Shippingport Atomic Power Station
The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was the world’s first full-scale atomic electric power plant devoted to peacetime uses. It was located near the present-day Beaver Valley Nuclear Generating Station on the Ohio River in Beaver County, United States, about 25 miles from Pittsburgh; the reactor reached criticality on December 2, 1957, aside from stoppages for three core changes, it remained in operation until October 1982. The first electrical power was produced on December 18, 1957 as engineers synchronized the plant with the distribution grid of Duquesne Light Company; the first core used at Shippingport originated from a cancelled nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and used enriched uranium as "seed" fuel surrounded by a "blanket" of natural U-238, in a so-called seed-and-blanket design. The first Shippingport core reactor turned out to be capable of an output of 60 MWe one month after its launch; the second core was designed but more powerful, having a larger seed. The energetic seed required more refueling cycles than the blanket in these first two cores.
The third and final core used at Shippingport was an experimental, light water moderated, thermal breeder reactor. It kept the same seed-and-blanket design, but the seed was now Uranium-233 and the blanket was made of Thorium. Additionally, being a breeder reactor, it had the ability to transmute inexpensive Thorium to Uranium-233 as part of its fuel cycle; the breeding ratio attained by Shippingport's third core was 1.01. Over its 25-year life, the Shippingport power plant operated for about 80,324 hours, producing about 7.4 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity. Owing to the aforementioned peculiarities, some non-governmental sources label Shippingport a "demonstration PWR reactor" and consider that the "first commercial PWR" in the US was Yankee Rowe. Criticism centers on the fact that the Shippingport plant had not been built to commercial specifications; the construction cost per kilowatt at Shippingport was about ten times those for a conventional power plant. In 1953, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave his Atoms for Peace speech to the United Nations.
Commercial nuclear power generation was cornerstone of his plan. A proposal by Duquesne Light Company was accepted by Admiral Rickover and the plans for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station started. Ground was broken on Labor Day, September 9, 1954. President Eisenhower remotely initiated the first scoop of dirt at the ceremony; the reactor achieved first criticality at 4:30 AM on December 2, 1957. Sixteen days on December 18, the first electrical power was generated and full power was achieved on December 23, 1957, although the station remained in test mode. Eisenhower opened the Shippingport Atomic Power Station on May 26, 1958; the plant was built in 32 months at a cost of $72.5 million. The type of reactor used at Shippingport was a matter of expediency; the Atomic Energy Commission urged the construction of a reactor integrated into the utility grid. The only suitable reactor available at the time was the one, intended for the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier desired by the Navy, but which Eisenhower had just vetoed.
Kenneth Nichols of the AEC said it "became obvious" that the Rickover-Westinghouse pressurised-water reactor intended for an aircraft carrier was "the best choice for a reactor to demonstrate the production of electricity" with Rickover "having a going organization and a reactor project under way that now had no specific use to justify it". This was accepted by Lewis Strauss and the Commission in January 1954; the acceptance of Duquesne Light as the utility partner was announced on 11 March. The ground-breaking ceremony in August was initiated by Eisenhower from Denver where he was giving a talk on atomic energy on Labor Day; the origin of the project explains why the Shippingport reactor used 93%-enriched Uranium, quite unlike commercial power reactors that don't exceed 5% enrichment. Other significant differences from commercial reactors include the use of hafnium for its control rods, although these were necessary and used only in the reactor's seed. Shippingport was created and operated under the auspices of Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, whose authority included a substantial role within the United States Atomic Energy Commission.
