Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 2-4-2 represents the wheel arrangement of two leading wheels on one axle, four powered and coupled driving wheels on two axles and two trailing wheels on one axle. The type is sometimes named Columbia after a Baldwin 2-4-2 locomotive was showcased at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held at Chicago, Illinois; the wheel arrangement was used on passenger tank locomotives during the last three decades of the nineteenth and the first decade of the twentieth centuries. The vast majority of 2-4-2 locomotives were tank engines, designated 2-4-2T; the symmetrical wheel arrangement was well suited for a tank locomotive, used to work in either direction. When the leading and trailing wheels are in swivelling trucks, the equivalent UIC classification is 1'B1'. While a number of 2-4-2 tender locomotives were built, larger tender locomotive types soon became dominant. In 1899, the Walvis Bay Railway in the British territory of Walvis Bay, a Cape of Good Hope exclave in Deutsch-Südwest-Afrika, placed a single tank locomotive in service.
The engine, named Hope and built by Kerr and Company, remained in service until 1904 when operations on the railway were suspended. The line was abandoned in 1905 as a result of being buried by a sandstorm. A 2-4-2 tank locomotive, built by Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1899 and used on the private Raahe track in Finland, was bought by the Finnish State Railways. In 1877, when the New Zealand Railways needed new motive power, the road turned to the Rogers Locomotive Works who supplied eight 2-4-2 tender locomotives between 1877 and 1879 that were designated the "K" class; these proved to be quite successful. Three of these locomotives have been preserved. No. K88 Washington was used on the first through train between Christchurch and Dunedin in 1877. After fifty years of service, Washington was dumped in the Oreti River, Southland, as a flood protection measure. In 1974, the locomotive was exhumed from her watery grave and, over the next eight years, restored to full active service. Sister locomotives numbers K92 and K94 have been salvaged from the Oreti river.
No. K92 has been restored to full active service and has re-established her position on the Kingston Flyer train, made famous by the K class at the end of the 19th century; the earliest British use of the 2-4-2 wheel arrangement appears to have been no. 21 White Raven, supplied to the St Helens Railway by James Cross of Sutton Works in 1863. It was soon rebuilt as a 2-4-0 tender locomotive and passed into the stock of the London and North Western Railway. In 1864, Robert Sinclair of the Great Eastern Railway designed the first of six 2-4-2 tank classes built by the railway totalling 262 locomotives by 1912. Francis Webb of the London and North Western Railway designed two 2-4-2 classes which totaled 380 locomotives, built between 1879 and 1898. Other railway companies that built large numbers of the type included the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway with 330 locomotives built between 1889 and 1911, the North Eastern Railway with 60 locomotives built between 1886 and 1892 and the Manchester and Lincolnshire Railway with 49 locomotives built between 1889 and 1898.
One of John Aspinall's Class 5 locomotives, built for the L&YR in 1889, is preserved at the National Railway Museum, York. The character Sammy from Sammy the Shunter is based on the United Kingdom design of the 2-4-2 engine. Two characters in the 1991 film The Little Engine That Could have this type of wheel arrangement. Albert from The Railway Series has this wheel arrangement; the Lionel Corporation used the 2-4-2 configuration in numerous of its O-27 locomotives. In the United States of America, this may be the most famous usage of a 2-4-2 configuration locomotive
The Strand Station
"Auckland Railway Station" redirects here. For the current suburban train terminus in Auckland, see Britomart Transport Centre; the Strand Station referred to as Auckland Strand Station, is a railway station located on the eastern edge of the Auckland CBD. It serves as the northern terminus of the Northern Explorer long-distance service between Auckland and Wellington, operated by The Great Journeys of New Zealand. Suburban services do not pass through the station, but it can serve as a backup for Britomart Transport Centre, the city's main railway station since 2003, during times of disruption; the Auckland Railway Station was opened in 1930 on Beach Road, replacing the previous railway terminus, on the Queen Street site where Britomart now exists. The 1930 station was the third to serve as the rail terminus for Auckland, remained the sole station serving the CBD until its closure in July 2003, when Britomart became the new terminus; the Strand Station uses some of the platforms that were retained when the Auckland Railway Station building closed.
