Pike Street is an east-west street in Downtown Seattle. It extends from Pike Place above Seattle's saltwater waterfront at Elliott Bay across Capitol Hill to the freshwater shore of Lake Washington at Lake Washington Boulevard. A segment less than a block long exists at Alaskan Way on Elliot Bay, connected to the rest of the street only by the pedestrian Pike Street Hillclimb, it is included in the south-to-north mnemonic "Jesus Christ Made Seattle Under Protest" for the street layout of Seattle. The street was one of the original named streets of Seattle in Arthur A. Denny's 1869 platting, it was named by him for John Pike and builder of the Washington Territorial University in what is now the Metropolitan Tract of downtown Seattle. Until the early 20th century Denny Regrade leveled Denny Hill, it was the easiest way from the waterfront to Lake Union, the main street of the north end of the city. In 1872, Seattle's first railroad, Seattle Coal & Transportation Company, followed Pike Street to deliver Newcastle, King County coal to Elliot Bay transshipped via Lake Washington and Lake Union.
It lasted until 1878 when Seattle and Walla Walla Railroad built a direct line from the fields, around the lake and through Renton. The Pike–Pine corridor on Capitol Hill was once the city's center for automobile sales. After this moved to the suburbs, rents declined and it became a hub for gay culture and Seattle's grunge scene. Gentrification the 21st century brought increasing property values; the Seattle Times said, "For decades, the Pike-Pine corridor between First and Third avenues has been known for run-down buildings, parking lots prone to drug deals and heroin addicts... a dam separating Pike Place Market and its 9 million annual visitors from the city's shopping and convention areas". In the 21st century and Third Avenues between the same two streets has a similar reputation; the Seattle Business Association CEO said "drug dealers sort of own the real estate in that part of downtown" and the mayor called it "a dangerous open-air drug market" with 10,000 calls for police response in one year, according to the city and the FBI.
The U. S. Department of Justice cited "what has become an open air drug market at Pike/Pine and Third Avenue in downtown Seattle" in 2015. Westlake Park between Pike and Pine Streets is a public square in the downtown retail area; the park and surrounding streets have been the site of the exercise of free speech and protests including the 1999 Seattle WTO protests, Occupy Seattle in 2011, Black Lives Matter annual protests since 2014, Women's March on Seattle in 2017. The park contains a Speakers' Corner. 5th Avenue and Pike is the heart of the Seattle downtown shopping district, the Pike–Pine retail corridor, which includes Westlake Center and Pacific Place, both of which are on blocks touching Pike Street. Smaller notable retail establishments on the street include historic landmark Coliseum Theater and Monorail Espresso, both downtown; the original REI store was on a Capitol Hill block bounded by Pike and Pine until it relocated in the 1990s. The intersection of Pike and Broadway on Capitol Hill is the south end of another business district represented by the Broadway Improvement Area, authorized by city ordinance.
The Washington State Convention Center straddles Pike Street at 7th Avenue and the two sections are spanned by a skybridge crossing over Pike, the convention center's "signature element" but one, controversial when built, due to its obstruction of views of Elliott Bay from Capitol Hill, other architectural and public space considerations. In the 21st century the street remains the "epicenter of Seattle's gay culture". According to one guide, Seattle's gay neighborhood is "centered on Pike Street between Belmont Avenue and 18th Avenue". Pike was an experimental "people street", or temporary pedestrian zone, in a city program begun in 2015, it was temporarily closed to automobile traffic and opened to exclusive pedestrian and community uses that included yoga classes, in-street cafe dining and crafts fairs, a fashion show, other activities. The program was repeated several times in 2016 and 2017. Samson, Frommer's: Seattle, retrieved 2006-04-21. Online selection from Karl Samson, Frommer's Seattle 2006, Wiley, ISBN 0-7645-9587-3.
Johnson, Elizabeth Erling. Case Study: Commercial Gentrification in the Pike/Pine Corridor. University of Washington Libraries. Brash, C.. "Pike-Pine Corridor: a village within a village". Lonely Planet Seattle. Travel Guide. Lonely Planet Global Limited. ISBN 978-1-78701-027-7. Williams, David B.. Seattle Walks: Discovering History and Nature in the City. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-74129-1. Skallerud, M. Gay Market Guide. Hyperion Interactive Media. ISBN 978-0-9748957-3-4. Media related to Pike Street, Seattle at Wikimedia Commons
A town square is an open public space found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for town square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, piazza and town green. Most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, political rallies, other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores, clothing stores. At their center is a fountain, monument, or statue. Many of those with fountains are called fountain square. In urban planning, a city square or urban square is a planned open area in a city. In Mainland China, People's Square is a common designation for the central town square of modern Chinese cities, established as part of urban modernization within the last few decades; these squares are the site of government buildings and other public buildings. The best-known and largest such square in China is Tienanmen Square.