The Shippingport reactor was designed to accommodate different cores during its lifetime. The first, installed in 1957, held 14.2 tons of natural uranium and 165 pounds of high-enriched uranium. The seed was depleted quicker than the blanket, it was replenished three times during the lifetime of the first core. Seven years the first core was retired, after having produced 1.8 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity. The second core had increased generating capacity and instrumentation to measure performance, but otherwise used the same seed-and-blanket design. For the second core, the seed volume was 21% of the total core volume; the second core thus required only one seed refueling. It began operating in 1965 and over the next nine years generated 3.5 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity. In 1974 the turbine-generator suffered mechanical failure; the third and final core was a light water breeder, which began operating in August 1977 and after testing was brought to full power
Mt. Lebanon, Pennsylvania
Mt. Lebanon is a township with home rule status in Allegheny County, United States; the population was 33,137 at the 2010 census. It is a suburb of Pittsburgh. Established in 1912 as Mount Lebanon, the township was a farming community until the arrival of streetcar lines, first opening in 1901 Now with the ability to commute to and from Downtown Pittsburgh daily, Mount Lebanon became a streetcar suburb, with the first real estate subdivision being laid out in November 1901. Further, the opening of the Liberty Tunnel in 1924 allowed easy automobile access to Pittsburgh. In 1975, the renamed Mt. Lebanon adopted; the first settlers arrived in 1773-1774, having purchased the land from the descendants of William Penn. In 1912, Mount Lebanon Township was incorporated as a "First Class Township" under Pennsylvania state law, it had been a part of Scott Township, which in turn traces its origins to the long-defunct St. Clair Township. Mount Lebanon was not named for two Cedar of Lebanon trees that were planted in 1850 on Washington Road near the top of Bower Hill Road, but was named after the area from which they came, Mount Lebanon, due to the similarities between the two landscapes.
Prior to the incorporation of the township, the "Mount Lebanon" name was used for the area of Upper St. Clair Township near the cedar trees. In the 1880s, a post office located near the transplanted cedar trees was named "Mount Lebanon". Incorporators of neighboring Dormont Borough tried to use the "Mount Lebanon" name in 1909, but were opposed by residents of the future Mount Lebanon Township. In 1928, Mount Lebanon became the first First Class township in Pennsylvania to adopt the council-manager form of government and has had an appointed manager serving as the chief administrative officer since that time. Mount Lebanon was a farming community until the arrival of streetcar lines, the first line to Pittsburgh opening on July 1, 1901 followed by a second in 1924. After the arrival of the streetcar lines, which enabled daily commuting to and from Downtown Pittsburgh, Mount Lebanon became a streetcar suburb, with the first real estate subdivision being laid out in November 1901. Further, the opening of the Liberty Tubes in 1924 allowed easy automobile access to Pittsburgh.
Between the 1920 and 1930 censuses, the township's population skyrocketed from 2,258 to 13,403. Today, Pittsburgh's mass transit agency, the Port Authority of Allegheny County, or "PATransit," operates a light rail system whose Red Line, which runs underneath Uptown Mt. Lebanon through the Mt. Lebanon Tunnel, merges with the 47L line in Pittsburgh's Mt. Washington section. Mt. Lebanon's only platform station, Mt. Lebanon Station, is in Uptown Mt. Lebanon, and as of the census of 2000, there were 33,017 people living in Mt. Lebanon. In 1971, Muhammad Ali attempted to purchase a home in Virginia Manor, but racial discrimination prevented him from doing so; however and former residents claim that the rejection was due to the anticipated publicity and crowds which would result from the sale of the property to Ali. On May 21, 1974, the electorate approved a Home Rule Charter, which took effect on January 1, 1975. Mount Lebanon became one of the first municipalities in Pennsylvania to adopt a home rule charter.
In the charter, the official name of the municipality became Pennsylvania. S. Postal Service continues to use "Mount." On January, 22, 2018, mount lebanon is proud to announce that the kindest students at Washington Elementary are Tess kanche,Audrey Gracik,and,Marisol Huser. We have concluded this Information based on the tests that the school took on kindness in 2017. Mt. Lebanon is located at 40°22′30″N 80°3′0″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 6.06 square miles. Mt. Lebanon is a affluent suburb of Pittsburgh 7 miles south of the city's downtown. There are two small borders with Pittsburgh neighborhoods to the north; the remainder of the northeast border is with the borough of Dormont. The entire western border is with Scott Township. To the south are the two towns which, due to their comparable size and affluence, are most compared with Mt. Lebanon: Upper St. Clair to the southwest and Bethel Park to the southeast. To the east is Castle Shannon, to the east-northeast is Baldwin Township.
