Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Rochester, New York
Rochester is a city on the southern shore of Lake Ontario in western New York. With a population of 208,046 residents, Rochester is the seat of Monroe County and the third most populous city in New York state, after New York City and Buffalo; the metropolitan area has a population of just over 1 million people. It is about 73 miles east of Buffalo and 87 miles west of Syracuse. Rochester was one of America's first boomtowns due to the fertile Genesee River Valley, which gave rise to numerous flour mills, as a manufacturing hub. Several of the region's universities have renowned research programs. Rochester is the site of many important innovations in consumer products; the Rochester area has been the birthplace to Kodak, Western Union, French's, Bausch & Lomb and Xerox, which conduct extensive research and manufacturing of industrial and consumer products. Until 2010, the Rochester metropolitan area was the second-largest regional economy in New York State, after the New York City metropolitan area.
Rochester's GMP has since ranked just below Buffalo, New York, while exceeding it in per-capita income. The 25th edition of the Places Rated Almanac rated Rochester as the "most livable city" in 2007, among 379 U. S. metropolitan areas. In 2010 Forbes rated Rochester as the third-best place to raise a family in the United States. In 2012 Kiplinger rated Rochester as the fifth-best city in the United States for families, citing low cost of living, top public schools, a low jobless rate. Rochester is a Global city with Sufficiency status; the Seneca tribe of Native Americans lived in and around Rochester until they lost their claim to most of this land in the Treaty of Big Tree in 1797. Settlement before the Seneca tribe is unknown. Development of Rochester followed the American Revolution, forced cession of their territory by the Iroquois after the defeat of Great Britain. Allied with the British, four major Iroquois tribes were forced out of New York; as a reward for their loyalty to the British Crown, they were given a large land grant on the Grand River in Canada.
Rochester was founded shortly after the American Revolution by a wave of English-Puritan descended immigrants from New England who were looking for new agricultural land. They would be the dominant cultural group in Rochester for over a century. On November 8, 1803, Col. Nathaniel Rochester, Maj. Charles Carroll, Col. William Fitzhugh, Jr. all of Hagerstown, purchased a 100-acre tract from the state in Western New York along the Genesee River. They chose the site because its three cataracts on the Genesee offered great potential for water power. Beginning in 1811, with a population of 15, the three founders surveyed the land and laid out streets and tracts. In 1817, the Brown brothers and other landowners joined their lands with the Hundred Acre Tract to form the village of Rochesterville. By 1821, Rochesterville was the seat of Monroe County. In 1823, Rochesterville consisted of 1,012 acres and 2,500 residents, the Village of Rochesterville became known as Rochester. In 1823, the Erie Canal aqueduct over the Genesee River was completed, the Erie Canal east to the Hudson River was opened.
In the early 20th century, after the advent of railroads, the presence of the canal in the center city was an obstacle. By 1830, Rochester's population was 9,200 and in 1834, it was re-chartered as a city. Rochester was first known as "the Young Lion of the West", as the "Flour City". By 1838, Rochester was the largest flour-producing city in the United States. Having doubled its population in only 10 years, Rochester became America's first "boomtown". In 1830-31, Rochester experienced one of the nation's biggest Protestant revivalist movements, led by Charles Finney; the revival has been noted as inspiring other revivals of the Second Great Awakening. A leading pastor in New York, converted in the Rochester meetings gave the following account of the effects of Finney's meetings in that city: "The whole community was stirred. Religion was the topic of conversation in the house, in the office and on the street; the only theater in the city was converted into a livery stable. Grog shops were closed.
Nurseries ringed the city, the most famous of, started in 1840 by immigrants Georg Ellwanger from Germany and Patrick Barry from Ireland. In 1847, Frederick Douglass founded the abolitionist newspaper The North Star in Rochester. Douglass, a former slave and an antislavery speaker and writer, gained a circulation of over 4,000 readers in the United States and the Caribbean; the North Star served as a forum for abolitionist views. The Douglass home burnt down in 1872, but a marker for it is found in Highland Park off South Avenue. Susan B. Anthony, a national leader of the women's suffrage movement, was from Rochester; the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which guaranteed the right of women to vote in 1920, was known as the Susan B. Anthony Amendment because of her work toward its passage, which she did not live to see. Anthony's home is a National Historic Landmark known as the National Susan B. Anthony Museum and House. At the end of the 19th century, anarchi
University Avenue (Toronto)
University Avenue is a major north–south road in Downtown Toronto, Canada. Beginning at Front Street West in the south, the thoroughfare heads north to end at College Street just south of Queen's Park. At its north end, the Ontario Legislative Building serves as a prominent terminating vista. Many of Toronto's most important institutions are located along the eight-lane wide street such as Osgoode Hall and other legal institutions, the Four Seasons Centre, major hospitals conducting research and teaching, landmark office buildings for the commercial sector, notably major financial and insurance industry firms; the portion of University Avenue between Queen Street West and College Street is laid out as a boulevard, with several memorials, statues and fountains concentrated in a landscaped median dividing the opposite directions of travel, giving it a ceremonial character. University Avenue begins at the intersection of Front and York streets near Union Station and heads northwest for a short distance before turning north.