The original Platform 7 was retained for excursion use as'The Strand Station', named after the nearby street. It continued to be used by a limited number of peak-hour suburban trains for a few months following the opening of Britomart. Following this, the platforms remained abandoned until August 2011 when two platforms were re-developed to prepare the station for possible use during Rugby World Cup 2011, although they were never used for that purpose; these platforms have been used for Northern Explorer services from December 2015 onwards. The Auckland Railway Station was built by the New Zealand Public Works Department between 1928 and 1930 and sits on reclaimed land on Beach Road close to the wharves, it replaced a smaller terminal on the site of Britomart. The grand and ornate building was intended to serve as a gateway to the city, its construction cost of £320,000 was the largest independent contract awarded in New Zealand, it has great historical importance for its associations with the public building programme of the 1920s, with the central role played by the railways in national transport.
The Auckland Railway Station building has been a city landmark from the time it was opened in 1930, is a grand architectural statement in beaux-arts brick and mortar, having been called "one of the most self-consciously monumental public buildings erected in early twentieth-century New Zealand". The building was designed by William Henry Gummer, a student of Sir Edwin Lutyens and architect of various notable New Zealand buildings such as the Dilworth Building in Queen Street; the symmetrical facade of the three storey-high building was constructed of reinforced concrete, faced with brick and granite. It is approached by a sweeping ramp on either side of the building, enclosing a landscaped garden to the front; the building's design echoed American models, such as Union Station in Washington, D. C. and Pennsylvania Station in New York City, considered the most striking and luxurious examples of the time. It has been favourably compared with Grand Central Terminal, in New York City as well, the National Theatre in Melbourne.
The station was given ornate public spaces and a wide variety of amenities, from waiting and dining rooms to shops and a first aid station. Of particular interest is the magnificent metal ceiling in the main lobby, this item was manufactured in Germany and the parts shipped out and reassembled to create one of the most remarkable structures in the country; the looming threat of German aggression meant that its origins were downplayed and obscured. The rest of the lobby is a showpiece of expensive imported marble and fine bronze detailing with a beautiful terazzo floor; the fine detailing extended to the restrooms with imported panelling, light fittings, period-style furniture and porcelain sanitaryware. Underpasses and ramps linked the station building with an extended platform network to the rear, built with elegant concrete canopies and other elements as integral parts of the original design and function. With modifications, the building was used as the main point of arrival for rail passengers in Auckland for most of the century.
The station building was sold during the privatisation of part of the New Zealand Railways Corporation during the 1990s because of the impending construction of Britomart Transport Centre, which would become the new railway station for the city centre. Although sold, the station remained open until July 2003. A single platform remained in use to serve a limited number of peak-hour suburban services which continued to operate for several months after the opening of Britomart. In the decade that followed, the platform was used by excursion trains although, along with the rest of the platforms, it became dilapidated. In 1999 the station building was converted for use as student accommodation for Auckland University and named The Railway Campus, it was the largest of the university's residences, had 426 bedrooms, in a total of 230 apartments. The residence was awarded four stars by Qualmark in the Student Accommodation category, which evaluated the facilities as well as the level of pastoral care and support for students, was accredited by the New Zealand Association of Tertiary Education Accommodation Professionals.
In 2007, major weather-tightness problems appeared. Tenants were required to leave; the effect of the water leaks on the prices of the apartments in the complex was marked – while the high price in the early 1990s was $160,000, apartments sold for a nominal sale price as low as $12,800 as owners extricated themselves
Paekakariki railway station
Paekakariki railway station in Paekakariki on the Kapiti Coast, New Zealand is an intermediate station on the Kapiti Line for Metlink's electric multiple unit commuter trains from Wellington. Paekakariki was the terminal station of the commuter service from 1940 to 1983, when the service was extended to Paraparaumu, to Waikanae in 2011; the station was opened in 1886. Banking locomotives were attached at Paekakariki for the steep "hill" up to Pukerua Bay, steam locomotives were changed there for electric locomotives to Wellington from 1940 to the 1960s; the large wooden station building on an island platform is used by a museum, has a bookshop run by Irving Lipshaw and Michael O’Leary in one section. There are a level crossing at the south end. Steam Incorporated has taken over most of the rail yard for rail preservation. Several buildings are listed by the New Zealand Historic Places Trust: Category I; the station and yard is a historic area. Paekakariki is the second station before Waikanae, the northern terminus on the Kapiti Line, for commuter trains operated by Transdev Wellington under the Metlink brand contracted to the Greater Wellington Regional Council.
