Lady Jane Grey
Lady Jane Grey known as Lady Jane Dudley and as "the Nine Days' Queen", was an English noblewoman and de facto Queen of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553. Jane was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII through his younger daughter Mary, was a first cousin once removed of Edward VI, she had an excellent humanist education and a reputation as one of the most learned young women of her day. In May 1553, she married Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of Edward's chief minister John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. In June 1553, Edward VI wrote his will, nominating Jane and her male heirs as successors to the Crown, in part because his half-sister Mary was Roman Catholic, while Jane was a committed Protestant and would support the reformed Church of England, whose foundation Edward claimed to have laid; the will removed his half-sisters and Elizabeth, from the line of succession on account of their illegitimacy, subverting their claims under the Third Succession Act. After Edward's death, Jane was proclaimed queen on 10 July 1553 and awaited coronation in the Tower of London.
Support for Mary grew quickly, most of Jane's supporters abandoned her. The Privy Council of England changed sides and proclaimed Mary as queen on 19 July 1553, deposing Jane, her primary supporter, her father-in-law the Duke of Northumberland, was accused of treason and executed less than a month later. Jane was held prisoner at the Tower and was convicted in November 1553 of high treason, which carried a sentence of death—though Mary spared her life. However, Jane soon became viewed as a threat to the Crown when her father, Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, got involved with Wyatt's rebellion against Queen Mary's intention to marry Philip II of Spain. Both Jane and her husband were executed on 12 February 1554. Lady Jane Grey was the eldest daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, his wife, Frances; the traditional view is that she was born at Bradgate Park in Leicestershire in October 1537, while more recent research indicates that she was born somewhat earlier in London, in late 1536 or in the spring of 1537.
Frances was the elder daughter of Mary. Jane had Lady Catherine and Lady Mary. Jane received a humanist education, studying Latin and Hebrew with John Aylmer, Italian with Michelangelo Florio. Through the influence of her father and her tutors, she became a committed Protestant and corresponded with the Zürich reformer Heinrich Bullinger. Jane preferred book studies to hunting parties and regarded her strict upbringing, typical of the time, as harsh. To the visiting scholar Roger Ascham, who found her reading Plato, she is said to have complained: For when I am in the presence either of father or mother, whether I speak, keep silence, stand or go, drink, be merry or sad, be sewing, dancing, or doing anything else, I must do it as it were in such weight and number so as God made the world. In early February 1547, Jane was sent to live in the household of Edward VI's uncle, Thomas Seymour, who soon married Henry VIII's widow, Catherine Parr. Jane lived with the couple until Catherine's death in childbirth in September 1548.
Lady Jane acted as chief mourner at Catherine Parr's funeral. Seymour's brother, the Lord Protector, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, felt threatened by Thomas' popularity with the young King Edward. Among other things, Thomas Seymour was charged with proposing Jane as a bride for the king. In the course of Thomas Seymour's following attainder and execution, Jane's father was lucky to stay out of trouble. After his fourth interrogation by the King's Council, he proposed his daughter Jane as a bride for the Protector's eldest son, Lord Hertford. Nothing came of this and Jane was not engaged until the spring of 1553, her bridegroom being Lord Guildford Dudley, a younger son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland; the Duke, Lord President of the King's Council from late 1549, was the most powerful man in the country. On 25 May 1553, the couple were married at Durham House in a triple wedding, in which Jane's sister Catherine was matched with the heir of the Earl of Pembroke, Lord Herbert, another Katherine, Lord Guildford's sister, with Henry Hastings, the Earl of Huntingdon's heir.