The German word for square is Platz, which means "Place", is a common term for central squares in German-speaking countries. These have been focal points of public life in cities from the Middle Ages to today. Squares located opposite a Palace or Castle are named Schlossplatz. Prominent Plätze include the Alexanderplatz, Pariser Platz and Potsdamer Platz in Berlin, Heldenplatz in Vienna, the Königsplatz in Munich. A piazza is a city square in Italy, along the Dalmatian coast and in surrounding regions. San Marco in Venice may be the worlds best known; the term is equivalent to the Spanish plaza. In Ethiopia, it is used to refer to a part of a city; when the Earl of Bedford developed Covent Garden – the first private-venture public square built in London – his architect Inigo Jones surrounded it with arcades, in the Italian fashion. Talk about the piazza was connected in Londoners' minds not with the square as a whole, but with the arcades. A piazza is found at the meeting of two or more streets.
Most Italian cities have several piazzas with streets radiating from the center. Shops and other small businesses are found on piazzas. Many metro stations and bus stops are found on piazzas. In Britain, piazza now refers to a paved open pedestrian space, without grass or planting in front of a significant building or shops. King's Cross station in London is to have a piazza as part of its redevelopment; the piazza will replace the existing 1970s concourse and allow the original 1850s façade to be seen again. There is a good example of a piazza in Scotswood at Newcastle College. In the United States, in the early 19th century, a piazza by further extension became a fanciful name for a colonnaded porch. Piazza was used by some in the Boston area, to refer to a verandah or front porch of a house or apartment. A central square just off Gibraltar's Main Street, between the Parliament Building and the City Hall named John Mackintosh Square is colloquially referred to as The Piazza. A large open square common in villages and cities of Indonesia is known as alun-alun.
It is a Javanese term which in modern-day Indonesia refers to the two large open squares of kraton compounds. It is located adjacent a mosque or a palace, it is a place for court celebrations and general non-court entertainments. In traditional Persian architecture, town squares are known as meydan. A maydan is considered as one of the essential features in urban planning and they are adjacent to bazaars, large mosques and other public buildings. Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan and Azadi Square in Tehran are examples of classic and modern squares. Squares are called "markt" because of the usage of the square as a market place; every town in Belgium and the southern part of the Netherlands has a "Grote Markt" or "Grand Place" in French. The "Grote Markt" is the place where the town hall is situated and therefore the centre of the town; the same naming can be found in surrounding regions as for example Cologne has several central squares named "-markt" or "Markt". In Russia, central square is a common term for an open area in the heart of the town.
In a number of cities this square does not have an individual name, i.e. named so: Tsentráĺnaya Plóshchad́, e.g. Central Square. Throughout Spain, Spanish America, the Spanish East Indies, the plaza mayor of each center of administration held three related institutions: the cathedral, the cabildo or administrative center, which might be incorporated in a wing of a governor's palace, the audiencia or law court; the plaza remains a center of community life, only equaled by the market-place. This open space at the center of the cities is from the Mediterranean where public spaces always had important role for public life; the origin of the word Plaza is, via Latin platea, from Greek πλατεῖα plateia, meaning "broad". The Plaza is the heir to the Roman "Forum", this is the heir of the Greek. Most viceregal cities in Spanish America and the Philippines were planned around a square "plaza de armas", where troops could be mustered, as the name implies, surrounded by the governor's palace and the main church.
In the United Kingdom, in London and Edinburgh, a "square" has a wider meaning. There are public squares of the type desc
Nordstrom Inc. is an American chain of luxury department stores operating in Canada and headquartered in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1901 by Swedish American John W. Nordstrom and Carl F. Wallin, the company began as a shoe retailer and expanded its inventory to include clothing, handbags, jewelry and fragrances. Select Nordstrom stores include wedding and home furnishings departments; the company has in-house cafes and espresso bars. Nordstrom, Inc.'s common stock is publicly traded on the NYSE under the symbol JWN. Nordstrom has 379 stores operating in 40 US states, Puerto Rico and Canada, a number which includes 122 full-line stores and 244 Nordstrom Rack stores, two clearance stores, six Trunk Club clubhouses, three Jeffrey boutiques and three Nordstrom Local stores. Nordstrom serves customers through nordstrom.com, nordstromrack.com, its online private sale site, HauteLook. In 1887, John W. Nordstrom immigrated to the United States at the age of 16, he was born in the village of Alvik, close to the city of Luleå in Northern Sweden.
