Deep Springs Valley
Deep Springs Valley is a high desert valley in the Inyo-White Mountains of Inyo County, California. It is east of the Owens Valley and the Sierra Nevada mountain range, south of Fish Lake Valley, near the California-Nevada state border. California State Route 168 connects it to the Owens and Fish Lake valleys, crossing Westgard Pass to the west and Gilbert Pass to the north. To the northwest lies White Mountain Peak. To the east lies Eureka Valley, connected via Soldier Pass in the Piper Mountain Wilderness, which can be traversed on horseback but not by automobile. Deep Springs Lake is a playa, a seasonal salt lake drying in the summer to produce a salt pan, with surface water replenished in late spring with flows from nearby springs and snowmelt that travels the length of the valley from Wyman and Crooked creeks, which enter from the north. Birds, birdwatchers, flock to the Lake during the spring and fall migrations. Surrounding the lake are numerous springs, some artesian, which gave the valley its name.
The springs are home to the Deep Springs Black Toad, an endemic species that occurs only in Deep Springs Valley. Although the population in Antelope Springs was once thought to be introduced, a genetics study published in 2009 found that there was not strong similarity to the perceived source population and this population occurs naturally; the population of toads, appears to be stable, despite the presence of cattle that graze around the lake during the winter and spring. On the hillsides of the southwestern end of the valley, lie the Poleta Folds, a distinctly visible example of crustal folding studied by geology students from the University of California and California State University educational systems; the intensely folded and visible layers comprise the Cambrian-aged Poleta formation. Several complex fault systems add to the challenge for geology students to unravel the area's history; the Poleta Folds field area is revered as one of the most complexly folded and faulted areas in California and has been used by generations of undergraduate-level geology students around the United States and Canada.
During a typical summer one can find near-established trails leading to the best outcrops. Visible at the base of the Inyo Mountains, in the southwestern end of the valley behind Deep Springs Lake, is a sizable dip-slip fault. Researchers showed that the most recent fault scarp had an average displacement of 2.7 meters along a 20 km section of the fault. With an estimated rupture area of 345 km2, the event was calculated to have a moment magnitude of 7.0 and was estimated to have occurred about 1,800 years ago. The fault is still active. Deep Springs Lake is at 37°16′35″N 118°02′37″W. At 4905 elevation, the lake is intermittently filled and precipitating dolomite, understood to occur in such conditions, it is the home of a nontraditional two-year liberal arts institution. There are ruins of an early small mining establishment, White Mountain City, in the northwest corner of the valley. Eureka Valley, Inyo County Eureka Valley Sand Dunes Swallenia Oenothera californica Category: Flora of the California desert regions U.
S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Deep Springs – populated place
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
White Mountains (California)
The White Mountains of California and Nevada are a triangular fault-block mountain range facing the Sierra Nevada across the upper Owens Valley. They extend for 60 mi as a elevated plateau about 20 mi wide on the south, narrowing to a point at the north, with elevations increasing south to north; the range's broad southern end is near the community of Big Pine, where Westgard Pass and Deep Springs Valley separate it from the Inyo Mountains. The narrow northern end is at Montgomery Pass, where U. S. Route 6 crosses; the Fish Lake Valley lies east of the range. The range lies within the eastern section of the Inyo National Forest. Ecologically, the White Mountains are like the other ranges in the Range Province. Middle slopes from 6,500 to 8,200 ft have somewhat denser stands of Utah juniper; these upper and lower conifer zones are separated by a zone of mountain mahogany brush. Various subspecies of sagebrush extend from surrounding valleys to the lower alpine zone. A bristlecone pine in the southern part of the range is the oldest known living tree in the world, at 5063 years old.