Lanes on the left ends as ramp to underground parking garage. At Adelaide Street West, the avenue divides leaving room for a median of greenery and sculptures between the north and southbound lanes; the avenue ends at College Street, where it splits into Queen's Park Crescent East and Queen's Park Crescent West. Between these two roads is the home of the Ontario Legislative Building; this landmark creates a terminating vista for those looking north along University. The legislature's site was home to the main building of the University of Toronto, this is the origin of the avenue's name. Today, the university surrounds the legislature building. Queen's Park Crescent is a single street north to Bloor Street. North of Bloor Street, the road continues as Avenue Road. While Yonge Street is the emotional heart of the city and Bay Street the financial hub, University Avenue is Toronto's most ceremonial thoroughfare, with many of the city's most prominent institutions; the boulevard is unusually wide for Canadian cities, as it expands from 6 lanes wide to eight lanes wide.
The speed limit is 50 km/h, reduced from 60 km/h. The northernmost part of the street is dominated by a series of hospitals including Toronto General Hospital, Mount Sinai Hospital, the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children; the concentration of hospitals on this portion of the street has led to it being given the nickname "Hospital Row" by locals and the media. The intersection of University and College is home to the headquarters of Ontario Power Generation; the rest of the street is home to a variety of corporate offices and government buildings. This imposing street has been met with mixed reviews. Noted Canadian author and historian Pierre Berton commented that University Avenue "was rendered antiseptic by the presence of hospitals and insurance offices...the pristine display of wall-to-wall concrete that ran from Front Street to Queen's Park." University Avenue has matured and mellowed somewhat since Berton's unfavourable observation, though paving is still characterized by poured concrete and asphalt for most sidewalks and roadway.
Restaurants now dot the southern end of University Avenue. Completed at the intersection of University and Queen Street is the Four Seasons Centre, the new home of the Canadian Opera Company and the National Ballet of Canada. Osgoode Hall presents a welcome green space. During the holiday season, festive lights illuminate the shrubs of the boulevard. Unlike most major streets in Toronto, there are no rooftop billboards visible from University Avenue due to a bylaw. A portion of the University line portion of the Yonge-University-Spadina subway line runs the length of University Avenue. University Avenue was made up of two streets, College Avenue and University Street, separated by a fence, but it was removed and the streets were merged; the merged street ended at Queen Street until 1931. University Avenue monuments; some of these include: Union Station Sun Life Centre Shangri-La Toronto Sun Life Building, 200 University Avenue Bank of Canada Building Four Seasons Centre Adam Beck Memorial - Emanuel Hahn South African War Memorial Campbell House Osgoode Hall Canada Life Building Toronto Courthouse United States Consulate General of Toronto Canadian Airman's Memorial Toronto Rehabilitation Institute The Hospital for Sick Children Mount Sinai Hospital Toronto General Hospital Princess Margaret Cancer Centre Ontario Power Building Robert Hood Saunders Memorial - Emanuel Hahn MaRS Discovery District Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy Ontario Legislative Building, Queen's Park Berton, Pierre.