His name at birth was Johan Nordström, which he anglicized to John Nordstrom. After landing in New York, he first began working in Michigan and was able to save enough money to purchase a 20-acre potato farm in Arlington, Washington. In 1897, he joined the Klondike Gold Rush in Canada's Yukon Territory. After two years of prospecting, he struck gold, but sold his disputed claim for $13,000. Returning to Seattle with his newfound wealth, he married Hilda Carlson and looked for a business venture settling on a shoe store that opened in 1901, called Wallin & Nordstrom. Carl F. Wallin, the co-founder of the store, was the owner of the adjacent shoe repair shop. John and Hilda had five children, three of whom would follow him into the family business, Everett W. Elmer J. and Lloyd N. Nordstrom. In 1928, John W. Nordstrom retired and sold his shares to two of his sons and Elmer. In 1929, Wallin retired and sold his shares to them; the 1930 grand opening of the remodeled Second Avenue store marked the change of name to Nordstrom.
Lloyd Nordstrom subsequently joined the company in 1933, the three brothers ran the business together for forty years. By 1958, Nordstrom still sold only shoes, their expansion was based on deep product offerings and full size ranges. Apparel came with its purchase of Best Apparel of Seattle in 1963, the company's name was changed to Nordstrom's Best. In 1971, the company was taken public on NASDAQ, it was moved to the New York Stock Exchange in 1999 under the ticker symbol JWN after John W. Nordstrom, its founder. By 1975, Nordstrom expanded into Alaska by purchasing Northern Commercial Company and opened its first Nordstrom Rack clearance store in Seattle. A strong northwest regional retailer with sales approaching $250 million making it the third-largest specialty retailer in the United States, the company opened its first Southern California store at South Coast Plaza in Costa Mesa in 1978. By the early 1990s, it had opened 26 stores plus Racks in California. Subsequent expansion relied on creating a decentralized regional structure, beginning with the Northeast in the Tysons Corner Center in Virginia, the Midwest in the Oakbrook Center in Illinois, the Southeast in Atlanta, the Southwest in Dallas.
In a new region, the initial store was used as a base for training and recruitment for subsequent expansion, was backed by its own distribution center. From 1978 to 1995, Nordstrom opened a total of 46 full-line department stores. In 1976, Nordstrom opened a series of stores called Place Two to sell a more limited selection of apparel in smaller markets. By 1983, there were ten Place Two stores, but the cost of upgrading the smaller stores from a systems perspective, outweighed the benefit, the division was discontinued; the company expanded into direct sales in 1993, beginning with a catalog division led by John N.'s son Dan, followed by an e-commerce business. Nordstrom.com's fulfillment and contact centers are located in Iowa. It has distribution centers in Ontario, California. Nordstrom FSB, a wholly owned subsidiary of Nordstrom, Inc. is a federally chartered savings bank doing business as Nordstrom Bank. It was formed in 1991 in Scottsdale, with its customer contact center in Centennial, Colorado.
Nordstrom FSB was known as Nordstrom National Credit Bank and changed its name to Nordstrom FSB in March 2000. The bank offers various banking and credit products, such as Nordstrom Signature VISA, Nordstrom retail credit and debit cards, interest-bearing checking accounts, check cards, certificates of deposits, it offers Nordstrom customers cards under Nordstrom Rewards – its customer loyalty program – where customers earn points when making purchases with the card at Nordstrom and other retailers. Other rewards include Nordstrom Notes which are redeemed or used like cash in stores for new purchases and the Nordstrom Signature VISA card has an optional travel/leisure rewards feature; the Nordstrom Rewards program features 4 levels of status depending on annual spending and offers various promotional times throughout the year to earn double and ten-times points. Beginning in 1995, the fourth generation of brothers and cousins served as co-presidents for a time. After John Whitacre served as the first non-Nordstrom CEO in 1997, In 1998, Nordstrom replaced its downtown Seattle store with a new flagship location in the form
Madison Street (Seattle)
Madison Street is a major thoroughfare of Seattle, Washington. The street originates at Alaskan Way on the Seattle waterfront, heads northeast through Downtown Seattle, First Hill, Capitol Hill, Madison Valley, Washington Park, Madison Park, ending just east of 43rd Avenue East on Lake Washington. From Broadway to Lake Washington, the street is known as East Madison Street, which accounts for most of its length, it is the only Seattle street that runs uninterrupted from the salt water of Puget Sound in the west to the fresh water of Lake Washington in the east. Many notable buildings are located along the street, including the Seattle Central Library and numerous hotels such as the Sorrento Hotel. For most of the run from Broadway to 12th Avenue, it forms the northern boundary of the Seattle University campus. A cable car line provided public transportation along all or part of Madison Street from 1890 to 1940, it was operated by the Madison Street Cable Railway company. The original powerhouse, which powered the cables running under the streets, was located between 21st and 22nd Avenues, the service was operated as two separate lines—west from the powerhouse to downtown and east from the powerhouse to Madison Park on Lake Washington and, the two lines served the entire length of Madison Street.