The Third Succession Act of 1544 restored Henry VIII's daughters and Elizabeth, to the line of succession, although they were still regarded as illegitimate. Furthermore, this Act authorised Henry VIII to alter the succession by his will. Henry's will reinforced the succession of his three children, declared that, should none of them leave descendants, the throne would pass to heirs of his younger sister, which included Jane. For unknown reasons, Henry excluded Jane's mother, Frances Grey, from the succession, bypassed the claims of the descendants of his elder sister, who had married into the Scottish royal house and nobility. Both Mary and Elizabeth had been named illegitimate by statute during the reign of Henry VIII after his marriages to Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn had been declared void; when the 15-year-old Edward VI lay dying in the early summer of
Westhorpe is a linear village and civil parish in the Mid Suffolk district of Suffolk, England. The village is 13 miles from the town of Bury St. Edmunds, 7 miles from Stowmarket, 1 mile from the villages of Wyverstone and Finningham. Westhorpe Hall was a former seat of the Dukes of Suffolk, was where Mary Tudor, Queen of France died. East Thorpe manor, its close neighbour, was the seat of a previous duke, William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk. John Clarke, Baptist minister, co-founder of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations and author of its charter, was born in Westhorpe. Jean Kent and television actress, lived at Westorpe until her death Media related to Westhorpe, Suffolk at Wikimedia Commons Westhorpe, Genuki
Eleanor Brandon, Countess of Cumberland
Lady Eleanor Brandon was the third child and second daughter of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk and Princess Mary Tudor, the Dowager Queen consort of France. She was a younger sister of Lady Frances Brandon and an elder sister of Henry Brandon, 1st Earl of Lincoln, she was a younger paternal half-sister of Lady Anne Brandon and Lady Mary Brandon from her father's second marriage. After her mother's death in 1533, her father remarried to Catherine Willoughby and Eleanor became an elder half-sister of Henry Brandon, 2nd Duke of Suffolk and Charles Brandon, 3rd Duke of Suffolk, her paternal grandparents were Elizabeth Bruyn. Her maternal grandparents were Henry VII of England and his queen consort Elizabeth of York, she was thus a niece of Henry VIII. Lady Eleanor was a descendant of a member of the Tudor dynasty and therefore her marriage would advance the political ambitions of any given husband. In March 1533, a marriage contract was written up for Lady Eleanor and Henry Clifford, the eldest son and heir of Henry Clifford, 1st Earl of Cumberland by Lady Margaret Percy.
However, since her mother died nine months she waited to go and live with her young husband and in-laws. In anticipation of Eleanor's arrival, the Earl of Cumberland built two towers and the great gallery within Skipton Castle. Eleanor married Clifford at Brandon house, Bridewell, in 1537. In January 1536, Eleanor was designated the chief mourner for the funeral service of Catherine of Aragon, first Queen consort of Henry VIII, at Peterborough Cathedral. There is not much known about her life and she left only one letter: "Dear heart, After my most hearty commendations, this shall be to certify you that since your departure from me I have been sick and at this present my water is red, whereby I suppose I have the jaundice and the ague both, for I have none abide meat and I have such pains in my side and towards my back as I had at Brougham, where it began with me first. Wherefore I desire you to help me to a physician and that this bearer my bring him with him, for now in the beginning I trust I may have good remedy, the longer it is delayed, the worse it will be.
My sister Powys is come to me and desirous to see you, which I trust shall be the sooner at this time, thus Jesus send us both health. At my lodge at Carlton, the 14th of February. And, dear heart, I pray you send for Dr Stephens. By your assured loving wife, Eleanor Cumberland" The Third Succession Act of 23 March 1544 defined that Eleanor was in line to succeed her maternal uncle Henry VIII, she was eighth-in-line for the throne following: Prince of Wales, her first cousin. The Lady Mary, her first cousin; the Lady Elizabeth, her first cousin. Frances Grey, Marchioness of Dorset, her elder sister. Lady Jane Grey, her eldest niece. Lady Catherine Grey, her second niece. Lady Mary Grey, her third niece. Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547. Prince Edward became King Edward VI. Lady Eleanor was the seventh-in-line for the throne, but she died on 27 September the same year without surviving male issue at Brougham Castle, was buried at Skipwith, her place in line was taken by her daughter. Her husband remarried Anne Dacre, who bore him six more children.
With Henry Clifford: Lady Margaret Clifford. Henry Clifford. Charles Clifford. There is a discrepancy as to who the sitter is in the Hans Eworth portrait, featured; the coat of arms in the top left corner, which may have been added are the impaled arms of Henry Clifford, 2nd Earl of Cumberland, his wife Lady Eleanor, daughter of Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, Mary Tudor, Dowager Queen of France. As a result, the painting has been exhibited in the past as a portrait of Lady Eleanor, regardless of the fact that she died in 1547, well before the date of this portrait, it is, however, a rule of heraldry that impaled arms are not used by the children of a marriage, as they would have their own. Hence the addition and erroneous use of the arms here suggests that the identity of the portrait was unclear only two or three generations after it was painted, a situation by no means unusual amid the frequent early deaths, multiple marriages, shifting alliances and fortunes of the most powerful families of the Tudor era.