Pine nuts from piñon pine stands were harvested as a winter staple food by Paiute Indians whose descendants still live in adjacent valleys. The White Mountains have small remnant groves of lodgepole pine, Jeffrey pine, ponderosa pine, Sierra juniper and aspen including an unusual dwarf variety; these species are common in the nearby and wetter Sierra Nevada range west of the Owens Valley and must have been more widespread in the White Mountains until Holocene droughts extirpated them in most of this drier range. A number of plant species are endemic to the White Mountains, including the White Mountains horkelia, Horkelia hispidula. Fauna include two herds of bighorn sheep, mule deer and feral horses. Permanent streams have no native fish, but there are naturalized populations of trout including rare Paiute cutthroat trout, protected from angling. Birds include Clark's nutcracker and other Corvidae which cache pine nuts. Cattle from ranches in surrounding valleys are still grazed under permit as high as the alpine zone.
Sheep were grazed in large numbers, introducing diseases from which the native Bighorn Sheep populations are still recovering. Before European colonization of surrounding valleys in the mid 19th century, Paiute Indians occupied summer hunting camps up to about 13,100 ft, leaving ruins of archeological interest; the highest point in the range is White Mountain Peak, which at 14,252 ft is the third-highest summit in California. This peak is an extinct volcano rising about 1,600 ft above the plateau surface; the summit is composed of Mesozoic metavolcanic rock – lava lifted and melted by rising granite. The volcano itself is long since gone; the White Mountains are the highest range inside the Great Basin, although the adjacent Sierra Nevada Range along the basin's western edge has two higher summits. The entire range is within the Inyo National Forest. A four-wheel drive road reaches the summit of White Mountain Peak from the south to service the summit laboratory of the White Mountain Research Station.
The road is gated seven miles from the summit at an elevation of 11,680 ft, making this California's easiest 14,000 ft summit. North of White Mountain Peak, two sharp arêtes alternate along the crest with the broad "whalebacks" plateau of Pellisier Flats with about six more summits over 13,000 ft. Pellisier Flats is a wide sloping bench at the 13000 foot level with rocky fields and short alpine vegetation; the bench includes Mt. Hogue at 12,743 ft. and further north Mt. Dubois at 13,559 ft. the high point on the plateau. Pellisier Flats is the broad spine of the White Mountains; the crest crosses the California–Nevada state line just south of a final high summit Boundary Peak 13,147 ft, Nevada's high point. Boundary Peak is the "prow" of the triangular fault block, it has views directly down into valleys to the west and east that are hidden by the increasing width of the high plateau to the south. North of Boundary Peak the range loses altitude and ends at Montgomery Pass; the west face of the White Mountains rises steeply out of Owens Valley.
Climbing to any summit from this direction is a scramble with about 8,000 ft elevation gain. Eastern slopes are somewhat gentler and have numerous cirques left by Pleistocene glaciers and a few snowfields persisting through most summers. Most of these cirques are entered or approached by jeep roads and offer scenic yet non-technical routes to the crest. Peakbagger info about the range White Mountain Peak climbing info White Mountain Research Station homepage Traverse of White Mountains crest Another traverse Proposed wilderness area under Boxer-Solis California Wild Heritage Act of 2006
A. L. Westgard
Anton L. Westgard, called "the Pathfinder", was a highway pioneer and photographer. Westgard was appointed by Federal Highway Administration Director Logan Page to research appropriate locations for the first transcontinental highways. Westgard's 1911 cross-country field survey via automobile led to what would become the Lincoln Highway. Westgard mapped the National Park to Park Highway for the Automobile Association of America in 1920. Westgard Pass between the White and Inyo mountain ranges in the Basin and Range Province of California is named after Westgard. "Motor Routes to the California Expositions" by A. L. Westgard, Motor Magazine, March 1915. Tales of a Pathfinder, Westgard's 1920 travelogue of some of his adventurous pathfinding trips. "Motor Routes to the California Expositions". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 9 February 2012. 1913 US tour at AutoGiftGarage.com
Inyo County, California
Inyo County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,546; the county seat is Independence. Inyo County is on the east side of the Sierra Nevada and southeast of Yosemite National Park in Central California, it contains the Owens River Valley. With an area of 10,192 square miles, Inyo County is the second-largest county by area in California, after San Bernardino County. One-half of that area is within Death Valley National Park. However, with a population density of 1.8 people per square mile, it has the second-lowest population density in California, after Alpine County. Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the contiguous United States, is on Inyo County's western border; the Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park, the lowest place in North America, is in eastern Inyo County. The difference between the two points is about 14,700 feet, they are not visible from each other, but both can be observed from the Panamint Range on the west side of Death Valley, above the Panamint Valley.