Uptown Mt. Lebanon has Washington Rd. as its main thoroughfare. Uptown Mt. Lebanon is one of the more built up central business districts outside of Pittsburgh, featuring numerous coffee shops, small galleries and clothing boutiques; the neighborhood is organized as The Uptown Mt. Lebanon Professional Association. There are sizable business districts along the borders with Upper St. Clair and Castle Shannon, as well. Neighborhoods within Mt Lebanon include: Beverly Heights, Cedarhurst Manor, Hoodridge Hilands, Mission Hills, Sunset Hills, Virginia Manor, Twin Hills, Woodridge. Virginia Manor is an affluent subdivision, with streets designed to follow the natural contours of the land. Future Governor James H. Duff helped found Virginia Manor in 1929; as of the census of 2000, there were 33,017 people, 13,610 households, 9,023 families residi
University of Pittsburgh
The University of Pittsburgh is a state-related research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was founded as the Pittsburgh Academy in 1787 on the edge of the American frontier, it developed and was renamed as Western University of Pennsylvania by a change to its charter in 1819. After surviving two devastating fires and various relocations within the area, the school moved to its current location in the Oakland neighborhood of the city. Pitt was a private institution until 1966 when it became part of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education; the university is composed of 17 undergraduate and graduate schools and colleges at its urban Pittsburgh campus, home to the university's central administration and 28,766 undergraduate and professional students. The university includes four undergraduate schools located at campuses within Western Pennsylvania: Bradford, Greensburg and Titusville; the 132-acre Pittsburgh campus has multiple contributing historic buildings of the Schenley Farms Historic District, most notably its 42-story Gothic revival centerpiece, the Cathedral of Learning.
The campus is situated adjacent to the flagship medical facilities of its affiliated University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, as well as the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, Schenley Park, Carnegie Mellon University. The university has an annual operating budget of $2 billion; this includes nearly $940 million in research and development expenditures as of 2017, the 16th-highest in the nation. A member of the Association of American Universities, Pitt is the third-largest recipient of federally sponsored health research funding among U. S. universities in 2018 and it is a major recipient of research funding from the National Institutes of Health. It is the second-largest non-government employer in the Pittsburgh region behind UPMC. Pitt is ranked among the top research universities in the United States in both domestic and international rankings and it has been listed as a "best value" in higher education by several publications. Pitt students have access to arts programs throughout the campus and city and can participate in over 400 student clubs and organizations.
Pitt's varsity athletic teams, collectively known as the Pittsburgh Panthers, compete in Division I of the NCAA as members of the Atlantic Coast Conference. Founded by Hugh Henry Brackenridge as Pittsburgh Academy in 1787, the University of Pittsburgh is one of the few universities and colleges established in the 18th century in the United States, it is the oldest continuously chartered institution of learning in the U. S. west of the Allegheny Mountains. The school began as a preparatory school in a log cabin as early as 1770 in Western Pennsylvania a frontier. Brackenridge obtained a charter for the school from the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on February 28, 1787, just ten weeks before the opening of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. A brick building was erected in 1790 on the south side of Third Street and Cherry Alley for the Pittsburgh Academy; the small two-story brick building, with a gable facing the alley, contained three rooms: one below and two above.
Within a short period, more advanced education in the area was needed, so in 1819 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania amended the school's 1787 charter to confer university status. The school was named the Western University of Pennsylvania, or WUP, was intended to be the western sister institution to the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. By 1830, WUP had moved into a new three-story, freestone-fronted building, with Ionic columns and a cupola, near its original buildings fronting the south side of Third Street, between Smithfield Street and Cherry Alley in downtown Pittsburgh. By the 1830s, the university faced severe financial pressure to abandon its traditional liberal education in favor of the state legislature's desire for it to provide more vocational training; the decision to remain committed to liberal education nearly killed the university, but it persevered despite its abandonment by the city and state. It was during this era that the founder of Mellon Bank, Thomas Mellon and taught at WUP.
The university's buildings, along with most of its records and files, were destroyed in the Great Fire of 1845 that wiped out 20 square blocks of Pittsburgh. Classes were temporarily held in Trinity Church until a new building was constructed on Duquesne Way. Only four years in 1849, this building was destroyed by fire. Due to the catastrophic nature of these fires, operations were suspended for a few years to allow the university time to regroup and rebuild. By 1854, WUP had erected a new building on the corner of Ross and Diamond streets and classes resumed in 1855, it is during this era, in 1867, that Samuel Pierpont Langley, inventor, aviation pioneer and future Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, was chosen as director of the Allegheny Observatory, donated to WUP in 1865. Langley was professor of astronomy and physics and remained at WUP until 1891, when he was succeeded by another prominent astronomer, James Keeler. Growing during this period, WUP outgrew its downtown facilities and the university moved its campus to Allegheny City.