The portrait was thought to represent the only child of Eleanor and Henry to survive infancy, Margaret. The inscription on the right which might have provided a check has been truncated; the National Portrait Gallery has an online sketch of this portrait identified as Lady Eleanor, but the portrait remains in dispute. There is, however, a portrait of Lady Eleanor featured at Skipton Castle, it is a poor work of art, but nonetheless interesting. The sisters of Lady Jane Grey and their wicked grandfather.
Lying in state
Lying in state is the tradition in which the body of a dead official is placed in a state building, either outside or inside a coffin, to allow the public to pay their respects. It traditionally takes place in the principal government building of state, or city. While the practice differs among countries, a viewing in a location other than the principal government building may be referred to as lying in repose. In Canada, official lying in state is a part of a state funeral, an honor reserved for former Governors General and former Prime Ministers, it is held in the Centre Block of Parliament Hill, in the national capital, Ontario. Ex-governors general lie in state in the Senate Chamber while former prime ministers lie in the Hall of Honour. During the period of lying in state, the coffins are flanked at each corner by a Guard of honour, made up of four members drawn from the Canadian Forces and Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as well as members of the Governor General's Foot Guards for former governors general, guards from the parliamentary security forces for former prime ministers.
Guards stand at each corner with heads bowed and weapons inverted with their backs turned towards the casket. Provinces may mount state funerals and have a lying in state for a distinguished former resident. For instance, Maurice Richard, nationally known hockey player, was given a state funeral by the province of Quebec when he died in 2000; this process was repeated for fellow Canadiens legend Jean Béliveau in December 2014. Municipalities may offer civic funerals to prominent deceased former politicians. In North Korea, the body of the late leader Kim Jong-il was displayed in a glass coffin surrounded with red flowers at the Kumsusan Memorial Palace in Pyongyang prior to his funeral, which began and ended at the palace. An honor guard armed with AK-47s was present. Jong-il's father Kim Il-sung, the founding president, is on display elsewhere in the palace. In Russia, during the time of the Soviet Union, the state funerals of the most senior political and military leaders, such as Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, Konstantin Chernenko all followed the same basic outline.
They took place in Moscow, beginning with a public lying in state of the deceased in the House of the Unions, ending with an interment at Red Square. For the lying in state at the House of the Unions, the coffin would be placed on display in the Column Hall, which would be decorated by flowers, numerous red flags and other communist symbols; the mourners, which would be brought in by the thousands, shuffled up a marble staircase beneath chandeliers draped in black gauze. On the stage at the left side of the Column Hall, a full orchestra in black tailcoats played classical music; the deceased's embalmed body, dressed in a black suit, white shirt and a tie, was displayed in an open coffin on a catafalque banked with carnations, red roses and tulips, facing the queue of mourners. A small guard of honour would be in attendance in the background. At the right side of the hall, seats were placed for guests of honour, with the front row reserved for the dead leader's family. On the day of the funeral, a military funeral parade would take place during which the coffin would be conveyed from the House of the Unions to Red Square where burial would take place.
Lenin and Stalin were placed inside the Lenin Mausoleum, while Brezhnev and Chernenko were interred in individual graves in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. At state funerals in Singapore, the national flag is put on the coffin; the vigil guard may be deployed during the public lying in state of the deceased person at Parliament House. The deployment of the vigil guard is the highest form of respect accorded by the nation to the deceased. Similar to British traditions, the vigil guard is composed of groups of five commissioned officers from the Singapore Armed Forces and Singapore Police Force who stand guard around the clock in shifts of 30 minutes. One of the five officers stands facing outward at each of the four corners of the casket, while the fifth and most senior one stands in front and faces inward, their heads are bowed and their ceremonial swords are inverted. Vigil guards were stationed at the public lying in state of Goh Keng Swee in May 2010, Lee Kuan Yew in March 2015 as well as S R Nathan in August 2016.
Nelson Mandela was the first democratically elected president to lie in state in South Africa. The event took place at the Union Buildings, the same site where he was inaugurated as the President of South Africa on May 10, 1994; the body of Mandela was lying in State for three days, starting on Wednesday, December 11, 2013 and ending Friday, December 13. The body was viewed by thousands of South Africans before it was airlifted to Qunu in the Eastern Cape where Mandela was buried on December 15, 2013. In state and ceremonial funerals in the United Kingdom, the lying-in-state takes place in Westminster Hall; the coffin is placed on a catafalque and is guarded, around the clock, by detachments, each of four men, from the following units: Sovereign's Bodyguard Her Majesty's Bodyguard of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms The Queen's Bodyguard of the Yeomen of the Guard The Royal Company of Archers, The Queen's Bodyguard for Scotland Household Cavalry The Life Guards The Blues and Royals Foot Guards Grenadier Guards Coldstream Guards Scots Guards Irish Guards Welsh GuardsEach unit mans the guard for a total of six hours, with each detachment standing post for twenty minutes.