Services between Wellington and Porirua or Waikanae are operated by electric multiple units of the FT/FP class. Two diesel-hauled carriage trains, the Capital Connection and the Northern Explorer, pass through the station but do not stop. Travel times by train are fourteen minutes to Waikanae, fifteen minutes to Porirua, forty-six minutes to Wellington for trains stopping at all stations, forty-one minutes for express trains that do not stop between Porirua and Wellington. Trains run every twenty minutes during daytime off-peak hours, more during peak periods, less at night. Before July 2018, off-peak passenger train services between Wellington and Waikanae ran every thirty minutes but were increased to one every twenty minutes from 15 July 2018. Off-peak trains stop at all stations between Waikanae. During peak periods, some trains from Wellington that stop at all stations may terminate at Porirua and return to Wellington while a number of peak services run express or non-stop between Wellington and Porirua before stopping at all stations from Porirua to Waikanae.
All services running between Waikanae and Wellington stop at Paekakariki. KiwiRail Scenic carriage trains and diesel-hauled KiwiRail freight trains pass by the station but do not stop, except that southbound freight trains may stop to attach banking engines; the railway from Wellington to Paekakariki opened on 3 November 1886 as part of the Wellington-Manawatu Line built by the Wellington and Manawatu Railway Company. Before 1905, the name was spelt Paikakariki. Following the completion of the Tawa Flat deviation on 19 June 1937, electrification of the railway from Wellington to Paekakariki was completed on 24 July 1940 allowing electric locomotive-hauled commuters carriage trains to operate between Wellington and Paekakaiki. DM/D class multiple units were introduced in the 1950s and replaced most locomotive-hauled carriage trains. From the completion of the electrification to Paekakariki in 1940, steam locomotives were not permitted to work south of Paekakariki due to the smoke nuisance in the long tunnels on the Tawa Flat deviation.
Long-distance passenger and freight trains were hauled by ED electric locomotives between Wellington and Paekakariki where the locomotives were changed from electric to steam. During the 1950s, steam locomotives were progressively replaced by diesel-electric locomotives for long distance trains, but locomotives continued to be changed at Paekakariki because the new DA class diesel locomotives were unable to operate south of Paekakariki due to the limited clearances in the tunnels between Pukerua Bay and Paekakariki. Work was undertaken to lower the floors of these tunnels to improve clearances and from the 1960s diesel locomotives were able to work south of Paekakariki and locomotive changes at Paekakariki became unnecessary. However, electric locomotives were kept at Paekakariki to bank trains that needed assistance on the steep grade from Paekakariki to Pukerua Bay. In the 1980s, the purchase of additional multiple units and more powerful diesel locomotives allowed the electric locomotives to be withdrawn from service.
Electrification was extended north of Paekakariki to Paraparaumu, the section opened on 7 May 1983 allowing the extension of suburban commuter service to Paraparaumu which became the new northern terminal for suburban commuter services. Before 1983 there were buses from Paekakariki to Raumati; the station had a refreshment room and a steam locomotive depot. The refreshment room closed when it became unnecessary to stop trains to change locomotives at Paekakariki. Locomotives were changed or a banker locomotive added for the steep bank up to Pukerua Bay, from 1940 it was the southern terminal station for steam locomotives. There was a signal box at each end of the station, a two-road shed with water and oil facilities, a turntable, a rail/air freight depot for Paraparaumu Airport; the Paekakariki Station Precinct Trust works "to acquire and administer the venue of the Railway Station Precinct at Paekakariki for recreational, historical preservation and educational purposes, for other allied or supporting activity".