The western cable car line opened in spring 1890, in downtown it terminated at a turntable on West Street, near the ferry terminal on Puget Sound. The line east from 21st to "Lake Washington and Madison Park" terminus opened in June 1891. In 1910, the line east from 21st was closed. After the construction of a new powerhouse near 10th Avenue, the line from the downtown waterfront to 21st was cut back from the latter point to there in 1911, but the section between 10th and 14th was restored to operation in 1913; this left a 1.2-mile line between the downtown waterfront and 14th Avenue, which could not be converted to streetcars because it included some sections with grades too steep for streetcars. It ran for the last time on April 13, 1940. Electric streetcar service on East Madison Street ended on January 10, 1940, temporarily replaced by motor buses until April 30, 1940, when trolleybuses began operating on route 11; the Seattle trolleybus system has served Madison Street since 1940 with routes 11-East Madison St. and 13-19th Avenue.
King County Metro bus route 11 serves Madison Street east of 16th Avenue East, trolleybus route 12 serves Madison Street between downtown and 19th Avenue East. The Seattle Department of Transportation is studying the implementation of a bus rapid transit line along Madison Street between the waterfront and 27th Avenue, known as the RapidRide G Line. Google maps
Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel
The Alaskan Way Viaduct replacement tunnel known as the SR 99 Tunnel, is a bored highway tunnel in the city of Seattle, United States. The 2-mile, double-decker tunnel carries a section of State Route 99 under Downtown Seattle from SoDo in the south to South Lake Union in the north. Since the 2001 Nisqually earthquake, the replacement of the Alaskan Way Viaduct has been the source of much political controversy demonstrating the Seattle process. Options for replacing the viaduct, which carries 110,000 vehicles per day, included either replacing it with a cut-and-cover tunnel, replacing it with another elevated highway, or eliminating it while modifying other surface streets and public transportation; the current plan emerged in 2009. Construction began in July 2013 using "Bertha", at the time the world's largest-diameter tunnel boring machine. After several delays, tunnel boring was completed in April 2017, the tunnel opened to traffic on February 4, 2019; the SR 99 Tunnel is a single tube that measures 9,270 feet long and 52 feet wide, carrying a double-decker highway, 32 feet wide and has two lanes in each direction.
Each deck has two 11-foot lanes, an 8-foot west shoulder, a 2-foot east shoulder. The decks are designed with banks of two degrees in turns and four-degree grades to facilitate designed speeds of 50 miles per hour. Below the highway decks are utility lines and mechanical spaces for the tunnel's ventilation and fire suppression systems; the tunnel has 15 emergency refuge areas located every 650 feet with escape routes that lead to the north and south portals. Variable message signs and emergency phones are located throughout the entire tunnel; the tunnel is monitored by over 300 security cameras that are fed into a WSDOT traffic control center in Shoreline that can dispatch incident response teams. In the event of a fire, a set of fiber optic cables in the ceiling would sense heat and activate sprinklers. A set of large fans located in the two portal operations buildings would force smoke out through a set of 40-foot ventilation shafts; the tunnel has cell phone and FM radio service, with the latter able to overridden by WSDOT for emergency broadcasts.