The university found itself on a 10-acre site on the North Side's Observatory Hill at the location of its Allegheny Observatory. There, it constructed two new buildings, Science Hall and Main Hall, that were occupied by 1889 and 1890 respectively. During this era, the first
Electrification of the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad
The New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad pioneered electrification of main line railroads using high-voltage, alternating current, single-phase overhead catenary. It electrified its mainline between Stamford and Woodlawn, New York, in 1907, extended the electrification to New Haven, Connecticut, in 1914. While single-phase AC railroad electrification has become commonplace, the New Haven's system was unprecedented at the time of construction; the significance of this electrification was recognized in 1982 by its designation as a National Historic Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The New Haven tried several experiments with low-voltage DC electrification in the decade preceding their main line overhead electrification; these included: 1895 electrification of 6.8 mi of line between Nantasket Junction and Pemberton, Massachusetts using overhead copper contact wire at 600-700 Vdc. This line was extended an additional 3.4 mi to East Weymouth around 1896. Third-rail electrification between Hartford, New Britain, Berlin, a total of 12 mi in 1896.
This third-rail system was unique. The third rail system resulted, not in a number of accidents, it resulted in a decree from the Connecticut Supreme Court on June 13, 1906 forbidding the use of third rail electrification within the state. The New Haven was forced by this decision to design their main line electrification system using overhead catenary. Several different systems combinations of voltage and frequency were considered in the initial design. Due to the large distances involved, transmission at high voltages using alternate current was recognized as being unavoidable. An architecture similar to commercial DC utilities and urban railroads was considered using high voltage transmission lines, rotary converters, overhead DC catenary; the studies of the time assumed an electrical efficiency of only 75 percent for this architecture. The highest voltage for which generators could be reliably designed at this time was about 22 kV. An intermediate design was considered using 22 kV transmission lines, substations to reduce catenary voltage to between 3 and 6 kV, transformers on the engines to the 560 V required by the traction motors.
The railroad realized that it could save significant capital cost if the intermediate substitution were omitted and locomotives received line voltage at around 11 kV. The New Haven's electrification was the first of its kind. Many of the system's ultimate specifications were the result of educated design decisions based on the state of the electrical technology in 1907. Proposals were obtained from General Westinghouse. Both companies submitted a variety of DC schemes, though GE favoured DC electrification, but New Haven chose single-phase AC at 11 kV, 25 Hz. as proposed by Westinghouse, researching AC electrification of railroads since 1895 and in association with Baldwin supplied Baldwin-Westinghouse locomotives. GE supplied some locomotives; the designers considered several voltages for the transmission segment of the system including 3-6 kV, 11 kV, 22 kV. The transmission and catenary systems were combined into a transformerless system, that utilized the same voltage from output of generator to catenary to locomotive pantograph.
As 11 kV was the highest voltage that could be obtained directly from the output of the generators of 1907, 11 kV was selected as the transmission and catenary voltage of the system. The New Haven considered two different operating frequencies for use in their electrification: 15 Hz and 25 Hz; the lower frequency of 15 Hz afforded reduced motor size, lower inductive losses, a higher motor power factor. 25 Hz had by 1907 become a commercial standard, the railroad operated a number of trolley power houses at 25 Hz and had equipped many of its shops with 25 Hz motors. Selection of 15 Hz viewed by the railroad as a'break in gage' which would have limited the commercial value of the system, thus the railroad selected the 25 Hz standard though it might have been more desirable from an engineering perspective. Note that many European railroads standardized on a 16.7 Hz traction power frequency. The New Haven had no precedent to follow. Overhead catenary had been the domain of trolleys, except for a few three-phase railways in Europe.