The four men stand at weapons inverted. On two occasions, the guard has been mounted by four ma
Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta, a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous. Terracotta is the term used for sculpture made in earthenware, for various practical uses including vessels and waste water pipes, roofing tiles and surface embellishment in building construction; the term is used to refer to the natural brownish orange color of most terracotta, which varies considerably. This article covers the senses of terracotta as a medium in sculpture, as in the Terracotta Army and Greek terracotta figurines, architectural decoration. Asian and European sculpture in porcelain is not covered. Glazed architectural terracotta and its unglazed version as exterior surfaces for buildings were used in Asia for some centuries before becoming popular in the West in the 19th century. Architectural terracotta can refer to decorated ceramic elements such as antefixes and revetments, which made a large contribution to the appearance of temples and other buildings in the classical architecture of Europe, as well as in the Ancient Near East.
In archaeology and art history, "terracotta" is used to describe objects such as figurines not made on a potter's wheel. Vessels and other objects that are or might be made on a wheel from the same material are called earthenware pottery. Unglazed pieces, those made for building construction and industry, are more to be referred to as terracotta, whereas tableware and other vessels are called earthenware, or by a more precise term such as faience. An appropriate refined clay is formed to the desired shape. After drying it is placed in a kiln or atop combustible material in a pit, fired; the typical firing temperature is around 1,000 °C, though it may be as low as 600 °C in historic and archaeological examples. The iron content, reacting with oxygen during firing, gives the fired body a reddish color, though the overall color varies across shades of yellow, buff, red, "terracotta", grey or brown. In some contexts, such as Roman figurines, white-colored terracotta is known as pipeclay, as such clays were preferred for tobacco pipes made of clay until the 19th century.
Fired terracotta is not watertight, but surface-burnishing the body before firing can decrease its porousness and a layer of glaze can make it watertight. It is suitable for use below ground to carry pressurized water, for garden pots or building decoration in many environments, for oil containers, oil lamps, or ovens. Most other uses, such as for tableware, sanitary piping, or building decoration in freezing environments, require the material to be glazed. Terracotta, if uncracked, will ring if struck. Painted terracotta is first covered with a thin coat of gesso painted, it has been widely used but the paint is only suitable for indoor positions and is much less durable than fired colors in or under a ceramic glaze. Terracotta sculpture was rarely left in its "raw" fired state in the West until the 18th century. Terracotta female figurines were uncovered by archaeologists in excavations of Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan. Along with phallus-shaped stones, these suggest some sort of fertility cult and a belief in a mother goddess.
The Burney Relief is an outstanding terracotta plaque from Ancient Mesopotamia of about 1950 BC. In Mesoamerica, the great majority of Olmec figurines were in terracotta. Many ushabti mortuary statuettes were made of terracotta in Ancient Egypt; the Ancient Greeks' Tanagra figurines were mass-produced mold-cast and fired terracotta figurines, that seem to have been affordable in the Hellenistic period, purely decorative in function. They were part of a wide range of Greek terracotta figurines, which included larger and higher-quality works such as the Aphrodite Heyl. Etruscan art used terracotta in preference to stone for larger statues, such as the near life-size Apollo of Veii and the Sarcophagus of the Spouses. Campana reliefs are Ancient Roman terracotta reliefs mostly used to make friezes for the outside of buildings, as a cheaper substitute for stone. Indian sculpture made heavy use of terracotta from as early as the Indus Valley Civilization, in more sophisticated areas had abandoned modeling for using molds by the 1st century BC.