Paekakariki Station Museum Photo Paekakariki station and houses, 1910 Photo Paekakariki station and houses, 1920s Photo Paekakariki station yard, unloading timber for US forces camp at McKays Crossing, 1942 Paikakariki Railway Station, from the Cyclopaedia of New Zealand, 1897
The Waimakariri River briefly known as the Courtenay River, is one of the largest of the North Canterbury rivers, in the South Island of New Zealand. It flows for 151 kilometres in a southeastward direction from the Southern Alps across the Canterbury Plains to the Pacific Ocean. In Māori, Waimakariri has several meanings, one of, "river of cold rushing water"; the river is known colloquially in Canterbury as "The Waimak". The river rises on the eastern flanks of the Southern Alps, eight kilometres southwest of Arthur's Pass. For much of its upper reaches, the river is braided, with wide shingle beds; as the river approaches the Canterbury Plains, it passes through a belt of mountains, is forced into a narrow canyon, before reverting to its braided form for its passage across the plains. It enters the Pacific north of Christchurch, near the town of Kaiapoi. In 1849, the chief surveyor of the Canterbury Association, Joseph Thomas, gave the river the name Courtenay River after Lord Courtenay, but it lapsed into disuse.
Geological evidence indicates that the river mouth has been mobile, at times flowing through the current location of Christchurch and flowing into Lake Ellesmere / Te Waihora south of Banks Peninsula for a time. Instead of being unoccupied crown land as are most New Zealand river beds, the bed of the Waimakariri River is vested in the Canterbury Regional Council. Chinook salmon were introduced from California in the persist today. In 1923 the river was investigated for a hydroelectric dam to supply electricity to Christchurch, it received support from the community but the dam was never built since the Government offered inexpensive electricity from the Lake Coleridge scheme. The Central Plains Water Trust is proposing to take 40 cubic metres per second of water from two points on the Waimakariri River as part of the Central Plains Water enhancement scheme. In 2007 the Waimakariri was ranked as one of the ten most polluted of the larger rivers in New Zealand; some of the pollution was caused by liquid wastes from industries such as a meat processing plant and wool scourers in the vicinity of the river.
The wastes were discharged directly into it but as of 2012 it was piped to the municipal sewage treatment plant. There had been some non-compliance issues with the resource consents for water discharge. Waimakariri River Regional Plan at Environment Canterbury The Waimakariri River as a water resource. Dalmer, 1971
Urban rail transit
Urban rail transit is an all-encompassing term for various types of local rail systems providing passenger service within and around urban or suburban areas. The set of urban rail systems can be subdivided into the following categories, which sometimes overlap because some systems or lines have aspects of multiple types. A tram, streetcar or trolley system is a rail-based transit system that runs or along streets, with a low capacity and frequent stops. Passengers board at street- or curb-level, although low-floor trams may allow level boarding. Longer-distance lines are called radial railways. Few interurbans remain, most having been abandoned; the term "tram" is used in most parts of the world. In North America, these systems are referred to as "streetcar" or "trolley" systems. A light rail system is a rail-based transit system that has higher capacity and speed than a tram by operating in an exclusive right-of-way separated from automobile traffic, but, not grade-separated from other traffic like rapid transit is.
Light rail generally operates with multiple unit trains rather than single tramcars. It emerged as an evolution of trams/streetcars. Light rail systems vary in terms of speed and capacity, they range from improved tram systems to systems that are rapid transit but with some level crossings. The term "light rail" is the most common term used, though German systems are called "Stadtbahn". A rapid transit, subway, elevated, metro or Mass Rapid Transit system is a railway—usually in an urban area—with high passenger capacities and frequency of service, full grade separation from other traffic, it is known as "heavy rail" to distinguish it from light rail and bus rapid transit. In most parts of the world these systems are known as a "metro", short for "metropolitan"; the term "subway" is used in many American systems as well as in Toronto. The system in London uses the terms "underground" and "tube". Systems in Germany are called "U-Bahn", which stands for "Untergrundbahn". Many systems in East and Southeast Asia such as Taipei and Singapore are called MRT which stands for Mass Rapid Transit.
Systems which are predominantly elevated may be referred to as "L" as in Chicago or "Skytrain", as in Bangkok and Vancouver. Other less common names include "T-bane" and "MTR". A monorail is a railway in which the track consists of a single rail, as opposed to the traditional track with two parallel rails. A commuter rail, regional rail, suburban rail or local rail system operates on mainline trackage which may be shared with intercity rail and freight trains. Systems tend to operate at lower frequencies than rapid transit or light rail systems, but tend to travel at higher speeds and cover longer distances. Though many European and East Asian commuter rail systems operate with frequencies and rolling stock similar to that of rapid transit, they do not qualify as such because they share tracks with intercity/freight trains or have at grade crossings. For example, S-trains are hybrid systems combining the characteristics of rapid transit and commuter rail systems. S-trains share tracks with mainline passenger and freight trains but distances between stations and service headway resemble Metro systems.