No prior experience existed with operating high-speed railways with an overhead contact system. The catenary designed by the New Haven was a unique rigid triangular cross-section; the triangular cross-section of catenary used in the original electrification was only repeated by one other railway. The London and South Coast Railway used a similar triangular catenary from 1909 until 1929; the New Haven's 1914 extensions dispensed with the triangular catenary design. Catenary support spacing was set at 300 feet; this was based on keeping the straight line deviation from center of track to within 8.5 inches with a curve radius of 3 degree, the tightest curve between the original system's termini at Woodlawn and Stamford. The generators at the Cos Cob Power Station were designed to supply single-phase power directly to the catenary, they were required to supply three-phase power both to the New Haven itself for use along the lines, to the New York Central's Port Morris generating station to compensate the NYC for the power consumed by New Haven trains on the NYC's third-rail supplied l
United States Atomic Energy Commission
The United States Atomic Energy Commission known as the AEC, was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by U. S. Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology. President Harry S. Truman signed the McMahon/Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946, transferring the control of atomic energy from military to civilian hands, effective on January 1, 1947; this shift gave the members of the AEC complete control of the plants, laboratories and personnel assembled during the war to produce the atomic bomb. During its initial establishment and subsequent operationalization, the AEC played a key role in the institutional development of Ecosystem ecology, it provided crucial financial resources, allowing for ecological research to take place. More it enabled ecologists with a wide range of groundbreaking techniques for the completion of their research. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the AEC approved funding for numerous bioenvironmental projects in the arctic and subarctic regions.
These projects were designed to examine the effects of nuclear energy upon the environment and were a part of the AEC's attempt at creating peaceful applications of atomic energy. An increasing number of critics during the 1960s charged that the AEC's regulations were insufficiently rigorous in several important areas, including radiation protection standards, nuclear reactor safety, plant siting, environmental protection. By 1974, the AEC's regulatory programs had come under such strong attack that the U. S. Congress decided to abolish the AEC; the AEC was abolished by the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, which assigned its functions to two new agencies: the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. On August 4, 1977, President Jimmy Carter signed into law The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977, which created the Department of Energy; the new agency assumed the responsibilities of the Federal Energy Administration, the Energy Research and Development Administration, the Federal Power Commission, various other Federal agencies.
In creating the AEC, Congress declared that atomic energy should be employed not only in the form of nuclear weapons for the nation's defense, but to promote world peace, improve the public welfare and strengthen free competition in private enterprise. At the same time, the McMahon Act which created the AEC gave it unprecedented powers of regulation over the entire field of nuclear science and technology, it furthermore explicitly prevented technology transfer between the United States and other countries, required FBI investigations for all scientists or industrial contractors who wished to have access to any AEC controlled nuclear information. The signing was the culmination of long months of intensive debate among politicians, military planners and atomic scientists over the fate of this new energy source and the means by which it would be regulated. President Truman appointed David Lilienthal as the first Chairman of the AEC. Congress gave the new civilian AEC extraordinary power and considerable independence to carry out its mission.
To provide the AEC exceptional freedom in hiring its scientists and engineers, AEC employees were exempt from the civil service system. The AEC's first order of business was to inspect the scattered empire of atomic plants and laboratories to be inherited from the U. S. Army; because of the need for great security, all production facilities and nuclear reactors would be government-owned, while all technical information and research results would be under AEC control. The National Laboratory system was established from the facilities created under the Manhattan Project. Argonne National Laboratory was one of the first laboratories authorized under this legislation as a contractor-operated facility dedicated to fulfilling the new AEC's missions; the Argonne was the first of the regional laboratories. Others were the Clinton labs and the Brookhaven National Laboratory in the Northeast, although a similar lab in Southern California did not eventuate. On 11 March 1948 Lilienthal and Kenneth Nichols were summoned to the White House where Truman told them "I know you two hate each other’s guts".
He directed that "the primary objective of the AEC was to develop and produce atomic weapons", Nichols was appointed a major general and replaced Leslie Groves as chief of the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Lilienthal had opposed his appointment. Lilienthal was told to "forgo your desire to place a bottle of milk on every doorstop and get down to the business of producing atomic weapons. Nichols became General Manager of the AEC on 2 November 1953; the AEC was in charge of developing the U. S. nuclear arsenal, taking over these responsibilities from the wartime Manhattan Project. In its first decade, the AEC oversaw the operation of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, devoted to weapons development, in 1952, the creation of new second weapons laboratory in California, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the AEC carried out the "crash program" to develop the hydrogen bomb, the AEC played a key role in the prosecution of the Rosenbergs for espionage. The AEC began a program of regular nuclear weapons testing, both in the faraway Pacific Proving Grounds and at the Nevada Test Site in the western United States.