This allows large figures, nearly up to life-size, to be made in the Gupta period and the centuries following it. Several vigorous local popular traditions of terracotta folk sculpture remain active today, such as the Bankura horses. Precolonial West African sculpture made extensive use of terracotta; the regions most recognized for producing terracotta art in that part of the world include the Nok culture of central and north-central Nigeria, the Ife/Benin cultural axis in western and southern Nigeria, the Igbo culture area of eastern Nigeria, which excelled in terracotta pottery. These related, but separate, traditions gave birth to elaborate schools of bronze and brass sculpture in the area. Chinese sculpture made great use of terracotta and without glazing and colour, from a early date; the famous Terracotta Army of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, 209–210 BC, was somewhat untypical, two thousand years ago reliefs were more common, in tombs and e
Thomas Martin of Palgrave
Thomas Martin, known as "Honest Tom Martin of Palgrave", was an antiquarian and lawyer. Martin was born at Thetford in the school house of St. Mary's parish, the only parish of that town situated in the county of Suffolk, he was son of William Martin, rector of Great Livermere, of St Mary's, Thetford, by his wife Elizabeth, only daughter of Thomas Burrough of Bury St. Edmunds, aunt to Sir James Burrough, master of Caius College, Cambridge. Martin was self-taught, having had a neglected education. For many years he was the only pupil at the Thetford free school, being left to read on his own, he took an early interest in antiquities. In 1710 Thetford was visited by the elderly Peter Le Neve, Norroy King of Arms and first President of the revived Society of Antiquaries. Le Neve sought a guide to the many antiquities of the town only to be told that no-one knew more than thirteen-year-old Master Martin; this began a close friendship between the learned old man and the teenage boy lasting until the death of the former in 1729.
Martin soon afterwards became clerk in the office of his brother Robert, who practised as an attorney in that town. According to notes by Martin, dated 1715, he disliked this employment, regretted that want of means had prevented him from going to Cambridge University. In 1722 he was still at Thetford, but in 1723 he was settled at Palgrave, where he passed the remainder of his life, he was a student of topography and antiquities, became a member of the Spalding Gentlemen's Society, was admitted a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, at the same time as Martin Folkes, on 17 February 1720. Cole, who met him at Sir James Burrough's lodge at Caius College, and, at his house at Palgrave, said, "he was a blunt, honest, downright man, his thirst after antiquities was as great as his thirst after liquors". His great desire was not only to be esteemed, but to be known and distinguished by the name of "Honest Tom Martin of Palgrave". For many years his "hoary hairs were the crown of glory for the anniversary of the Society of Antiquaries," of which he was so long the senior fellow.
His house at Palgrave was pulled down in 1860. It was large, with central entrance, thirteen windows in front looking towards the village church. By his first wife, widow of Thomas Cropley, daughter of John Tyrrel of Thetford, he had eight children, of whom two died early. Soon afterward he married Frances, widow of Peter Le Neve, Norroy king-of-arms living at Great Witchingham, Norfolk, he had been acting as one of Le Neve's two executors, the other executor Thomas Tanner having been made a bishop and moved to his new diocese at St Asaph. By his marriage with the widow Martin illegally came into the possession of a collection of English antiquities and pictures intended by Le Neve for donation to a public institution. By his second wife he had four children, Peter and Elizabeth; the Le Neve collection of historical books and manuscripts relating to the county of Norfolk, which Martin misappropriated, has been described by Richard Gough as'the greatest fund of antiquities for his native county, collected for any single one in the kingdom'.
This collection was supplemented by Martin during his remaining years, notably by the acquisition of the collections of Francis Blomefield in 1753. Blomefield's manuscripts included the Paston Letters. Martin was a good lawyer, but he lost his practice. Money troubles meant that he was obliged to sell many of his books and some of his manuscript collections, he died at Palgrave on 7 March 1771, was buried, with others of his family, in the porch of the parish church, where a small mural monument of white marble, with an English inscription, was erected by his friend Sir John Fenn. John Worth, chemist, of Diss, advertised in 1774 proposals for publishing a history of Thetford, compiled from Martin's papers by Mr. Davis, a dissenting minister, of Diss, five sheets of the work were printed by Crouse of Norwich; the project was stopped by Worth's sudden death, the manuscript was purchased by Thomas Hunt, bookseller, of Harleston, Norfolk. Gough published the work under the title of The History of the Town of Thetford, London, 1779.