The tunnel begins south of Downtown Seattle in the SoDo neighborhood, adjacent to the Port of Seattle's container ship terminal and the city's two outdoor sports stadiums, CenturyLink Field and T-Mobile Park. SR 99 enters the tunnel after passing Royal Brougham Way and a future interchange with Alaskan Way at South Dearborn Street located adjacent to the south maintenance area and ventilation shaft. An additional set of ramps connect to South Royal Brougham Way and the East Frontage Road that terminates a block south at Atlantic Street; the tunnel carries two lanes of southbound traffic on its upper deck and two lanes of northbound traffic on its lower deck, functions as a complete bypass of Downtown Seattle with no intermediate exits. The tunnel travels northwesterly under Pioneer Square and Downtown Seattle following 1st Avenue, it reaches its deepest point at Virginia Street 211 feet below street level, begins its turn north through parts of Belltown and the Denny Triangle. The tunnel emerges at a portal located west of Aurora Avenue and north of Harrison Street, adjacent to a tunnel operations building.
SR 99 continues onto Aurora Avenue and crosses over Mercer Street, while an onramp allows access to the tunnel from 6th Avenue and an offramp carries tunnel traffic to Republican Street in South Lake Union. The SR 99 Tunnel is tolled and has a variable rate that ranges based on time of the day, number of vehicle axles, payment method. Tolls are collected electronically, with a lower rate charged to Good to Go pass users and a higher rate for scanned plates that are sent a toll via mail; as of 2019, the toll rate for two-axle vehicles is set at $1.00 to $2.25 for Good to Go users and $3.00 to $4.25 for pay-by-mail users. Beginning in 2022, the toll rates will increase by three percent annually with approval from the state transportation commission; the Alaskan Way Viaduct is a double-decked elevated freeway that runs along Elliott Bay on the Downtown Seattle waterfront and, until January 11, 2019, when it was permanently closed, carried a section of State Route 99. It first opened to traffic on April 4, 1953, to provide a vehicular bypass of downtown for U.
S. Route 99, the predecessor of SR 99; the viaduct and tunnel cost $18 million to construct and severed the waterfront from the rest of downtown. The viaduct remained the primary north–south highway in Downtown Seattle until the construction of Interstate 5 in the late 1960s. Weekday traffic volumes on the viaduct averaged around 110,000 vehicles per day in the mid-2000s half of equivalent sections on I-5. Calls to replace the viaduct and build a waterfront promenade surfaced as early as the late 1960s and early 1970s, increasing after the halted demolition of the Pike Place Market; the viaduct runs above the surface street, Alaskan Way, from S. Nevada Street in the south to the entrance of Belltown's Battery Street Tunnel in the north, following existing railroad lines; the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake destroyed the designed Cypress Street Viaduct in Oakland, California with the loss of 42 lives. The 2001 Nisqually earthquake damaged the viaduct and its supporting Alaskan Way Seawall and required the Washington State Department of Transportat
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation; as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the protected land area of the world; the U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, or 12 percent of the total marine area of the United States. Some areas are managed in concert between levels of government; the Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a federal park operated by a state park system, while Kal-Haven Trail is an example of a state park operated by county-level government. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, the U. S. had a total of 6,770 terrestrial nationally designated protected areas. Federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior.
They are considered the crown jewels of the protected areas. Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I and Level II; the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level II lands in the world. These lands had a total area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency. For instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National National Recreation Areas; the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management operate areas called National Monuments. National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies.
There are existing federal designations of historic or landmark status that may support preservation via tax incentives, but that do not convey any protection, including a listing on the National Register of Historic Places or a designation as a National Historic Landmark. States and local zoning bodies may not choose to protect these; the state of Colorado, for example, is clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties. Federal protected area designations National Park System National Parks National Preserves National Seashores National Lakeshores National Forest National Forests National Grasslands National Conservation Lands National Monuments National Conservation Areas Wilderness Areas Wilderness Study Areas National Wild and Scenic Rivers National Scenic Trails National Historic Trails Cooperative Management and Protection Areas Forest Reserves Outstanding Natural Areas National Marine Sanctuaries National Recreation Areas National Estuarine Research Reserves National Trails System National Wild and Scenic Rivers System National Wilderness Preservation System National Wildlife Refuge System International protected area designations UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in the USA Every state has a system of state parks.
State parks vary from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the national parks of England and Wales, with numerous towns inside the borders of the park. About half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as "forever wild" by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska is the largest state park by the amount of contiguous protected land. S. National Parks, with some 1,600,000 acres, making it larger than the state of Delaware. Many states operate game and recreation areas. Lists of state parks in the United States: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming List of U.