While the AEC supported much basic research, the vast majority of its early budget was devoted to nuclear weapons development and production. Within the AEC, high-level scientific and technical advice was provided by the General Advisory Committee headed by J. Robert Oppenheimer. In its early years, the General
Jefferson Hills, Pennsylvania
Jefferson Hills is a borough in Allegheny County, United States. It includes the community of Large. In the 2010 census the population was 10,619. Jefferson Hills was created as Jefferson Township, incorporating on January 22, 1828, named after Thomas Jefferson; the borough is a part of West Jefferson Hills School District. Before 1998, the borough was known as Jefferson. Jefferson Hills is a borough, run by mayor; the administrative staff run by the borough manager runs the borough to the objectives set by the council. Council President · Christopher W. King Council Vice President · James A. Weber Council Members · Frank Sockman · Vickie Ielase · Tracey P. Khalil · Mary K. Reynolds · David Montgomery Mayor. Janice R. Cmar Jefferson Hills is represented by Pat Toomey and Bob Casey, Jr. in the United States Senate and Conor Lamb of the 18th District of Pennsylvania in the House of Representatives. The borough's representative in the Pennsylvania State Senate is Guy Reschenthaler of the 37th District and Dr. Rick Saccone of the 39th Legislative District in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives.
The District Court judge for Jefferson Hills is Michael Thatcher. Jefferson Hills police department is in the Municipal Center, it has several community service staff. The police take part in programs such as Drug Abuse Resistance Education) in the West Jefferson Hills School District; the force belongs to TUPPER, in which police from nine nearby communities collaborate, sharing regional criminal information. It takes part in the Pennsylvania Attorney General's Regional Narcotic Task Force and the South Hills DUI task force; the borough has emergency volunteer firefighters. There are three volunteer fire companies - Floreffe Volunteer Fire Company, Gill Hall Volunteer Fire Company and Jefferson 885 Fire Company. Crime in Jefferson Hills is well below state and national averages; the rates for 2005, based per 100,000 people: School tax millage rate- The West Jefferson Hills School District in 2017 was 20.236. This ranked 24th highest/most expensive out of Allegheny County's 47 school districts. Jefferson Hills is at 40°17′8″N 79°55′59″W.
The United States Census Bureaun says the borough is 16.6 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.24%, is water. The borough includes rolling woods; the southeastern border is the Monongahela River. Three streams flow through the borough: Peters Creek, Beam Run, Lewis Run; the borough consists of single family homes of newer construction. Jefferson Hills has six land borders with Pleasant Hills and West Mifflin to the north, Clairton to the east, West Elizabeth to the southeast, Union Township in Washington County to the south, South Park Township to the west. Across the Monongahela River, Jefferson Hills runs adjacent with Elizabeth Township, Elizabeth Borough and Forward Township; as of the census of 2000, there were 9,666 people, 3,781 households, 2,688 families residing in the borough. The population density was 583.5 people per square mile. There were 3,954 housing units at an average density of 238.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.76% White, 1.31% African American, 0.17% Native American, 1.09% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 0.53% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.69% of the population. There were 3,781 households, out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.0% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.9% were non-families. 24.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.04. In the borough the population was spread out, with 24.0% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.1 males. The borough is overwhelmingly Middle Class; the median income for a household in the borough was $50,615, the median income for a family was $60,767. Males had a median income of $43,972 versus $36,052 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $23,006.
About 2.7% of families and 4.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over. The total area of the borough of Jefferson is 10,752 acres, its history dates back to January 22, 1828 when it was created as a township from the old Township of Mifflin. At that time, the community was called "Jefferson Township" in honor of Thomas Jefferson. In 1845, Snowden Township was formed from a part of Jefferson Township. Population of the township in 1860 was 1,601 persons, in 1870 it was 2,066 persons, it reached a total population of 3,227 persons in 1880. Jefferson Township became a First Class Township in 1914, in 1950 Jefferson was chartered as a borough; the borough of Pleasant Hills seceded from Jefferson Township in 1947 and by so doing, drastically reduced the population and urbanized area of the township. Jefferson Hills is located along the southern border of Allegheny County and is residential in nature, with one-third of its area presently being used for residential purposes.