My Times: Living with history 1947-1995. Toronto: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-25528-4 Google Maps of University Avenue
Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc. Hilton Hotels Corporation, is an American multinational hospitality company that manages and franchises a broad portfolio of hotels and resorts. Founded by Conrad Hilton in 1919, the corporation is now led by Christopher J. Nassetta. Hilton is headquartered in Virginia; as of September 2018, its portfolio includes more than 5,500 properties with over 894,000 rooms in 109 countries and territories. Prior to their December 2013 IPO, Hilton was ranked as the 36th largest held company in the United States by Forbes. Hilton has 15 brands across different market segments, including Conrad Hotels & Resorts, Canopy by Hilton, Curio - A Collection by Hilton, Hilton Hotels & Resorts, DoubleTree by Hilton, Embassy Suites Hotels, Hilton Garden Inn, Hampton by Hilton, Homewood Suites by Hilton, Home2 Suites by Hilton, Hilton Grand Vacations, Waldorf Astoria Hotels & Resorts, Tru by Hilton, Tapestry Collection by Hilton, Motto by Hilton. On December 12, 2013, Hilton again became a public company, raising an estimated $2.35 billion in its second IPO.
At the time, The Blackstone Group held a 45.8 percent stake in the company. In October 2016, HNA Group agreed to acquire a 25 percent equity interest in Hilton from Blackstone; the transaction was expected to close in the first quarter of 2017. Hilton's largest stockholders are HNA Group and Wellington Management Group, which own 25%, 15.2%, 6.7% of Hilton common stock respectively. Hilton was founded by Conrad Hilton in Cisco, Texas, in 1919 and had its headquarters in Beverly Hills, from 1969 until 2009. In August 2009, the company moved to Tysons Corner, unincorporated Fairfax County, near McLean. In 1919, Conrad Hilton purchased his first hotel, the 40-room Mobley Hotel in Cisco and bought additional Texas hotels as years passed. In 1925, the Dallas Hilton became the first hotel to use the Hilton name. In 1927, Hilton expanded to Waco, where he opened the first hotel with air-conditioning in public areas and cold running water. In 1943, Hilton purchased the Roosevelt Hotel and the Plaza Hotel in New York, establishing the first hospitality company to span the contiguous United States.
The company incorporated in 1946 as the Hilton Hotels Corporation, subsequently began public trading of shares on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1947, the Roosevelt Hotel became the first hotel in the world to have televisions in its rooms. Hilton International was founded a few years in 1949, with the opening of the Caribe Hilton Hotel in Puerto Rico. Barman Ramon "Monchito" Marreno claimed. Hilton purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York in the same year; the Hotels Statler Company was acquired in 1954 for $111 million in what was the world's most expensive real estate transaction. One year Hilton created the world's first central reservations office, titled "HILCRON"; the reservations team in 1955 consisted of eight members on staff booking reservations for any of Hilton's 28 hotels. Reservations agents used the "availability board" to track records; the chalk board measured 30 feet by 6 feet and allowed HILCRON to make over 6,000 reservations in 1955. Bookings could be made for any Hilton via telegram, or Teletype.
In 1955, Hilton launched a program to ensure every hotel room would include air conditioning. In late 1955, Hilton opened the first post–World War II property in Istanbul. Hilton is credited with pioneering the airport hotel concept with the opening of the San Francisco Airport Hilton in 1959. In 1965, Hilton launched Lady Hilton, the first hotel concept created for women guests. To appeal to female travelers, a number of properties offered floors occupied by only women along with distinct amenities for their usage. In 1969, the first DoubleTree Hotel opened. However, Hilton was not affiliated with the brand until its acquisition of the parent company in 1999. Hilton purchased the Flamingo Las Vegas in 1970, which would become the first in the domestic gaming business to be listed on the NYSE. In 1979, founder Conrad Hilton died at the age of 91. Hilton Hotels Corporation created the Conrad Hotels brand in honor of Hilton. Hilton Honors, the company's guest loyalty program, was initiated in 1987.
In 1994, the Honors surpassed competing hotel loyalty programs by offering members both hotel credit points and airline credit miles. The company has been a sponsor of the United States Olympic Team; the company spun off its international operations into a separately traded company on December 1, 1964, known as "Hilton International Co." It was acquired in 1967 by Trans World Corp. the holding company for Trans World Airlines. In 1986, it was sold to UAL Corp. the holding company for United Airlines, which became Allegis Corp. in an attempt to re-incarnate itself as a full-service travel company, encompassing Westin Hotels and Hertz rental cars in addition to Hilton International and United Airlines. In 1987, after a corporate putsch, the renamed UAL Corp. sold Hilton International to Ladbroke Group plc, a British leisure and gambling company, which, in May 1999, adopted the name "Hilton Group plc." As a result, there were two separate independent companies operating hotels under the Hilton name.