A funicular is a cable-driven inclined railway that uses the weight of descending cars to help pull the ascending cars up the slope. A cable car in the context of mass transit is a system using rail cars that are hauled by a continuously moving cable running at a constant speed. Individual cars start by releasing and gripping this cable as required. Cable cars are distinct from funiculars, where the cars are permanently attached to the cable and cable railways, which are similar to funiculars, but the rail vehicles are attached and detached manually. Transit agencies' names for lines do not reflect their technical categorization. For example, Boston's Green Line is referred to despite having street-running portions. Conversely, the Docklands Light Railway in London, Green Line in Los Angeles and some metro lines in China are referred to as "Light Rail" though they qualify as rapid transit because they are grade-separated and provide a high frequency of service. Many cities use names such as subway and elevated railway to describe their entire systems when they combine both methods of operation.
Less than half of the London Underground's tracks, for example, are underground. A bus does not run on rails. Trolleybuses are buses. Vehicles that can travel both on rails and on roads have been tried experimentally, but are not in common use; the term bus rapid transit is used to refer to various methods of providing faster bus services and the systems which use it have similar characteristics to light rail. Some cities experimenting with guided bus technologies, such as Nancy, have chosen to refer to them as'trams on tyres' and given them tram-like appearances. In a 2006 article, political scientist Ted Balaker and urban planner Cecilia Juong Kim say that public rail transit provides certain benefits for a community, but say the goals of policymakers are not met. They
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives by wheel arrangement, 4-4-2 represents a configuration of four leading wheels on two axles in a leading bogie with a single pivot point, four powered and coupled driving wheels on two axles, two trailing wheels on one axle in a trailing truck which supports part of the weight of the boiler and firebox and gives the class its main improvement over the 4-4-0 configuration. This wheel arrangement is known as the Atlantic type, although it is sometimes called a Milwaukee or 4-4-2 Milwaukee, after the Milwaukee Road, which employed it in high speed passenger working. While the wheel arrangement and type name Atlantic would come to fame in the fast passenger service competition between railroads in the United States by mid-1895, the tank locomotive version of the 4-4-2 Atlantic type first made its appearance in the United Kingdom in 1880, when William Adams designed the 1 Class 4-4-2T of the London and Southend Railway; the 4-4-2T is the tank locomotive equivalent of a 4-4-0 American type tender locomotive, but with the frame extended to allow for a fuel bunker behind the cab.
This necessitated the addition of a trailing truck to support the additional weight at the rear end of the locomotive. As such, the tank version of the 4-4-2 wheel arrangement appeared earlier than the tender version; the tender version of the 4-4-2 originated in the United States of America, evolving from the less stable 2-4-2 Columbia type wheel arrangement, was built for mainline passenger express services. One advantage of the type over its predecessor 4-4-0 American type was that the trailing wheels allowed a larger and deeper firebox to be placed behind the driving wheels; the first use of the 4-4-2 wheel arrangement for a tender locomotive was under an experimental double-firebox locomotive, built to the design of George Strong at the Hinkley Locomotive Works in 1888. The locomotive was scrapped soon afterwards; the wheel arrangement was named after the second North American 4-4-2 tender locomotive class, built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1894 for use on the Atlantic City line of the Philadelphia and Reading Railway.
Baldwin's ideas on 4-4-2 tender locomotives were soon copied in the United Kingdom by Henry Ivatt of the Great Northern Railway with his GNR Class C1 Klondyke Atlantic of 1898. These were followed by John Aspinall's Class 7, known as the High-Flyer, for the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway; the first European Atlantic locomotive type was the Austro-Hungarian IId class of the Kaiser Ferdinands-Nordbahn. It was built from 1895 and became the 308 class on the Imperial Royal State Railways, it was followed from 1901 by the XVIb class of the Austrian Northwestern Railway that became the kkStB class 208, by the kkStB 108 class. They were not numerous, though. All three classes together numbered a little more than one hundred locomotives. Apart from the Austrian locomotives, the Hungarian State Railways operated some Atlantic classes. In 1939, the National Railway Company of Belgium introduced six Class 12 streamlined Atlantic locomotives on the fast lightweight boat trains that ran on the 124 kilometres line between Brussels and Ostend.