The residential use is single-family dwellings with over one percent being multiple-family units. Another third of the borough exists in the
Old Overholt, said to be America's oldest continually maintained brand of whiskey, was founded in West Overton, Pennsylvania, in 1810. Old Overholt is a rye whiskey distilled by A. Overholt & Co. a subsidiary of Beam Suntory, a subsidiary of Suntory Holdings of Osaka, Japan. It is produced at the Jim Beam distillery in Kentucky, it is one of the most available straight rye whiskies in the U. S. where it is available at most liquor stores. It is bottled at 80 proof. A four-year Bottled In Bond, 100 proof version was released in late 2017. Old Overholt has been called a "foundation stone of American whiskey" because of its long history. Henry Oberholzer, a German Mennonite farmer, moved to West Overton, Pennsylvania, on the banks of Jacobs Creek in Western Pennsylvania in 1800, his family came from the area of Germany which specialized in distilling "korn", or rye whiskey, Henry took up the tradition. In 1810, Henry's son Abraham Overholt took over management of the distillery and made it into a business.
By the 1820s, the distillery was putting out 12 to 15 gallons of rye whiskey per day. Abraham grew the company rapidly. By 1859, Overholt incorporated his business as "A. Overholt & Co." He operated out of a new distillery building, six stories high, 100 feet long, which could produce 860 gallons per day. In 1881, Abraham's grandson Henry Clay Frick took over the company; as one of the country's wealthiest people, the distillery was a sentimental side-business for Frick. Frick took on Andrew Mellon and one Charles W. Mauck as partners, each owning one-third of the business. In 1888, Mauck adopted the name "Old Overholt" as the official name of the company, adding a picture of Abraham as the logo. Around that time, the company started selling its product in bottles instead of barrels. By 1900, Old Overholt became a national brand. In the early years of the 20th Century, Old Overholt became one of the largest and most respected whiskeys in the country. Frick died in December 1919, left his share to Andrew Mellon.
This ended family ownership in the company. The national prohibition of alcohol in 1920 hit most American breweries and distilleries hard, putting many out of business; because of its association with Mellon, secretary of the treasury under Warren G. Harding, Old Overholt was able to secure a permit for selling medicinal whiskey; this permit allowed Overholt to sell existing whiskey stocks to druggists for medicinal use. In 1925, under pressure from prohibitionists, Mellon sold his share of the company to a New York grocer, thus ending local ownership; the company was sold again in 1932 to National Distillers Products Co. which owned more than 200 brands. During World War II, Overholt and other whiskey distilleries were ordered by the government to make industrial alcohol. After war's end, whiskey fell out of favor with the American public as drinkers switched to vodka. Rye whiskey fell out of favor, by the 1960s, Old Overholt was the only nationally distributed straight rye whiskey; the brand struggled through the 1970s.
In 1987, Old Overholt was sold to the James B. Beam Distilling Company, a subsidiary of American Brands, which moved production to Kentucky; the Jim Beam division was acquired by Suntory. Since December 2015, Old Overholt and Old Grand-Dad, both of which are Beam Suntory brands, have been marketed together as "The Olds". Old Overholt is associated with the Old West Tombstone, Arizona and is served in "Old West" tourist saloons in Tombstone today; the brand was parodied in a Warner Brothers cartoon and in the Terry Pratchett novels The Dark Side of the Sun and Soul Music as "Old Overcoat". The Old Overholt distillery was a plot element at the end of season 3 of Boardwalk Empire; the distillery was part a deal between Andrew Mellon and Enoch "Nucky" Thompson, who convinced him to let him manage it in order to implicate Jess Smith and George Remus. Overholt is mentioned as the favored whiskey of Sonny McGuiness, a prospector, in the novel EarthCore by Scott Sigler. Overholt is said to have been the alcoholic beverage of choice for notables ranging from Old West gunfighters to U.
S. presidents, including: Gunfighter and gambler Doc Holliday Old West outlaw Johnny Ringo Civil War general and U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant U. S. President John F. Kennedy U. S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles Food critic Morgan Murphy said "This old brand of rye whiskey needles the drinker with zings of fruit flavors, grain bite, sweet cereal notes."Whisky writer Jim Murray said "creamy nose...citrus notes...very hard rye...momentarily moist and sweet before going on to perfect the driest, crispest finish of its genre". Henry Overholt Jacobs Creek West Overton, Pennsylvania Old Overholt Brand Page Whisky Magazine: Old Overholt tasting profile A history of the Overholt family, EllenJaye.com Abraham Overholt at Find a Grave