Those Hilton Hotels outside the U. S. were, until 2006, styled as "Hilton International" hotels. Because the two chains were contractually forbidden to operate hotels in the other's territory under the Hilton name, for many years hotels run by Hilton International in the U. S. were called Vista International Hotels, while hotels operated by the American arm of Hilton outside the U. S. were named Conrad Hotels. In 1997, to minimize longtime consumer confusion, the American
Trillium is a side wheeler ferry operated by the City of Toronto, in Toronto, Canada. She is one of several ferries between its terminal at Bay Street and Queens Quay and three landing points on the Toronto Islands, she is the last sidewheel-propelled vessel on the Great Lakes. The ship was built in 1910 by Polson Iron Works at a cost of CA$75,000; the ferry was built for and operated by the Toronto Ferry Company. She was launched on June 18, 1910, christened with a bottle of champagne by eight-year-old Phyllis Osler, granddaughter of politician Edmund Boyd Osler; the ferry entered service on July 1, 1910. Trillium's sister ship and other ferries Primrose and Mayflower in the company's fleet were named after flowers. In 1926, the City of Toronto acquired Trillium and the other ferries in the Toronto Ferry Company's fleet, took over all ferry services; the ferry was remodelled by the Toronto Transit Commission, replacing worn woodwork and the main deck cabin, removing the side gangways and officer daycabins.
Trillium was sold for CA$4,500 to the Toronto Works Department. It was left to sink in a lagoon in the Toronto Islands, along with her sister vessel Bluebell. Unlike Bluebell, converted to a garbage scow, Trillium was left to deteriorate, it was first proposed in 1965 to be put back in service. Due to the advocacy of historian Mike Filey and Toronto Parks Commissioner Tommy Thompson, Metro Toronto approved her restoration in 1973; the restoration at a cost of CA$950,000, was chosen over building a new ferry which would have cost three to four million dollars. Champion Engineering Ltd. supervised the restoration, done in Port Colborne, Ontario at the E. B. Magee drydock in Ramey's Bend; the restoration replaced the superstructure and deck. Original gauges and other 1910-era accessories were salvaged from Toronto Department of Public Works pumping stations. Other items were salvaged from the boats Imperial Windsor and Texaco Brave which were being scrapped. Several replicas were made of original parts, such as the brass bells and the beavers adorning the sides of the paddle boxes.
The boat was rebuilt as close as possible to the original 1910 plans. The ship was rechristened on June 18, 1976, 66 years after her first launch, the ceremony officiated by the same Phyllis Osler Aitken, she was returned to service on July 1, 1976, on runs to Hanlan's Point, the other island ferry docks having been converted for the other ferries. In 2017, Trillium was refurbished at a cost of CA$450,000; the refurbishment will extend its lifespan. The repairs included replacements to three new coats of paint. IncidentsIn 1910, Trillium helped douse a fire on the harbourfront. In 1911, Trillium ran aground while on her return from a lacrosse match; the ferry Island Queen took off 600 passengers ran aground herself. Launches, sailboats and canoes had to come to the rescue of the 2,000 stranded people; that year the water level of Lake Ontario was the lowest it had been since 1874. Trillium collided with the former MS Normac in 1981. Normac, a former Great Lakes passenger vessel had been converted to Captain John's Harbour Boat Restaurant, had been permanently moored in the Yonge Street slip since 1970.
A mechanical failure caused Trillium to stop before colliding with the restaurant. The restaurant developed a slow leak. A 29-year-old man drowned after jumping off Trillium while attending the 1993 Caribana festival, he jumped off at 11 pm on July 29, telling friends that he would meet them on shore at Ontario Place. Trillium was about 300 feet from shore. Police recovered his body on July 30; the victim's mother was hurt by speculation about his sobriety. Ongiara Sam McBride Thomas Rennie William Inglis Media related to Trillium at Wikimedia Commons
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
The National Post is a Canadian English-language newspaper. The paper is the flagship publication of Postmedia Network, is published Tuesdays through Saturdays, it was founded in 1998 by Conrad Black. Once distributed nationally, it began publishing a daily edition in the provinces of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia, with only its weekend edition available in Manitoba and Saskatchewan; as of 2006, the Post is no longer distributed in the territories. Conrad Black built the National Post around the Financial Post, a financial newspaper in Toronto which Hollinger Inc. purchased from Sun Media in 1997. Financial Post was retained as the name of the new newspaper's business section. Outside Toronto, the Post was built on the printing and distribution infrastructure of Hollinger's national newspaper chain called Southam Newspapers, that included the newspapers Ottawa Citizen, Montreal Gazette, Edmonton Journal, Calgary Herald, Vancouver Sun; the Post became Black's national flagship title, Ken Whyte was appointed editor.