Designed by Raoul Notesse to be capable of speeds of 120 to 140 kilometres per hour and based on the successful Canadian Pacific Railway 4-4-4 Jubilee type semi-streamlined locomotives, but incorporating the ideas on streamlining of André Huet, they were built by John Cockerill at Seraing. They were streamlined, except for openings to provide access to the valve gear and motion, had inside cylinders with outside valve gear to reduce oscillation at speed; the class remained in service until 1962. The Atlantic, known in Germany as the 2'B1' wheel arrangement, enjoyed some short-lived popularity in the German states. Between 1902 and 1906, the S 7 class of the Prussian state railways was built to two competing designs, 159 locomotives to the design of August von Borries and 79 locomotives to that of Alfred de Glehn. Between 1908 and 1910, Hanomag built 99 Prussian S 9 locomotives. All were four-cylinder compound engines working on saturated steam; the Prussian Atlantics were withdrawn shortly after the First World War and some were given to France and Poland.
Atlantics were adopted in some other German states. Twelve Pfalz P3.1 class locomotives were built for the Palatinate Railway from 1898. In addition, eleven Pfalz P4 class locomotives were built from 1905. Fifteen Saxon X V class locomotives were built for the Royal Saxon State Railways from 1902. Eighteen Baden IId class locomotives were built for the Grand Duchy of Baden State Railways from 1902. In 1900, the Royal Bavarian State Railways imported two 4-4-2 locomotives from Baldwin Locomotive Works in the United States of America and classified them Bavarian S 2/5. Ten more locomotives were built by Maffei in 1904. In India, the broad gauge E class was survived into the 1970s. In 1897, 24 6600 Class Atlantics were built for the 3 ft 6 in gauge Japanese Railways by Baldwin Locomotive Works in the United States of America. Six more locomotives, built to the same Japanese design, were built for the Cape Government Railways in South Africa following the completion of the Japanese order. By the 1980s, the last Atlantics at work in the world were a few 3 ft 6 in Cape gauge examples in Mozambique.
These survived reported retirements to operate into the beginning of the 21st century, becoming some of the last working steam in the country. Exceptionally
The Mokihinui River is a river located on the West Coast of New Zealand's South Island, about 40 kilometres north of Westport. Meridian Energy had proposed the Mokihinui Hydro project on the river in 2007 but it was cancelled in May 2012. In 2019, it was announced that large parts of the river catchment, including 15km of river bed, would be added to Kahurangi National Park; the Mokihinui River's headwaters are located in the Glasgow Range and its mouth is on the Tasman Sea. There is little human habitation near the river: the localities of Mokihinui and Summerlea are near the river's mouth, Seddonville is a few kilometres up the river, just prior to its terminus, State Highway 67 crosses the river outside Mokihinui. In the rugged back country behind Seddonville at the Mokihinui Forks, the river splits into two branches and south; the catchment of these two branches is a large inland basin of wholly unmodified forest. Ngāi Tahu and Ngāti Waewae are the manawhenua tribes of the area. A tramping track runs along the south bank of the river giving access to Kahurangi National Park.
The river of interest for recreation and commercial whitewater activities. There is three hours of grade III water downstream from where the south forks meet. A river level of 1-1.5 metres is an optimum flow. The last few kilometres of the former Seddonville Branch railway followed the Mokihinui River near its mouth; the Branch opened on 23 February 1895 and closed on 3 May 1981, while a further extension beyond Seddonville to Mokihinui Mine closed in February 1974. During this period, the New Zealand Railways Department dumped two old steam locomotives along the river's banks between Seddonville and Mokihinui Mine to protect against erosion; the first of these locomotives, WB 292, was dumped in 1958, while sister WB 299 was dumped in January 1960. Both were recovered from the Mokihinui River in 1989 by the Baldwin Steam Trust, are under restoration at the Rimutaka Incline Railway