Thus, Inyo County has the greatest elevation difference among all of the counties and county-equivalents in the contiguous United States. Present day Inyo county has been the historic homeland for thousands of years of the Mono tribe, Coso people and Kawaiisu Native Americans, they spoke the Mono language with Mono traditional narratives. The descendants of these ancestors continue to live in their traditional homelands in the Owens River Valley and in Death Valley National Park. Inyo County was formed in 1866 out of the territory of the unorganized Coso County, created on April 4, 1864 from parts of Mono and Tulare Counties, it acquired more territory from Mono County in 1870 and Kern County and San Bernardino County in 1872. For many years it has been believed that the county derived its name from the Mono tribe of Native Americans name for the mountains in its former homeland; the name came to be thought of, mistakenly, as the name of the mountains to the east of the Owens Valley when the first whites there asked the local Paiutes what the name of the mountains to the east was.
The local Paiutes responded that, the land of Inyo. They meant by this that those lands belonged to the Shoshone tribe headed by a man whose name was Inyo. Inyo was the name of the headman of the Panamint band of Paiute-Shoshone people at the time of contact when the first whites, the Manly expedition of 1849, lost, into Death Valley on their expedition to the gold fields of western California; the Owens Valley whites misunderstood the local Paiute and thought that Inyo was the name of the mountains when it was the name of the chief, or headman, of the tribe that had those mountains as part of their homeland. "Indian George", a fixture of many of the stories of early Death Valley days, was Inyo's son. Indian George's Shoshone name was "Bah-Vanda-Sa-Va-Nu-Kee", which means "The Boy Who Ran Away", a name he was given when he became terrified of the whites and their wheeled wagons and huge buffalo, none of which the Shoshone had seen before when they came wandering down Furnace Creek Wash in December 1849.
In 1940, when Bah-vanda was around 100 years old, JC Boyles, a Panamint Shoshone who had become educated, came back to the Panamint Valley and interviewed Bah-Vanda at length about the early days of his life, including the events of 1849, it is in this interview that Bah-vanda refers to his father, Inyo. In order to provide water needs for the growing City of Los Angeles, water was diverted from the Owens River into the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913; the Owens River Valley cultures and environments changed substantially. From the 1910s to 1930s the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power purchased much of the valley for water rights and control. In 1941 the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power extended the Los Angeles Aqueduct system further upriver into the Mono Basin. Inyo County is host to a number of natural superlatives. Among them are: Mount Whitney, with an elevation of 14,505 feet, is the highest point in the contiguous United States, the 12th highest peak in the U. S. and the 24th highest peak in North America.
Badwater Basin, in Death Valley, the lowest point in North America Methuselah, an ancient Bristlecone pine tree and one of the oldest living trees on Earth Owens Valley, the deepest valley on the American continents Two mountain ranges exceeding 14,000 feet in elevation: The Sierra Nevada and the White Mountains Thirteen of California's fifteen peaks which exceed 14,000 feet in elevation. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 10,227 square miles, of which 10,181 square miles is land and 46 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county by the ninth-largest in the United States. Death Valley National Park Inyo National Forest Manzanar National Historic SiteThere are 22 official wilderness areas in Inyo County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the second-largest number of any county, exceeded only by San Bernardino County's 35 wilderness areas. Most of these are managed by the Bureau of Land
Owens Valley is the now-arid valley of the Owens River in eastern California in the United States, to the east of the Sierra Nevada and west of the White Mountains and Inyo Mountains on the west edge of the Great Basin. The mountain peaks on either side reach above 14,000 feet in elevation, while the floor of the Owens Valley is about 4,000 feet, making the valley one of the deepest in the United States; the Sierra Nevada casts the valley in a rain shadow, which makes Owens Valley "the Land of Little Rain." The bed of Owens Lake, now a predominantly dry endorheic alkali flat, sits on the southern end of the valley. The valley provides water to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, the source of one-third of the water for Los Angeles, is infamous as the scene of one of the fiercest and longest-running episodes of the California Water Wars; these episodes inspired aspects of the 1974 film Chinatown. As well, the now-arid nature of the valley is due to LADWP depleting the water of the region. For example, Owens Lake was emptied by 1926, only 13 years after LA began diverting water.
