Envy, National University, The City View event space, various other food purveyors not directly in the court. The Sanraku sushi restaurant and Buckhorn sandwich shop remain in the new food court, along with Jillians, now only accessible from outside; the movie theater has experienced upgrades, with the IMAX auditorium now featuring their new laser projector, the addition of Dolby Cinema and recliner seats. The Metreon 16, an IMAX 3D movie theater and Dolby Cinema theater operated by AMC Theatres, Jillians, a restaurant, are the only attractions remaining open as Target moves in; the Metreon was home to the Walk of Game, loosely based on the Walk of Fame — honorees include Shigeru Miyamoto, Nolan Bushnell, StarCraft, Sid Meier, John D. Carmack, Super Mario, Sonic The Hedgehog, Link from The Legend of Zelda series. A special Walk of Game event took place there in 2005 and 2006, it was unknown that it would continue and is now most obsolete, now that Target is taking up the second floor where the Walk of Game was.
Official website Island Earth Farmers' Market Website Sarkar, Pia. "Metreon gets new lease on life: Purchase by Westfield and Forest City ad
Westfield Culver City
Westfield Culver City, is a shopping mall in Culver City, owned by the Westfield Group. Its anchor stores are Best Buy, J. C. Penney, Macy's, Nordstrom Rack, Target. Westfield America, Inc. a precursor to Westfield Group, acquired the shopping center in 1998 and renamed it "Westfield Shoppingtown Fox Hills", dropping the "Shoppingtown" name in June 2005. The former Robinsons-May department store closed in 2006 and was demolished in 2008 for a new wing including Target and a Best Buy store in 2009. A transit center is located in the mall's parking lot, served by Culver City Transit Bus routes 2, 3, 4, 6; the Santa Monica Big Blue Bus routes 12, 14 and Metro Local Bus routes 108, 110, 217, 358. Opened on October 5, 1975, Fox Hills Mall was one of the first 3-level malls in California. Gruen Associates were the project architects. Situated on a 50-acre site, the Mall opened with three anchor tenants: JC Penney, The Broadway and May Co. and nearly 92% initial occupancy. Notable elements of its original design were a glass-and-steel "theme" staircase in the center of the mall, as well as the angled bridges which connected the multiple levels.
The theme staircase was removed during the 2009 renovation. Los Angeles food critic Jonathan Gold gave the mall food court a complimentary review that highlighted the ethnic diversity of the food choices available: "After 60-odd years in Los Angeles, the city that invented the modern shopping center, a developer gets it... Fox Hills has always been among the most multiracial of Los Angeles malls, downhill from the posh African-American homes of Baldwin Hills and Ladera Heights, close to the Asian and Muslim enclaves of south Culver City, in proximity to Westchester and the Marina and Playa del Rey...... Brilliant: not quite, but other mall operators would do well to pay attention." Macy's J. C. Penney Nordstrom Rack Target Trader Joe's Best Buy Westfield Group official Westfield Culver City website Kinney Shoe store commercial taped in Fox Hills Mall Fox Hills Mall Opens in Culver City, Dick Turpin, Los Angeles Times, October 1975
Westfield Valley Fair
Westfield Valley Fair known as Valley Fair, is an upscale shopping mall in San Jose, California, in Silicon Valley, owned by Unibail-Rodamco-Westfield. It is located on Stevens Creek Boulevard in San Jose and Santa Clara, one of Silicon Valley's premier shopping streets and nearby Santana Row. Westfield Valley Fair is one of the largest malls in the United States and has the highest-sales volume in California, with $1,150 per square foot; the shopping center consists of 273 stores, a seventeen-outlet food court, nine restaurants, three department stores. Westfield Valley Fair is unique in; the original Valley Fair Shopping Center, opened in 1956, was confined to the eastern side of the property in San Jose. It was developed and anchored by Macy's and included 40 other stores including Joseph Magnin in an outdoor plaza. At the western side was another outdoor shopping center, Stevens Creek Plaza in Santa Clara, it was anchored by The Emporium and I. Magnin. For that reason, the current mall contributes sales tax revenues to both the cities of San Jose and Santa Clara, is regulated by both city governments.
In 1986, both centers were acquired and merged into one two-level enclosed mall by The Hahn Company, creating one of the most successful shopping centers in the country, called "Valley Fair". Nordstrom joined in 1987, with I. Magnin closing its store in 1992; the former Emporium store became a second Macy's location in 1996, housing Macy's Men's & Home Store. The former I. Magnin housed a succession of tenants, its final one being Sports Authority, its building sits vacant, it will be demolished, along with the former Old Navy building, as part of the mall's upcoming expansion. In 1998, Westfield America, Inc. a predecessor of the Westfield Group and The Rouse Company acquired Valley Fair jointly from Hahn. Westfield bought out Rouse in 1999 and brought in an institutional investment partner to share its investment risk in this high-profile property. In 1998 the property was renamed Westfield Shoppingtown Valley Fair. Nordstrom replaced its location in 2001 during the grand opening of a new $165 million, two-phase redevelopment.
The former Nordstrom reopened as additional mall retail space in the second phase in 2002. Westfield discontinued the "Shoppingtown" moniker in 2005. A major remodel of the center commenced in 2013, bringing the mall a revamped "Dining Terrace" with local concepts alongside national chains, a major reshuffling of tenants. Nordstrom was extensively remodeled, adding two new restaurant concepts and a revamped store design; the mall's lower level Nordstrom wing was reconfigured into a "Luxury Collection", with new luxury tenants like Balenciaga, Saint Laurent Paris, Bottega Veneta, Giorgio Armani, Tory Burch, Salvatore Ferragamo, Prada joining existing tenants Louis Vuitton and Tiffany & Co.. In 2012, San Jose raised its minimum wage to $10 USD an hour, but Santa Clara did not, leading to what the NPR Planet Money team dubbed "A Mall Divided," where workers on one side of the mall were being paid $2 less than the other side. A Gap clothing store located on the two city lines was required to either account for how long its employees spent in each city or raise its wages for all employees to the San Jose minimum wage.
In 2007 Westfield announced major expansion plans which would increase the gross leaseable area to over 2,000,000 square feet, adding anchor stores Bloomingdale's and Neiman Marcus, 100 shops, a 3000 space parking structure. Westfield was granted approval for the expansion by the city of San Jose in November 2007, it was to be completed by September 2011. However, the expansion was put on hold in 2008 due to the global recession. In Spring of 2015, Westfield unveiled new plans for a $900 million expansion: A three-level, 150,000 square foot Bloomingdale's department store A new retail building with a PIRCH home furnishings store at ground level and a Showplace ICON luxury cinema above 265,000 square feet of new interior shop space, adding 100+ new stores An outdoor dining promenade fronting Stevens Creek Boulevard More than 3,000 new parking spaces Relocation of the Chase and Bank of America banksConstruction of the expansion began in 2016, with the new parking garage being completed in Fall of 2016.
The expansion will be complete by April 2019. Media related to Westfield Valley Fair at Wikimedia Commons Official website at Westfield History of Valley Fair Shopping Center Valley Fair Expansion Project at the Wayback Machine New Westfield Valley Fair Redevelopment Project