S. state and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are little more than picnic playgrounds. South Mountain Park in Phoenix, for example, is called the largest city park in the United States. Protected areas of American Samoa Protected areas of California Protected areas of Colorado Protected areas of Georgia Protected areas of Illinois Protected areas of Kentucky Protected areas of Michigan Protected areas of Ohio National Landscape Conservation System National Park Service National Wild and S
Westlake station (Sound Transit)
Westlake is a light rail station, part of the Downtown Seattle Transit Tunnel in Seattle, United States. The station is located under Pine Street between 3rd and 6th avenues in Downtown Seattle, near Westlake Center and Westlake Park, it is served by the Central Link, part of Sound Transit's Link light rail system, connected above ground by buses at several stops, the South Lake Union Streetcar, the Seattle Center Monorail. Westlake station consists of two underground side platforms, connected to the surface by entrances and a mezzanine level served by nearby department stores, it is situated between University Street station to the south, the former Convention Place station to the north. The transit tunnel was built in the 1980s by King County Metro and opened for bus-only service on September 15, 1990; the tunnel was closed from 2005 to 2007 for a major renovation to prepare for light rail service, which began on July 18, 2009. Link light rail trains terminated at Westlake until the opening of the University Link Extension on March 19, 2016.
Trains serve the station twenty hours a day on most days. A second downtown tunnel is planned to be built in 2030, with a transfer at Westlake station for traffic continuing towards South Lake Union and Ballard. Westlake station is located on Pine Street between 3rd and 6th avenues in Downtown Seattle's retail and office district; the station is at the north end of Downtown Seattle, near the Denny Triangle area, is within walking distance of the Pike Place Market Historic District. According to the Puget Sound Regional Council, the area within 1⁄2 mile of the station has an estimated population of 15,171 people and 91,055 jobs; the station and its entrances are adjacent to the Westlake Center shopping mall, Westlake Park, Pacific Place, the Nordstrom flagship store, the regional flagship of Macy's. Pike Place Market is located to the west of the station, while the Washington State Convention Center is four blocks to the east. Amazon is headquartered several blocks north of the station in the Denny Triangle area.
The Pine Street area of Downtown Seattle was regraded for development from 1903 to 1906, as part of the citywide regrading program. The newly regraded area was part of urban planner Virgil Bogue's 1911 comprehensive plan for Seattle, envisioning a civic center to the north and several subway lines converging at the intersection of Pine Street and 3rd Avenue; the subway lines would continue outwards to serve the civic center, Capitol Hill and the waterfront. The plan was rejected by voters on March 5, 1912, a 3rd Avenue subway passing through the area was unsuccessfully proposed twice in the 1920s; the regraded area was developed into the city's retailing neighborhood in the 1920s, with the construction of large department stores for The Bon Marché, Frederick & Nelson, Nordstrom on Pine Street between 3rd and 6th avenues. A second major rapid transit plan was proposed by the Forward Thrust Committee in the 1960s, to be built by 1985, was put before voters, it called for a subway station on 3rd Avenue between Pine and Pike streets, designed with underground connections to major stores, would be served by two routes continuing north to Ballard and Lake City.
The ballot measure required a supermajority to support bonding to augment $385 million in local funding with $765 million from the Urban Mass Transportation Administration, but failed to reach the 60 percent threshold in 1968. The failure of the Forward Thrust ballot measures led to the creation of Metro Transit in 1972, who were tasked with operating bus service across King County and planning for a regional rapid transit system. Metro Transit began planning a bus-based transit system through downtown Seattle in the 1970s, including a transit mall, tunnel, or bus terminal in the Westlake area. Metro approved construction of a downtown bus tunnel in 1983, selecting Pine Street and 4th Avenue as the site of one of the stations; the station would be integrated with a planned shopping mall on Pine Street, with underground walkways connecting to nearby department stores. The Pine Street segment of the tunnel would be dug cut-and-cover and require a long-term closure of the street between 4th Avenue and 9th Avenue.
SCI Contractors of Calgary was awarded the $74.5 million contract for the Pine Street segment, including the construction of Westlake and Convention Place stations, in February 1987. On April 27, 1987, Pine Street was closed to non-bus traffic, construction of Westlake station's pilings and outer walls began. Excavation of the tunnel on Pine Street was completed in late August, allowing for concrete pouring to begin. Pine Street was re-opened for the Christmas shopping season, from November 2 to January 4, at the request of downtown merchants. A pair of tunnel boring machines arrived at Westlake station in the spring of 1988 after completing the 3rd Avenue segment of the bus tunnel. Pine Street was re-opened to traffic on November 1, 1988, coinciding