Beyond his political vision, Black attempted to compete directly with Kenneth Thomson's media empire led in Canada by The Globe and Mail, which Black and many others perceived as the platform of the Liberal establishment. When the Post launched, its editorial stance was conservative, it advocated a "unite-the-right" movement to create a viable alternative to the Liberal government of Jean Chrétien, supported the Canadian Alliance. The Post's op-ed page has included dissenting columns by ideological liberals such as Linda McQuaig, as well as conservatives including Mark Steyn and Diane Francis, David Frum. Original members of the Post editorial board included Ezra Levant, Neil Seeman, Jonathan Kay, Conservative Member of Parliament John Williamson and the author/historian Alexander Rose; the Post's magazine-style graphic and layout design has won awards. The original design of the Post was created by a design consultant based in Montreal; the Post now bears the motto "World's Best-Designed Newspaper" on its front page.
The Post was unable to maintain momentum in the market without continuing to operate with annual budgetary deficits. At the same time, Conrad Black was becoming preoccupied by his debt-heavy media empire, Hollinger International. Black divested his Canadian media holdings, sold the Post to CanWest Global Communications Corp, controlled by Israel "Izzy" Asper, in two stages – 50% in 2000, along with the entire Southam newspaper chain, the remaining 50% in 2001. CanWest Global owned the Global Television Network. Izzy Asper died in October 2003, his sons Leonard and David Asper assumed control of CanWest, the latter serving as chairman of the Post. Editor-in-chief Matthew Fraser departed in 2005 after the arrival of a new publisher, Les Pyette – the paper's seventh publisher in seven years. Fraser's deputy editor, Doug Kelly succeeded him as editor. Pyette departed seven months after his arrival, replaced by Gordon Fisher; the Post limited print distribution in Atlantic Canada in 2006, part of a trend to which The Globe and Mail and the Toronto Star, Canada's other two papers with inter-regional distribution, have all resorted.
Print editions were removed from all Atlantic Canadian newsstands except in Halifax as of 2007. Focussing further on its online publishing, in 2008, the paper suspended weekday editions and home delivery in Manitoba and Saskatchewan; the reorientation towards digital continued into its next decade. Politically, the Post has retained a conservative editorial stance although the Asper family has long been a strong supporter of the Liberal Party of Canada. Izzy Asper was once leader of the Liberal Party in his home province of Manitoba; the Aspers had controversially fired the publisher of the Ottawa Citizen, Russell Mills, for calling for the resignation of Liberal prime minister Jean Chrétien. However, the Post endorsed the Conservative Party of Canada in the 2004 election when Fraser was editor; the Conservatives narrowly lost that election to the Liberals. After the election, the Post surprised many of its conservative readers by shifting its support to the victorious Liberal government of prime minister Paul Martin, was critical of the Conservatives and their leader, Stephen Harper.
The paper switched camps again in the runup to the 2006 election. During the election campaign, David Asper appeared publicly several times to endorse the Conservatives. Like its competitor The Globe and Mail, the Post publishes a separate edition in Toronto, Canada's largest city and the fourth largest English-language media centre in North America after New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago; the Toronto edition includes additional local content not published in the edition distributed to the rest of Canada, is printed at the Toronto Star Press Centre in Vaughan. On September 27, 2007, the Post unveiled a major redesign of its appearance. Guided by Gayle Grin, the Post's managing editor of design and graphics, the redesign features a standardization in the size of typeface and the number of typefaces used, cleaner font for charts and graphs, the move of the nameplate banner from the top to the left side of Page 1 as well as each section's front page. In 2009, the paper announced that as a temporary cost-cutting measure, it would not print a Monday edition from July to September 2009.
On October 29, 2009, Canwest Global announced that due to a lack of funding, the National Post might close down as of October 30, 2009, subject to moving the paper to a new holding company. Late on October 29, 2009, Ontario Superior Court Justice Sarah Pepall ruled in Canwest's favour and allowed the paper to move into a holding company. Investment bankers hired by Canwest received no