Towns in the Owens Valley include Bishop, Lone Pine and Big Pine. The major road in the Owens Valley is U. S. Route 395. About three million years ago, the Sierra Nevada Fault and the White Mountains Fault systems became active with repeated episodes of slip earthquakes producing the impressive relief of the eastern Sierra Nevada and White Mountain escarpments that bound the northern Owens Valley-Mono Basin region. Owens Valley is a graben—a downdropped block of land between two vertical faults—the westernmost in the Basin and Range Province, it is part of a trough which extends from Oregon to Death Valley called the Walker Lane. The western flank of much of the valley has large moraines coming off the Sierra Nevada; these unsorted piles of rock and dust were pushed to where they are by glaciers during the last ice age. An excellent example of a moraine is on State Route 168; this graben was formed by a long series of earthquakes, such as the 1872 Lone Pine earthquake, that have moved the graben down and helped move the Sierra Nevada up.
The graben is much larger. The topmost part of this escarpment is exposed at Alabama Hills; the Owens Valley has many mini-volcanoes, such as Crater Mountain in the Big Pine volcanic field. Smaller versions of the Devils Postpile, can be found, by Little Lake; the valley contains plants adapted to alkali flat habitat. One of these, the Owens Valley checkerbloom, is endemic to Owens Valley; the valley was inhabited in late prehistoric times by the Timbisha in the extreme south end around Owens Lake and by the Mono tribe in the central and northern portions of the valley. The Timbisha speak the Timbisha language, classified in the Numic branch of Uto-Aztecan language family; the closest related languages are Comanche. The Eastern Mono speak a dialect of the Mono language, Numic but is more related to Northern Paiute; the Timbisha presently live in Death Valley at Furnace Creek although most families have summer homes in the Lone Pine colony. The Eastern Mono live in several colonies from Lone Pine to Bishop.
Trade between Native Americans of the Owens Valley and coastal tribes such as the Chumash has been indicated by the archaeological record. On May 1, 1834, Joseph R. Walker entered Owens Valley at the mouth of Walker Pass. Walker and his group of 52 men traveled up the valley on their way back to the Humboldt Sink, back up the Humboldt River to the Rocky Mountains. In 1845, John C. Fremont named the Owens valley and lake for Richard Owens, one of his guides. Camp Independence was established on Oak Creek nearby modern Independence, California, on July 4, 1862, during the Owens Valley Indian War. From 1942 to 1945, during World War II, the first Japanese American Internment camp operated in the valley at Manzanar near Independence, California. In the early 20th century, the valley became the scene of a struggle between local residents and the city of Los Angeles over water rights. William Mulholland, superintendent of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, planned the 223-mile Los Angeles Aqueduct, completed in 1913, which diverted water from the Owens River.
The water rights were acquired in a deceitful manner splitting water cooperatives and pitting neighbors against one another. In 1924, local farmers were fed up with the purchases and erupted in violence, sabotaging parts of the water system. Los Angeles acquired a large portion of the water rights to over 300,000 acres of land in the valley completely diverting the inflows of water away from Owens Lake. Gary Libecap of the University of California, Santa Barbara observed that the price that Los Angeles was willing to pay to other water sources per acre-foot of water was far higher than what the farmers received. Farmers who resisted the pressure from Los Angeles until 1930 received the highest price for their land. However, the sale of their land brought the farmers more income than if they had kept the land for farming and ranching. None of the sales were made under threat of eminent domain; as a result of these acquisitions, the lake subsequently dried up complet