Prefixed is a portrait of Martin engraved by P. S. Lamborn, at the expense of John Ives, from a painting by T. Bardwell. A copy of this, engraved by P. Audinet, is in Nichols's Illustrations of Literature. A memoir of Martin was communicated by Sir John Cullam. Martin's lack of money obliged him to dispose of books, with manuscript notes, to Thomas Payne, in 1769. A catalogue of his remaining library was printed after his death, at Lynn, in 1771. Worth purchased it, with his other collections, for £600; the printed books he sold to Booth & Berry of Norwich, who disposed of them in a catalogue, 1773. The pictures and lesser curiosities. What remained on the death of Worth, consisting chiefly of the papers relating to Thetford and the county of Suffolk, were purchased by Thomas Hunt, who sold many of them to private purc
Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk
Charles Brandon, 1st Duke of Suffolk, 1st Viscount Lisle, was the son of Sir William Brandon and Elizabeth Bruyn. Through his third wife, Mary Tudor, he was brother-in-law to King of England, his father was the standard-bearer of Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond who seized the throne as Henry VII. Suffolk died of unknown causes at Guildford. Charles Brandon was the second but only surviving son of Sir William Brandon, Henry Tudor's standard-bearer at the Battle of Bosworth Field, where he was slain by Richard III, his mother, Elizabeth Bruyn, was daughter and co-heiress of Sir Henry Bruyn. Charles Brandon was brought up at the court of Henry VII, he is described by Dugdale as "a person comely of stature, high of courage and conformity of disposition to King Henry VIII, with whom he became a great favourite." Brandon held a succession of offices in the royal household, becoming Master of the Horse in 1513, received many valuable grants of land. On 15 May 1513, he was created Viscount Lisle, having entered into a marriage contract with his ward, Elizabeth Grey, suo jure Viscountess Lisle.
The contract was ended and the title was forfeited as a result of Brandon's marriage to Mary Tudor in 1515. He distinguished himself at the sieges of Thérouanne and Tournai in the French campaign of 1513. One of the agents of Margaret of Savoy, governor of the Netherlands, writing from before Thérouanne, reminded her that Lord Lisle was a "second king" and advised her to write him a kind letter. At this time, Henry VIII was secretly urging Margaret to marry Lisle, whom he created Duke of Suffolk, although he was careful to disclaim any complicity in the project to her father, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. After his marriage to Mary, Suffolk lived for some years in retirement, but he was present at the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520. In 1523 he was sent to Calais to command the English troops there, he invaded France in company with Floris d'Egmont, Count of Buren, at the head of the Flemish troops, laid waste the north of France, but disbanded his troops at the approach of winter. Brandon was appointed Earl Marshal of England in 1524, a position held by Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk.
However, in 1533 he relinquished the office to Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, "whose auncestos of longe tyme hadde the same until nowe of late."After Wolsey's disgrace, Suffolk's influence increased daily. He was sent with 3rd Duke of Norfolk, to demand the Great Seal from Wolsey, he was one of the commissioners appointed by Henry to dismiss Catherine's household, a task he found distasteful. His family had a residence on the west side of Borough High Street, for at least half a century prior to his building of Suffolk Place at the site. Charles supported Henry's ecclesiastical policy, receiving a large share of the lands after the dissolution of the monasteries. In 1544, he was for the second time in command of an English army for the invasion of France, he died at Surrey, on 24 August in the following year. At Henry VIII's expense he was buried at Windsor in St George's Chapel. Charles Brandon took part in the jousts which celebrated the marriage of Princess Mary Tudor, King Henry VIII's sister, with King Louis XII of France.
On King Louis XII's death in 1515, he was accredited to negotiate various matters with the King. Love between Charles and the young Dowager Queen Mary had existed before her marriage, King Francis I roundly charged him with an intention to marry her. King Francis in the hope of his wife Queen Claude's death, had himself been one of Mary's suitors in the first week of her widowhood, in which Mary had asserted that she had given him her confidence in order to avoid his overtures. King Francis I and King Henry VIII both professed a friendly attitude towards the marriage of the lovers, but Charles had many political enemies, Mary feared that she might again be sacrificed for political considerations; the King's Council, not wishing to see Charles Brandon gain further power at court, were opposed to the match. The truth was that King Henry was anxious to obtain from King Francis the gold plate and jewels, given or promised to his sister Mary by King Louis XII as well as the reimbursement of the expenses of her marriage with King Louis.
However, when Charles was sent to bring Mary back to England, King Henry VIII made him promise that he would not propose to her. Once in France though, Charles was persuaded by Mary to abandon this pledge; the couple wed in secret at the Hotel de Clugny on 3 March 1515 in the presence of just 10 people, among whom was King Francis I. Charles announced their marriage to Thomas Wolsey, their fast friend. Technically, this was treason as Charles Brandon had married a royal princess without King Henry's consent. Thus, King Henry VIII was outraged, the privy council urged that Charles should be imprisoned or executed, he was only saved from King Henry's anger by Wolsey and from the affection that the King had for both his sister and for him. Hence, the couple got off and were charged only with a heavy fine of £24,000 to be paid to the King in yearly installments of £1000, as well as the whole of Mary's dowry from King Louis XII of £200,000, together with her plate and jewels. Nonetheless, the fine was reduced by the King.
They were openly married at Greenwich